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Biriciana

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Weißenburg in Bavaria. Large fort (5.1 ha.) of the ala I Hispanorum Auriana; nearby the fort ‘Breitung’ (3.5 ha.), possibly of the cohors IX Batavorum. Civilian settlement of more than 30 ha. in size, with restored thermae; magnificent treasure trove of the 3rd cent. AD. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-J. Kellner, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 534-536.

Licca

(27 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Λικίας; Likías). Righthand tributary of the Danube (Ptol. 2,12,1; 4; Venantius Fortunatus Carm. praef. 4, Vita Martini 4,642), modern Lech. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Bürgle

(75 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Late Roman fortification (0,16 ha.) on a hill crest at the foot of the steep terrace at Gundremmingen, possibly Pinianis, a fort of the cohors V Valeria Frygum (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,29), or -- assuming a shift in name to Febian(i)s -- that of a part of the equites stablesiani iuniores (ibid. 35,15). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography W. Czysz, B., in: Id., K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, H.-J. Kellner (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 430f.

Aduatuci

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Descending from the  Cimbri and  Teutoni (Caes. B Gall. 2,29,4 f.), the A. lived among the Germani Cisrhenani, without being part of them, between the Nervii and the Eburones in Gallia Belgica on both banks of the Maas river between Liège/Namur and Limbourg. The main town was Aduatuca (Tungrorum), modern Tongeren, with an early Roman garrison [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Vanderhoeven (et al.), Tongern, Tongres, Tongeren, in: Spurensicherung, 1992, 387-402, 579. J. R. Marichal, Les frontières des Aduatiques et des Germains cisrhé…

Breuni

(120 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Breones). Tribe living in the inner Alps in  Raetia, subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC; often mentioned in connection with the Genauni (e.g. Hor. Carm. 4,14,11: veloces; Plin. HN 3,137), they were wrongly associated with the Brenner Pass. Under the name of Breones, they were still active as a group in late antiquity (Cassiod. Var. 1,11,2; Venetius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,645; Carm. praef. 4), and gave their name to a diocese (Acta Conc. Oec. IV 2,135 § 18 v. 591). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,39 H. Wolfram, Tiroler Randgruppen, in: FS A. Betz, …

Chauci

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Warlike Germanic seafaring tribe (etymologically related to the Gothic háuhs, Old High German hôh- ‘high’; Str. 7,1,3; idealized in Tac. Germ. 35). The C. lived north of the Angrivarii on the North Sea coast, on both banks of the lower Weser, and were divided into the ‘lesser’ and the ‘greater’ C. (Tac. Ann. 11,19,2; Ptol. 2,11,7; 9; Plin. HN 16,2-5). They were fought by Drusus and subjected to Roman rule in AD 5; despite a Roman occupational force and the fact that they had to supply auxiliar…

Batavian Revolt

(604 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Final phase in the civil war that took place after Nero's death between August of AD 69 and September/October 70 north of the Alps (sources in [1]). Tacitus is the main source for a description of the complex chain reactions entailing breaches of faith and new solidarities (Hist. 4,12-37; 54-79; 5,14-26). Some authors (for instance Brunt) claim that Tacitus depicts a believable and consistent overview of the separatist movement against Rome which aimed at a Gallic world empire (cf…

Am(p)sivarii

(176 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, ‘the people who live on the (lower) Ems’; in AD 9, they stayed loyal to Rome under the leadership of Boiocalus, but during Nero's reign (middle of the 1st cent. AD), following their eviction by the Chauci, they tried in vain to settle in the military territory on the eastern bank of the Lower Rhine [1]. Despite their fifty years of allegiance to Rome, the Romans drove them out; the tribe found no admittance with the  Usipetes, nor the  Tubantes,  Chatti and  Cherus…

Cimbri

(675 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, who apparently suddenly descended upon Gaul and Italy, but whose origins and itinerary remained a mystery to the Romans (Plut. Marius 11,4; sources in [1], cf. [3. 23-28]). Jutland is assumed to be their homeland, on the basis of a modern hypothesis; that they were driven out by the slow encroachment of the sea, is probably no more than an ancient presumption (Posidon. in Str. 2,3,6; 7,2,1f.). It is a contentious question whether the C. changed their way of life, r…

Ovilavis

(149 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Pannonia | Rome Road junction, already inhabited in Celtic times, with a crossing of the river Traun, modern Wels. Occupied after the incorporation of Noricum into the Roman Empire; municipium (CIL III 11785b; IX 2593) under Hadrian, colonia Aurelia Antoniniana (CIL III 5630; CSIR III 3, 1981 [1]) under Caracalla . It is disputed whether O. was the civilian capital city of Noricum Ripense [2]. Several centres of habitation formed within the walls of O. in the 7th/8th cent. ( castrum Ueles fortified in 776). Dietz, Karl…

Chamavi

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (of uncertain etymology); they preceded the Tubantes and Usipetes as inhabitants of land on the lower Rhine, which was later to become Roman military land (Tac. Ann. 13,55,2); before 12 BC they lived east of the Tencteri, west of the  Bructeri and north of the Marsi (cf. the early medieval district of ‘Hamaland’ around Deventer between IJssel and Rhine). After the defeat of the Bructeri in AD 98, the C. from the west began to settle in the Bructeri's former territor…

Cetium

(158 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today St. Pölten. A town in  Noricum, situated at the intersection of ancient roads frequented from early times; etymologically probably linked to Celtic * keto -- ‘wood, forest’ (cf.   Cetius mons ). The municipium Aelium Cetensium of the time of Hadrian (CIL III 5630; 5652; 11799) was destroyed in the wars against the  Marcomanni, but soon recovered [1]. Since 1949 significant excavations on the site of the ancient town, which has been built up in modern times. Some slight evidence of Christianity in what little r…

Aguntum

(311 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia The modern Dölsach and Nußdorf-Debant on the road through the Drau valley (unknown etymology); when the Celtic Laianci came into contact with the Romans at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC, the municipium Claudium A. (Plin. HN 3,146) with   forum ,   capitolium ,   basilica and  thermae [1] developed about 2 km east of the original town. Mining and processing of metal ensured the economic prosperity of A. and its territory -- from the Felber Tauern to the Kärntner Tor, from the Lie…

Alta Ripa

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Altrip near Speyer. ‘Bell-shaped’, fort with its long side facing the Rhine from the Valentinian period (Cod. Theod. 11,31,4, AD 369) part of the fortress system of the Neckar confluence (Not. Dign. occ. 39; cf. the fortifications providing safe shipping, Symm. Or. 2,20 [1]). Destroyed in the New Year's night of AD 406/7 by  Alani,  Suebi and  Vands.  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Pabst, 1989, 147 f., 332 ff. S. V. Schnurbein, H.-J. Köhler, Der neue Plan des valentinianischen Kastells A. (Altrip), in: BRGK 70, 1989, 507-526 S. von…

Langobardi

(572 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (etym. Lang(a/o)-bardoz, ‘the long beards’ [9]). Germanic tribe which Tacitus (Germ. 40,1) and Ptolemy (2,11,9) count among the Suebi; according to tribal mythology [1], they wandered out of southern Sweden as the Winniler into territories south of the Baltic Sea around 100 BC and fused with other peoples. The L. are archaeologically confirmed on the lower course of the Elbe (in the Bardengau) from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Briefly driven back to the east bank by Tiberius in AD 5 (…

Dieburg

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Roman civilian settlement, main settlement of the civitas Auderiensium with good infrastructure (archaeological finds: e.g., a Mithraeum). Heyday about AD 300, but victim of Alamannic raids. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography E. Schallmayer, D., in: D. Baatz, F.-R. Herrmann (ed.), Die Römer in Hessen, 21989, 250-255.

Aviones

(46 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic people who according to Tac. Germ. 40,2 worshipped  Nerthus with the Reudigni, Angli, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones; it is not possible to work out their exact location in spite of the etymology ‘water dwellers, island inhabitants’ Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Cannenefates

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, also known as Can(n)anefates, in their ‘extraction, dialect and bravery equal to the Batavi’ (Tac. Hist. 4,15,1; cf. Plin. HN 4,101), in the western part of the insula Batavorum, between Oude Rijn and Mosa (Helinium); cf. ‘Kennemerland’. Possibly subjugated by Tiberius (Vell. Pat. 2,105,1), they provided at the least one ala and one cohors (Tac. Ann. 4,73,2; Hist. 4,19,1). Their capital of Voorburg-Arentsburg became Forum Hadriani and municipium. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31, 59 B. H. Stolte, s.v. Cananefaten, RGA 4, 329f. W. W…

Bonna

(241 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Modern Bonn. Since 30/20 BC settlement of the  Ubii with an indigenous name; between 16 and 12 BC, it was a mixed Roman garrison, replaced under Emperor Augustus with a legion from 1 BC; the legionary camp was rebuilt after its destruction in AD 70 ( legio I Minervia:  Domitianus -- 4th cent.), as was the canabae, both using half-timbering. The suburb of the camp, which itself had been rebuilt several times, flourished until it was destroyed (and rebuilt) …

Silva Bacenis

(62 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Large forested mountain range forming an intra-Germanic barrier between the Cherusci and the Suebi (Caes. Gall. 6,10,5). Etymologically related to German 'Buche' (= beech), and therefore probably the Harz Mountains (possibly as far as Rhön-Vogelsberg), which as late as the Early Middle Ages was called 'Buchonia'. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann u. a., s. v. Bacenis silva, RGA 1, 572 f.

Antunnacum

(175 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Andernach; crossing-point of important long-distance routes (CIL XVII 2,675; Amm. Marc. 18,2,4) and the Rhine valley road from  Mogontiacum to  Colonia Agrippinensis; near the Roman cohort fort on the ‘Hügelchen’, already manned in the 1st cent. AD, it was a   vicus with harbour facilities for goods from the hinterland (e.g. millstones and industrial stone from the quarries around Mayen). In late antiquity, the vicus being endangered by flooding, an area of some 5.6 hectares was protected by a wall with round, projecting towers, still…

Helvecones

(64 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Aside from the  Harii, Manimi, Halisiones and Nahanarvali, a powerful partial tribe of the Vandali-Lugii (Tac. Germ. 43,2); probably identical to the Elouaíōnes (Ἐλουαίωνες, Ptol. 2,11,9), although they do not have the addition Loûg[i]oi (Λοῦγ[ι]οι) and their location is pinpointed as between Rhoutíkleioi (Ῥουτίκλειοι) and Burgundiones (Βουργοῦντες). In this case they would be the most northerly Lugii. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Boiohaemum

(76 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] ‘Homeland of the Boii’, now Bohemia (sources: Str. 7,1,3; Vell. Pat. 2,109,5; Tac. Germ. 28,2). Although widely abandoned by the Celtic  Boii around 60 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,5,4; cf. Str. 7,1,5; Plin. HN 3,146 deserta Boiorum) and occupied by the  Marcomanni shortly before the end of that cent., the region retained their name. That it gave its name to the  Baiovarii is disputed but quite likely. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,27.

Albis

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Elbe (never the Alb [3], despite [1]) has its source according to Tac. Germ. 41,2 [2. 242 f.] in the territory of the  Hermunduri, according to Ptol. 2,11,1 in the Sudeten, according to Cass. Dio 55,1,3 correctly in the ‘Vandal Mountains’ (Riesengebirge / Krkonoše). Known by the Romans since  Caesar, reached by  Drusus and  Tiberius in 9 and 5 BC, soon crossed by L.  Domitius Ahenobarbus, it was to have become the Germanic border of Rome -- a plan that failed. Therefore known to Tac. (Germ. 41,4) only by ‘hearsay’ ( nunc tantum auditur). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibli…

Cusus

(73 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] River, eastern or western border of the kingdom of Quadian Vannius founded in AD 19 inter Marum (March) et Cusum (Tac. Ann. 2,63,6), mostly identified with the Duria, i.e. with Hron (Gran), Ipel' (Eipel) or -- archaeologically the most probable -- Váh (Waag [1. 186104]). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 H.-W. Böhme, Arch. Zeugnisse zur Gesch. der Markomannenkriege, in: JRGZ 22, 1975, 153-217. TIR M 33,35f. G. Neumann, s.v. C., RGA 5, 112f. Ipel';

Iuvavum

(426 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia | Raeti, Raetia (modern Salzburg). In the territory of the Alauni the developing Roman site of I. (etymology disputed) on the left bank of the Salzach replaced the Celtic hill settlements on the Rainberg, the Festungsberg and the Kapuzinerberg in the later years of Augustus' reign (beginning 1st cent. AD). I. was built at the junction of the northern road along the crest of the Alps from Bregenz (Brigantium) and the long distance road from Aquileia leading over the Radstädter Tauernpass, and was raised to the status of mu…

Durnomagus

(69 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Dormagen. Late Flavian alae fort (3.3 ha) between Cologne and Neuss. Second construction phase in the mid 2nd cent. AD, probably the ala Noricorum (CIL XIII 8523f.); burnt down c. 200, and in c. 275 very briefly occupied. In the north-eastern corner was a reoccupation fort from late antiquity. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography M. Gechter, Das röm. Kavallerielager Dormagen, in: Arch. im Rheinland 1994, 1995, 85-87.

Heruli

(481 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Seafaring East Germanic tribe [1], which at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD was allegedly driven out of Scandinavia by the Danes and split into East and West Heruli. The latter attacked the Romans at the Lower Rhine in 287, were defeated and repeatedly attacked Roman territory from the Dutch-Frisian coast to southern Spain (esp. 456/459). Threatened by the  Franci, they made an effort in 476 to gain the friendship of the  Visigoths. At the beginning of the 6th cent. they are no longer attested. From their home by the Sea of Azov, the much stronger East H. advance…

Ambrones

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe of Helvetia or rather  Noricum (Fest. 17) or a tribe of German origin, possibly linked with the island of Amrum: the etymology of Ambr-names is unproductive (cf. [1. 606] for a possible Ligurian component). The A., together with the Helvetii and the Teutoni, threatened Italy from southern Gaul; in 102 BC, they were beaten at Aquae Sextiae by C. Marius (Liv. epit. 68; Plut. Marius 15,5 f.; 19,3 f.; 19,7; 20,1 f.; cf. Str. 4,1,8; Cass. Dio 44,42,4; 50,24,2; Eutr. 5,1,1; Oros. 5,16,1; 9; 13; Veg…

Abusina

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Modern Eining. Tab. Peut. 4,3 f. Arusena, the modern river Abens. From AD 79/81 cohort fort ( castellum; 1.8 hectares) at the crossing of the Danube. Reduced size fort from about AD 300; the   vicus of the middle imperial period relocated into the fort: its northern extension perhaps a horreum from the second half of the 4th cent. AD. In the field named ‘Unterfeld’ remains of an ephemeral camp ( legio III Italica) from about AD 172/179.  Horrea;  Cohors;  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography A. Faber, Die südgallische Terra Sigilata aus Kastell und …

Aestii

(172 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Aestiorum gentes, Baltic tribes, settled in the region east of the Vistula up to the Western Dvina (Tac. Germ. 45,2: ‘coastal dwellers to the right of the Suebian sea’; in tradition and looks related to the  Suebi, but closer to the  Britanni in language). This ethnic name which etymologically might relate to the river of the name Aistà in the Vilkabikis district was after all possibly Germanic [1]; furthermore, a connection with the Σουδινοί ( Soudinoí) of Ptol. 3,5,9 is postulated. The A. were peaceable (Iord. Get. 5,36) peasants, armed with cudgels…

Harii

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alongside the  Helvecones, Manimi, Halisiones and Nahanarvali, the H. are a powerful branch of the Vandali-Lugii tribe (Tac. Germ. 43,2). The identification with the Charini (Plin. HN 4,99) [1] is uncertain; the old conjecture of reading the hand-written alii (Tac. Germ. 43,4) as ( H) arii must be abandoned. Thus, the conclusions related to the supposed ferialis exercitus (‘army of ghosts’, ‘army of the dead’) of the H. are invalid. [2]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 G. Neumann, s.v. Charini, RGA 4, 371f. 2 A. A. Lund, Kritischer Forsch.-Ber. zur Germa…

Colonia Agrippinensis

(967 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Present-day Cologne, principal city (Tac. Ann. 1,36,1; 37,2; 71,1) of the Ubii who moved from the Neuwieder Becken to settle in the area previously inhabited by the Eburones, following the deditio by Agrippa in 38 BC (Str. 4,3,4; Tac. Ann. 12,27,1; Germ. 28,4). Located on the gravel plain in the area today known as the old town (archaeology dates the oppidum Ubiorum to around the time of the birth of Christ). Oppidum ( Civ…

Noreia

(193 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar Epithet of a mother goddess (possibly derived from a pre-Celtic tribe of the Nori), which was transferred to her shrines [1; 2. 156f.; 3. 240f.; 4]. A place called N. was situated 27 to 40 miles from Virunum in the direction of Ovilavia (Tab. Peut. 5,1). Several inscriptions are addressed to the goddess N. [4. 97f. ill. 4]. The urbs N. (Sempronius Asellio fr. 9 = schol. Bernensia to Verg. G. 3,474), where Papirius Carbo was defeated in 113 BC by the Cimbri, 1200 stadia from Aquileia (Str. 5,1,8…

Carnuntum

(681 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Pannonia Important Roman base and settlement on the Danube at the intersection of the amber trade route (running from Aquileia through the March valley to the Baltic Sea) and the road along the Danube valley, modern Petronell and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg. Its Celtic name which can be linked with the neighbouring tribe of the Carni (e.g. Old Iranian carn‘stone mount’) indicates a (as yet unverified) pre-Roman settlement. The locus Norici regni C., from where Tiberius set out agains…

Grinario

(105 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (modern Köngen). Fort (2.4 ha) on the Augsburg-Mainz road probably founded around AD 90/95. In about 160 the unit was moved to Lorch but the old camp probably still served as a base for supplies. The vicus G. (CIL XIII 11726f.; Tab. Peut. 4,1) that was c. 20 ha. in size flourished to around the middle of the 3rd cent. and belonged to the civitas Sumelocennensis (modern Rottenburg; CIL XIII 6384; 11727). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography C. Unz, G., 1982 M. Luik, F. Reutti, Der Römerpark in Köngen, 1988 D. Planck, Neues zum röm. Vicus G.-Köngen, in: Arch. A…

Burii

(133 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] East Germanic people, lived as part of the  Lugii, but linguistically and culturally close to the  Suebi, settled with the Marsigni, Cotini and Osi north of the Marcomanni and Quadi up to the source of the Vistula (Tac. Germ. 43,1; Ptol. 2,11,10). In the wars against the Dacians enemies of Rome (illustration of battle scenes on the monument at Adamclisi), in the war against the Marcomanni on the side of Rome, they seceded from Rome because of the Peace of Commodus and around AD 182 were crushed (CIL III 5937) or may have settled in Spain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliogr…

Angli(i).

(115 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tac. Germ. 40,2, a Germanic tribe who, together with the Aviones, Reudigni, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones worshipped  Nerthus; it lived (against Ptol. 2,11,8: on the middle reaches of the Elbe) between Saxony and Jutland in Angulus (modern Angeln) in Schleswig-Holstein (Beda, Hist. eccl. 1,15). Joined at times with the  Suebi, the A. broke away from them under king Offa; most of them made the sea crossing directly to the island of  Britannia, from where Rom…

Lauriacum

(594 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Legio | Pannonia Settlement and legionary camp in Noricum, modern Enns-Lorch in Upper Austria. The region at the confluence of the rivers Enns and Danube was touched by all of the important communication routes in Noricum. Iron from Noricum was traded through the Enns valley, and salt along the river Traun; the Aist valley led to the Bohemian Moldau region. The existence of an oppidum, postulated (with little justification) from the supposedly Celtic name, could not be verified. The assumption …

Frisii

(385 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (the Frisians). A fairly ancient Germanic people (etymology not clear), first mentioned in Plin. HN 4,101, who, according to Tac. Germ. 34,1 comprised the Frisii maiores and minores; they could hardly have been the Frisiavones in Plin. (HN 4,101; 106) in the north of Belgica [1]. They lived to the north of the  Bructeri and to the west of the  Chauci, mainly between Oude Rijn and Ems. There were an estimated 1,500 to 2,000 settlements in the marshes and border regions of the moors of the provinces of Friesland and…

Borbetomagus

(115 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Modern Worms. As an ancient traffic junction at the crossing point of the road along the Rhine valley (CIL XVII 2,675), B. was occupied by various Roman troops (fort inside the town area) from the Augustan era to the end of the 1st cent. After that the vicus, which at times had been walled (CIL XIII 6244), flourished as a suburb of the civitas Vongionum. It was protected by milites II Flaviae (Not. Dign. occ. 41,8;20), but after a siege sometime before 409 (Jer. Ep. 123,15,3), it fell to the  Burgundiones,  Huns,  Alamanni, and (from 496)  Francs. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bib…

Silva Caesia

(76 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Forested area on the right bank of the Rhine in Germania (Tac. Ann. 1,50), marched through by Germanicus [2] after the mutiny in 14 AD, probably from Novaesium. Presumably identical to the Silva Heissi, mentioned in 796 AD, to the north of the Ruhr between Essen-Werden and Essen-Altstadt. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann u. a., s. v. Caesia silva, RGA 4, 321 f.  J. Kunow, Das Limesvorland der südlichen Germania inferior, in: BJ 187, 1987, 63-77.

Moenus

(383 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Main, the largest, right-hand tributary of the Rhine (evidence in [1. 606]). It was of limited value for river navigation because of its meandering course, having to penetrate the wooded mountains of the Odenwald, Spessart and Rhön. Since further use required rule over the Main-Frankish bank region and the Main valley opened up no further important tribal region, it was logical for the Romans to push no farther east towards Lower and Upper Franconia from the important legionary camp of Mogontiacum (Mainz) a…

Lugii

(178 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Germanic ‘great people’ (μέγα ἔθνος; méga éthnos, Str. 7,1,3), the L. ( Lugiorum nomen), comprised many tribes, the most powerful being the Harii, the Helvecones, the Manimi, the Helisii and the Naha(na)rvali. Among the last, the cult community had its sacred grove (Tac. Germ. 43,2). Ptolemy differentiates L. Oma(n)noí, Didoûnoi and Boûroi (Λ. Ὀμαννοί/Ὀμανοί;, Διδοῦνοι, Βοῦροι, Ptol. 2,11,18; 20). As neighbours of the Suebi and the Goti, the L. settled in Silesia on the Oder and in the bordering regions along the Amber Road ( A…

Franci

(528 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (the Franks). Initially a loose league of smaller Germanic tribes on the right-hand side of the Rhine that slowly arose from economic and cultic common ground as well as through relationship by marriage of the princes ─ e.g. the  Am(p)sivarii,  Bructeri,  Chamavi,  Chattuarii, possibly  Chatti, whose ethnicities as well as the general name used since the 3rd cent. AD (Pan. Lat. 11,5,4; 7,2; etymology ‘those eager for battle’, ‘the daring’) lived on (see Tab. Peut. 2,1-3). Since the start of the 4th cent. there is also evidence of Francia. From c. AD 260 the F. repeate…

Alamanni

(848 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic ‘tribe’, made up of fighting and nomadic groups of various origins, formed after AD 180 in the course of the south-west wanderings of the Elbe-Germanic  Suebi, in particular by Semnones (Cass. Dio 71,20,2; Suda s. v. Κελτοί; Keltoí), which despite disputes with Rome was continuously self-renewing. Their name, first mentioned as A. (‘all men’) in the Byzantine exc. of Cass. Dio for AD 213 likely points to the openness of the battle group that broke apart old tribal formations. Therefore, the independent  Iuth…

Fines, ad Fines

(192 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] M. Vinxt modern Vinxt. Town at the place (near Sinzig) where the road between Bonn and Remagen reaches the border between Germania inferior and superior ( Obrinkas Ptol. 29,2; 8f.; cf. Abrinkas Marcianus 2,28, < Celt. * aber ‘mouth’). Altars to the (Nymphae) Fines have been found there and, on both sides, inscriptions by beneficiarii and soldiers (CIL XIII 7713; 7724; 7731f.). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography C. B. Rüger, Germania Inferior, 1968, 47-49. [German version] [2] M. Pfyn near Frauenfeld modern Pfyn near Frauenfeld (Switzerland), vicus of the…

Gambrivi

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe that Str. 7,1,3 counts among the weaker tribes, together with the Cherusci, Chatti and Chattuari. A version of the Mannus-genealogy ( Herminones) ranked the G., together with the Marsi, Suebi and Vandili, among the original Germanic tribes (Tac. Germ. 2,2). A connection with the Sugambri seems to be linguistically indicated, but the fact that Str. loc. cit. mentions both names in the same context argues against their being identical. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann, D. Timpe, s.v. G., RGA 10, 406-409.

Lacus Benacus

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Lago di Garda. Largest Alpine lake in the area of Verona (Plin. HN 9,75), with a length of 500 stadia (along the eastern shore road; cf. Str. 4,6,12; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,131); the river Mincius flows through it. It was navigable despite severe storms (Verg. G. 2,160). The Benacenses (TIR L 32,33) lived on the western shore. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,80 A. Mosca, Caratteri della navigazione nell'area benacense in età romana, in: Latomus 50, 1991, 269-284.

Damasia

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Capital of the  Licates, a ‘polis rising up like a fortress’ (Str. 4,6,8). Tentatively identified with the early Imperial, fortified mountain settlement on the Auerberg (1055 m) near Bernbeuren (in modern Bavaria; finds of metal workshops and potters' ovens) that was settled by Rome in the 2nd decade AD and abandoned as early as c. AD 40. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Ulbert, Auerberg, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, H.-J. Kellner (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 417-419.
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