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Philyra

(206 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φιλύρα/Philýra, literally 'lime-tree'). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, already in Hesiod (Theog. 1002) the mother of the centaur Chiron, in whose cave she lived according to Pindar (N. 3,43). The Hesiodic, Aeolic spelling Phillyrídēs for Chiron points to an archaic stratum of the myth (West on Hes. Theog. 1002). She was loved by Kronos who, being surprised by Rhea while making love to her, turned himself and P. into horses. Their child was the centaur Chiron, whose monstrous shape so horrified the mother that she prayed…

Mermerus

(102 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέρμερος; Mérmeros). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 14,513). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of the mythical King Ilus of Ephyre Father of a mythical king, Ilius of Ephyre in Thesprotia, visited by Odysseus (Hom. Od. 1,259f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] A son of Jason [1] and Medea One of the two sons of Jason [1] and Medea. He and his brother Pheres are killed by their mother in revenge on Jason (Eur. Med.). According to Paus. 2,3,7, he is killed by a lioness during a hunt on Corfu. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Themis

(512 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θέμις/ Thémis, literally 'law, sacred ordinance'). Greek goddess and divine personification of sacred ancient law (cf., in contrast, Dike [1]). She stands for the traditional order of things, be it based on human convention (as in Hom. Od. 14,56 about the correct treatment of strangers) or on nature itself (as in Hom. Od. 9,130 about the 'nature of woman'). She plays an important role in the orderly call for assemblies (cf. Hom. Il. 20,4 f. etc.). Originally, themis probably referred to 'what was laid down', in Mycenaean perhaps the word for 'debt' [1. 25 f., 106, 121]. A…

Naubolus

(88 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ναύβολος; Naúbolos). [German version] [1] King of Tanagra Mythical king of Tanagra, son of Ornytus and Perinice, father of the Argonaut Iphitus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,207f.; cf. Hom. Il. 2,518; partly divergent Hyg. Fab. 14). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Of Argus, father of an Argonaut N. of Argos, grandson of Proetus, great-grandson of Nauplius [2], father of the Argonaut Clytoneus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,135). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Father of the Phaeacian Euryalus Father of the Phaeacian Euryalus (Hom. Od. 8,116). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Phorcys

(228 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φόρκυς/ Phórkys, Latin Phorcus, Phorcys, Phorcyn). [German version] [1] Sea god Sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia, brother of Nereus (Hes. Theog. 237; in Orph. Fr. 16 son of Oceanus and Tethys, in Orph. Fr. 114 Titan); with his sister Ceto he fathered monsters (Phorcydes) such as the Graeae, Gorgons (Gorgo [1]), Echidna and the snake Ladon [1] (Hes. Theog. 270-303; 333-336); according to others he was also the father of the Sirens (Soph. fr. 861 TrGF), the Hesperides (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399d), Scylla (Apoll. Rhod. 4,828f. with schol.) and Thoosa (Hom. Od. 1,71f.). In the Odyssey, where a…

Ophion

(131 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὀφίων/ Ophíōn). [German version] [1] First ruler of the world also Ophioneus (Pherecydes of Syrus 7 B 4 Diels/ Kranz). First ruler of the world, overthrown by Kronos (Apoll. Rhod. 1,503-506), husband of Eurynome [1], referred to by schol. Lycophr. 1191 as a Titan, considered by Nonn. Dion. 41,352 to be identical with Uranus. The idea of a serpent ( óphis) as ruler of the world may be derived from Orphic (Orphism) or near eastern beliefs [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Giant in the shape of a serpent Giant in the shape of a serpent, defeated by Zeus in a battle against …

Peneleus

(105 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πηνέλεως/ Pēnéleōs, Lat. Peneleus). Son of Hippalcimus and Asterope (Hyg. Fab. 97), Argonaut and suitor of Helena [1] (Apollod. 1,113; 3,130), leader of the Boeotians in the Trojan War (Hom. Il. 2,494). There, he kills Ilioneus and Lycon (Hom. Il. 11,487ff.; 16,335ff.), is wounded by Polydamas [1] (Hom. Il. 17,597-600) and finally, in the Posthomerica , is killed by Eurypylus [1] (Paus. 9,5,15); in a different version, P. survives to become one of the warriors inside the Trojan Horse (Tryphiodorus 180) or to take part as a fighter in…

Rhea Silvia

(341 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (also Rea Silvia). Poetically also Ilía (for identity of both: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,76,3 i.a.). Mother of Romulus [1] and Remus. She is mentioned for the first time in Naevius (cf. Serv. Aen. 1,273; 6,777) and in Ennius (Ann. 29,34-50), apparently as the daughter of Aeneas [1]. Later sources, however, identify her as the daughter of Numitor and thereby move the founding of Rome several generations away from Aeneas and the ruin of Troy. The main version of the myth is essentially to be found in…

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Myrina

(670 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μύρινα; Mýrina). [German version] [1] Amazon Amazon (Dionysius Chalcidensis FHG 4 F 2), daughter of Cretheus, wife of Thoas (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,601); eponym of the city of the same name (M. [3]) on Lemnos (Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 138c). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Teucer Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardanus [1], first mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,814; her burial mound was displayed outside Troy as Batieia (Strab. 12,8,6). She was regarded as an Amazon in ancient times. Extensive raids are mentioned in Diod. 3,54f. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] City in southw…

Polymele

(137 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Πολυμήλη/ Polymḗlē, Πολυμήλα/ Polymḗla). [German version] [1] Mother of Jason Daughter of Autolycus [1], wife of Aeson [1], mother of Jason (Iason [1]) (Hes. fr. 38 M.-W.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Lover of Hermes Daughter of king Phylas [1] of Ephyra, lover of Hermes, mother by him of Eudorus [1], thereafter wife of Echecles, the son of Actor (Hom. Il. 16,179-190). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [3] Wife of Peleus before Thetis Daughter of Actor, wife of Peleus before Thetis (schol. Lycoph. 175), according to Eust. ad Hom Il. 2,684 the mothe…

Aristonous

(221 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ἀριστόνους; Aristónous). [German version] [1] Founder of Acragas about 580 BC A. of Gela, one of the founders of Acragas about 580 BC (Thuc. 6,4,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Brother-in-law of the tyrant  Gelon of Syracuse (1st half of 5th cent. BC) Brother-in-law of the tyrant  Gelon of Syracuse and one of the guardians of his son Timaeus (FGrH 566 F 21). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [3] Macedonian officer (died 315 BC) Served as a   somatophylax (after 328 BC?) under  Alexander [4] and was  trierarch of the Hydaspes f…

Mania

(517 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Μανία; Manía). [German version] [1] Greek personification of madness Greek personification of madness. Cultic worship as Maníai (plural!) in the place of that name near Megalopolis. According to Paus. 8,34,1-3, Orestes went mad there (identification with Erinyes/Eumenides? Erinys). In the singular M. is found only in Quint. Smyrn. 5,451ff. for the rage of Ajax [1]. M. appears with an annotation of the name on a Lower Italian vase by Asteas depicting Hercules's infanticide ( Lyssa, Oestrus). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Name of the Roman goddess Larunda Another name for…

Munichus, Munitus

(137 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μούνυχος/ Moúnychos, Μούνιχος/ Moúnichos, also Μόνιχος/ Mónichos, Μούνιτος/ Moúnitos). [German version] [1] Hero of Attica Hero of Attica, son of Pantades, eponym of the harbour of Munichia in Piraeus (Eur. Hipp. 761-763). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I1] M. (Munitus): son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I 1], brought up by his grandmother Aethra; died of a snake bite after the fall of Troy (Euphorion fr. 58 Powell), perhaps identical with M. [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] King of the Molossians Later sour…

Underworld

(3,318 words)

Author(s): S.LU. | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin) | B.CH. | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Myths, Epics, Prayers and Rituals of the 2nd and 1st millennia BC, in the Sumerian and Akkadian languages, describe the location and nature of the Underworld, along with the circumstances under which its inhabitants live. This domain, located beneath the surface of the earth and surrounded by the primeval ocean called Apsȗ, is known in Akkadian as erṣetu (Sumerian: ki), a term that can refer both to the surface of the earth and to the Underworld. There are other terms for certain characteristics of this region. The Underworl…

Ocyr(r)hoe

(141 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὠκυρ(ρ)όη; Ōkyr(r)hóē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus Daughter of Oceanus (Hes. Theog. 360). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Playmate of Persephone Playmate of  Persephone (Hom. H. 5,420). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Samian nymph Samian nymph, daughter of the river god Imbrasus and of Chesias; loved by Apollo, who pursues her and turns the ship onto which she escapes into a rock and its helmsman Pompilus into the fish of that name (Hellenistic erotic story, Apoll. Rhod. in Athen. 7,283d-e; (Ps.-)Ov. Halieutica 101). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Nanas, Nanus

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Νάνας/ Nánas, Νάνος/ Nános). [German version] [1] Mythical leader of the Pelasgians Mythical leader of the Pelasgians at the time of their emigration to Italia (Hellanicus FGrH 323a F 4; Hdt. 1,57). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Epithet of Odysseus There was a prophecy that Odysseus as N. would conclude a brotherhood in arms with Aeneas [1] in Italia (Lykophr. 1242ff.; cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. 1,72,2; 12,16). On Odysseus's Italian journey cf. Hom. Od. 11,119ff.; Hes. Theog. 1105 with comm. West. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] King of the Segobrigii Mythical king of the…

Menoetes

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μενοίτης; Menoítēs). The mythical herdsman of Hades, who watches his herds on the island Erythea near the entrance of the Underworld. He reports Hercules's theft of one of his cattle to the neighbouring herdsman Geryoneus, but is killed by Hercules in a wrestling match (Apollod. 2,108; 125). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polydectes

(110 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολυδέκτης/ Polydéktēs). [German version] [1] Mythical colonist and king of Seriphus Son of Magnes [2], mythical colonist and king of Seriphus, brother of Dictys [1]. He wanted to force Danae, who had been stranded in a box with her son Perseus, into marriage, but Perseus turned him to stone with the head of Medusa (Gorgo [1]), which he had brought from the Hyperborei, and made Dictys king (Pind. P. 12; Apollod. 2,24-46). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Epithet of Hades Poetic epithet of the god of the underworld (the 'receiver of many', the 'hospitable'; Hades, Pl…

Opora

(130 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀπώρα/ Opṓra). Goddess of rich harvests, especially of the wine harvest and its season. She, together with Theoria ('festive delegation'), accompanies Eirene [1] ('peace') in Aristoph. Pax 523, 706ff. The Attic comic writers Alexis (PCG II fr. 169f.) and Amphis (PCG II fr. 47) both wrote a work called O.: Sirius the star comes to earth and falls in love with O. When he is unable to win her, his amorous passion becomes so great that the people turn to the gods for help. The north wind Boreas orders his sons to obtain O. for Sir…

Plexippus

(57 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πλήξιππος/ Plḗxippos). Son of Thestius, brother of Althaea; participant in the Calydonian Hunt; P. is killed by his nephew  Meleager [1], because he intended to steal from  Atalante the pelt of the Calydonian boar, which Meleager had given her (Apollod. 1,62; Ov. Met. 8,305; 434; 440; Hyg. Fab. 173; 174; 244). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Periphas

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περίφας; Períphas). [German version] [1] Hero at Troy, killed by Ares Mythical hero at Troy, from Aetolia, killed by Ares (Hom. Il. 5,842. 847). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus Mythical hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus [1] (Verg. Aen. 2,476). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, herald of Anchises, in whose shape Apollo roused Aeneas [1] to battle (Hom. Il. 17,323). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Archaic Attic king before even Cecrops Mythical archaic king of Attica, before even Cecrops; venerate…

Oeonus

(75 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰωνός; Oiōnós). Son of Licymnius [1], from Midea in the Argolid, companion of Heracles [1], first winner of a race in the Olympic games (Pind. Ol. 10,64ff. with schol.); he was slain in Sparta by the sons of Hippocoon because he had killed their dog; a grave of O. was shown there (Apollod. 2,143f.; Paus. 3,15,3ff.). O.' death is considered the reason for Heracles' fight against the Hippocoontids. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Salmoneus

(238 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμωνεύς/ Salmōneús). Son of Aeolus [1], brother of Athamas, Sisyphus and Cretheus. S. had delusions of grandeur and endeavoured to have himself worshipped as Zeus, driving around on a chariot drawn by horses, producing artificial lightning flashes and making bronzen cauldrons resound to give the impression of thunder. Zeus flung him into Tartarus. S.' daughter Tyro distanced herself from her father, was spared and married Cretheus (Hes. fr. 10a, 25-27 M.-W.; fr. 30,1-30 M.-W.; A…

Phoroneus

(109 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φορωνεύς; Phorōneús). Son of Alpheius [2], ancestor of the Pelasgian race (in contrast to the more recent Hellenic race, whose ancestor is Deucalion) and hence the 'first man' (Akusilaos FGrH 2 F 23a; Hes. fr. 122 M.-W.; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 1; Hyg. Fab. 143 and 274) [1. 84]. Like Prometheus he was the inventor of fire (Paus. 2,19,5), bringer of culture, and judge in the dispute over Argos between Poseidon and Athena (Paus. 2,15,5). He is the subject of the epic Phorōnís ( c. 600 BC) [2; 3; 4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Preller/Robert 2 PEG I, 118-121 3 EpGF, 153-155 4…

Phalantus

(123 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάλανθος/ Phálanthos; Lat. Phalant[h]us). Mythological founder of Taranto (Taras; Antiochus of Syracuse FGrH 555 F 13; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 216; Paus. 10,10,6-8 and elsewhere). According to Antiochus l.c., P. founded Taranto as a result of the instruction by the oracle of Delphi after an uprising by the Parthenians, led by him, against Sparta during the first Messenian War had failed; according to Ephorus l.c., the Spartans persuaded the Parthenians to emigrate. However, according to Paus. l.c., Taranto already existed. Apart from that, Paus. 10,13,3 report…

Oebalus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἴβαλος/ Oíbalos, Latin Oebalus). [German version] [1] Spartan king Mythical king of Sparta, son of Cynortas or his son Perieres, husband of Perseus's daughter Gorgophone; she, or the Naiad Batea, is the mother of their children Tyndareos,  Hippocoon and Icarius [1] (various versions in Apollod. 3,116f.; Paus. 3,1,3ff.; schol. Eur. Or. 457 et al.) [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Italic hero Italic hero, son of king Telon of the Teleboae and the nymph Sebethis; mythical ruler of Capreae; ally of Turnus against Aeneas [1] (Verg. Aen. 7,733ff. w…

Pierus

(146 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πίερος; Píeros). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria (Pierides), son of Macedon [1] (Schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). His association with the Muses is evident from alternative genealogies: son of Linus (Suda s.v. Ὅμηρος; Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 47), father of Oeagrus and Calliope [1] (l.c.; Paus. 9,30,4; Suda l.c.). The first to write poetry to the Muses (Plut. De musica 3), he introduced the cult of the nine Muses to Thespiae (Thespia) (Paus. 9,2…

Miletus

(3,516 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | von Graeve, Volkmar (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μίλητος; Mílētos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the city of Miletus Mythical founder of the city of M. [2]; from Crete; son of Apollo and Areia, daughter of Cleochus whose tomb was in the sanctuary of Didyma [1. 165f.] (Apollod. 3,5f.), or of Apollo and Deione (Ov. Met. 9,443ff.) or of Apollo and Acacallis, daughter of Minos (Antoninus Liberalis 30). Minos fell in love with M., but M. fleed to Caria, establishds M. there [2] and married Eidothea; the children of their union are Byblis and Caunus [1]. According to Ephorus FGrH 70 F 127 M. was founded by Sarpedon. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bi…

Phthonos

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (φθόνος/ phthónos, Latin invidia). 'Envy, jealousy', particularly what was known as phthónos theôn, the 'jealousy of the gods', which is directed against humans who aspire to transgress the boundaries with the divine (Hybris); (cf. Hdt. 1,32; 3,40 etc.); as a personification P. appears in Eur. Tro. 768 etc. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Navius Attus

(117 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (also Atius Navius). Legendary Roman augur ( augures ) from the period of the monarchy (Cic. Att. 10,8,6), at the time of Tarquinius Priscus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 30,70,1). He opposed an attempt to amend the centuriate system (Cic. Rep. 2,36). So as to discredit NA, Tarquinius is said to have tasked him with predicting from the flight of birds whether his plan was feasible. When NA confirmed that it was, Tarquinius ordered him to cut through a stone with a knife, and NA succeeded in doing so (Liv. 1,36,4; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom 3,71,2ff.; cf. also Cic. Div. 1,32). Käppel, Lutz (Kie…

Polytechnos

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολύτεχνος; Polýtechnos). In Antoninus Liberalis 11 (after Boeus, Ornithogonia) the husband of Aedon and father of Itys. In revenge for the violation of her sister Chelidonis by P., Aedon kills their son Itys and serves him for P. to eat. In the end all participants are turned into birds, P. into a woodpecker [1. 87-89]. This is probably the purest form of ancient bird tale, which ultimately found its canonical form with  Tereus, Procne and Philomele (Ov. Met. 6,412-674) [2. 115-119]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M. Papathemopoulos (ed.), Antoninus Liberal…

Phaestus

(984 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Φαῖστος; Phaȋstos). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sicyon Mythical king of Sicyon, son Rhopalus the son of Heracles [1]; establishes divine worship of Heracles; because of an oracle emigrates to Crete, where the city of P. [4] is named after him (Paus. 2,6,6f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War Ally of the Trojans in the Trojan War, son of Borus from Tarne in Lydia, killed by  Idomeneus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,43). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Epicist, Hellenistic period Hellenistic epic poet, mentioned twice in the scholia o…

Mulius

(63 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μούλιος; Moúlios). [German version] [1] Son-in-law of Augeias of Elis, son-in-law of Augeias, to whose daughter Agamede he is married; he is killed by Nestor (Hom. Il. 11,738ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Herald of Penelope's suitor Amphinomus Herald of Penelope's suitor Amphinomus of Dulichium; he serves the suitors in the house of Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,423). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ploutos

(339 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πλοῦτος/ Ploûtos). Personification of wealth, esp. the wealth of the harvest (cf. also Abundantia, Consus, Copia, Ops [3]). Son of Demeter and Iasion (Hes. Theog. 969-974), conceived in Crete (Hom. Od. 5,125-128). P. assures those who meet him of prosperity. The reference to him in H. Hom. ad Cererem 483-489 is evidence of his prominent role in the Mysteria of Eleusis [1]: after handing over the mysteries to humans, Demeter and her daughter Kore retire to Olympus, sending P. to those they love, to whom he brings blessings and affluence ( ibid. 488f.), apparently in rew…

Perseus

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Περσεύς; Perseús). [1] Son of Danae and Zeus, Argive hero [German version] I. Mythology Son of Danae and Zeus, who impregnates her in the form of a shower of gold; grandson of Acrisius, the king of Argos, and Eurydice. Because of an oracle predicting that the son of his daughter will kill him, Acrisius sets Danae and P. adrift at sea in a chest. Mother and son are washed ashore in Seriphus and found and taken in by Dictys [1]. When Polydectes, the brother of Dictys and king of Seriphus, wishes to marry Danae…

Oeneus

(116 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰνεύς/ Oineús). Mythological king of Calydon [3], son of Porthaon (Hom. Il. 14,115ff.) and Euryte (Apollod. 1,63; the whole family tree in Apollod. 1,64); children: Toxeus, Meleager [1], Deianira, Gorge (through the latter, O. was father of Tydeus). He was ousted by his brother Agrius [1]. Originally, O. may have been a wine god common to all Greeks, later replaced by Dionysus. He was often depicted in vase pictures as a wine god [1]. Numerous tragedians wrote (lost) tragedies entitled O. [2]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 E. Stasinopoulou-Kakarouga, s.v. O. …

Ocrisia

(133 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀκρησία/ Okrēsía; Ocresia). Aristocratic young woman from the town of Corniculum, which had been conquered by the Romans; mother of the Roman king Servius Tullius, whom she conceived from a phallus that had miraculously appeared from the fireside of Tarquinius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,2; Plut. De fortuna Romanorum 10,323a-d; Ov. Fast. 6,627-636; Plin. HN 36,204; Arnob. 5,18). In Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,1 and Liv. 1,39,5 this myth is rationalized: O. conceived her son before the town …

Medusa

(31 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μέδουσα; Médousa). Mythological monster, one of the three Gorgons (see Gorgo [1]): M. is mortal, whereas her two sisters Sthenno and Euryale are immortal. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Pholus

(70 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόλος, Latin Pholus). One of the Centaurs, son of Silenus (Silens) and a Nymph. When Heracles [1] is being entertained with wine by P., the other Centaurs attack them; Heracles repels them with poisoned arrows, by which P. is also wounded and he dies (Stesich. PMGF S 19 = 181 p. 162; Theoc. 7,149; Diod. Sic. 4,12,3ff.; Verg. G. 2,456; Verg. Aen. 8,294). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Erythraean paean

(87 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] A  paean to  Asclepius in dactyls preserved in an inscription from Erythrae [2] ( c. 380-360 BC), sung by the community during the sacrifice in the Asclepius cult as an appeal for good health; the inscription contains three other paeans with cult directions. Probably composed as early as the 5th cent. BC, the paean remained popular (numerous inscriptions) in many places until the Imperial period.  Metre Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Graf, Nordion. Kulte, 1985, 250-257 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 189-200; 370-374 (with text, translation, bibliography).

Metis

(354 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μῆτις/ mêtis, literally ‘cleverness’, ‘clever advice’). M. first appears as an attribute of Zeus ( Mētíeta‘ gifted with wisdom’, e.g. Hom. Il. 1,175 etc.) and is personified as a goddess for the first time in Hes. Theog. 358 as one of the daughters of Oceanus. She becomes the first wife of Zeus (ibid. 886ff.). But Gaia and Uranus warn Zeus that M. will bear dangerously clever children and advise him to swallow her. By doing this he prevents the birth of a son, but not the birth of Athena, who u…

Uranus

(418 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οὐρανός, Lat. Uranus). Divine personification of the sky, treated by Hesiodus (Theog. 126-128) as a mythical figure. U. is born of Gaia, the earth, without the contribution of a father, 'so that he may wrap her up and the gods have a permanent seat in him' (ibid.). After that, U. begets the Uraniones with Gaia (ibid. 424; 486), namely the Titans, including Kronos, Zeus' father. As a result, U. is the progenitor of the gods (ibid. 44 f.; 105 f.). The Cyclopes and the Hekatoncheires …

Dionysodotus

(35 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] From Sparta, presumably 6th cent. BC. Author of  paeans, which were performed at the Gymnopaedia together with the songs of  Thaletas and  Alcman (Sosibius FGrHist 595 F 5). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Peitho

(235 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πειθώ; Peithṓ). Greek personification of 'persuasion', especially of erotic persuasion, hence a frequent epithet of Aphrodite. Daughter of Oceanus, spouse of Phoroneus or of Argus [I 1] (Hes. Theog. 349; schol. Eur. Phoen. 1116; schol. Eur. Or. 1239). Although unknown in Homer's work, P. appears in Hesiod's writings (Hes. Erg. 73; Hes. Theog. 573) during the making of Pandora together with the Charites. Sappho fr. 200 V. makes her one of the Charites, Aeschylus makes her daughter …

Paean

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Doric, later generally widespread Παιάν/ Paián; epic Παιήων/ Paiḗōn; Ionic-Attic Παιών/ Paiṓn; Aeolian Πάων/ Páōn; Lat. paean). Term for a Greek song genre as well as a god, later an epithet for various gods. The etymology of the word is obscure [1; 2; 3]. Modern treatises on the song genre paean usually make the identity of the name for the song and the god the starting-point of their considerations. Either the god was a personification of the call [4; 5] drawn from the impersonal cry ἰὴ παιάν ( iḕ paián) or there was originally a god Paean to whom the cry ἰὴ Παιάν ( iḕ Paián) was …

Mysius

(64 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύσιος/ Mýsios). Mythical Argive who received the goddess Demeter as a guest and was said to have erected a temple in her honour on the road from Argos to Mycene (Paus. 2,35,4). A festival held in Demeter's grove near Pellene, the Mysaeum, was also founded by him: the so-called Mysia (Paus. 7,27,9, cf. 2,18,3) [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Nilsson, Feste, 327.

Pontos

(37 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόντος; Póntos). Greek personification of the sea (cf. Oceanus, Uranus), born of Ge/Gaia without spouse (Hes. Theog. 132); with her, P. fathered Ceto, Eurybia, Nereus, Phorcys and Thaumas (ibid. 233-239). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Melicertes

(104 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μελικέρτης; Melikértēs). Mythical son of Athamas and Ino. Threatened by Athamas, Ino jumps with M. from a cliff into the sea (Eur. Med. 1284 ff.; Ov. Met. 4,48 1 ff.; schol. Lycophr. 229). She becomes Leucothea, M. Palaemon. Sisyphos, king of Corinth, finds his body at the Isthmus of Corinth and buries him. Leucothea and Palaemon are henceforth regarded as saviours for those in distress at sea. In Corinth, M./Palaemon was worshipped in cult; the Isthmian Games ( Isthmia) were supposedly founded for him (Paus. 2,1,3). It is doubtful whether M. is the Greek form of Melqart. Kä…

Phemius

(46 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φήμιος/ Phḗmios). Mythical singer (next to Demodocus [1]) on Ithaca, son of Terpius. He sang to Penelope's suitors, among other things, about the returning home of the Greeks from Troy (Nostoi, Epic cycle); Odysseus spared him (Hom. Od. 22,330-380). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
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