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Tripolis

(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to The…

Moon deities

(1,252 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin)
[German version] I. General The status of the moon in ancient mythological speculation and cult worship reflected its central position in the calendar cycles, agricultural cycles and monthly cycles with respect to their various aspects. The moon (personified) could be the addressee of the cult; the cult also included the male and female deities embedded in the traditional pant…

Naburianus

(93 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ναβουριανός; Nabourianós). According to Poseidonius (transmitted in Str. 16,1,6), N. was said to have been, with Cidenas and Sudines, one of the Babylonian scholars whose accurate observations of the lunar cycle and positions of the sun were expanded by the Greeks into ‘System A’ and made the basis of mathematical astronomy. He is probably identical with a Nabû-rīmannu who presumably lived around 500 BC and whose name is found e.g. in the colophon of a Babylonian moon table. Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) Bibliography P. Schnabel, Berossos und die babylonisch-hellenistische Literatur, 1923, 237-241.

Nitocris

(105 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Νίτωκρις/ Nítōkris). According to Hdt. 1,185-187, Babylonian queen, wife of one Labynetus and mother of a king of the same name. She is said to have dammed up the Euphrates, built a bridge over the river in Babylon and to have her tomb above one of the city gates. These legends probably combine information about buildings of Nebuchadnezzar II and legends about Semiramis (cf. Jos. Ap. 1,20) with stories about Aadad-ḫappe, the mother of king Nabonidus. Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Röllig, Nitokris von Babylon, in: R.Stiehl, H.E. Stier (ed.), Festschrif…

Folk-tales

(3,118 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Schönbeck, Hans-Peter (Halle/Saale)
[German version] I. Term and genre In antiquity the folk-tale as a well-defined literary genre with unequivocally established terminology was not known. However, since oral narratives, partly put down in writing, that according to the modern meaning of the term can undoubtedly be designated as folk-tales, existed in all ages and all cultures, the issue of the folk-tale becomes a meaningful and inevitable subject also with regard to antiquity. The German word ‘Märchen’ is derived from OHG māri, MHG diu/daz maere = ‘report’, ‘message’, i.e. ‘narrative’, still entirely in the …

Sanchuniathon

(318 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Σαγχουνιάθω/ Sanchouniáthō; Phoenician sknytn, 'Sakon has given'). Phoenician and source for Herennius Philo of Byblus (= P.), who used him for his Phoenician History (Euseb.: Φοινικικὴ Ἱστορία/ Phoinikikḕ Historía; Iohannes Lydus, Steph. Byz.: τὰ Φοινικικά), of which we know only through references in Eusebius [7] (Euseb. Praep. evang. 1,9,20-21; 10,9,12 ff. Mras = FGrH 790). S. is said to have lived at Beirut (Berytus, according to the Suda), Tyrus or Sidon (Ath. 3,100) even 'before the Trojan War', and h…

Ithobalus

(263 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Ἰθόβαλος; Ithóbalos, Εἰθώβαλος; Eithṓbalos and similar, Phoenician ʾittōbaʿal, Baʿal is with him). Name of various Phoenician princes.…

Phoenicians, Poeni

(8,121 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] I. Names and concept, sources The name and concept of the Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phoenicians (= P.) were formed in the Greek world [1]. Those designated by it understood themselves primarily as citizens or members of a union of cities, e.g. as Tyrians, Sidonians or - after the shared cultural region - as Canaanites [2]. In this they were referring to a political or ethnic identity derived from the Ancient Near Eastern Bronze Age. The various designations can only be reconciled from case to case. On the one hand, the term 'Canaan', known primarily from the OT trad…

Satrapes

(397 words)

Thapsacus

(223 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Θάψακος/ T hápsakos; Latin Thapsacus). City in Syria, on the west bank of the Euphrates [2], important river port and Euphrates crossing (Semitic tiphsaḥ, 'crossing, ford'), first mentioned in 1 Kings 5,4 as a (fictional) border town in the northeast of Solomon's kingdom. It was at T. that Cyrus [3] the Younger crossed the Euphrates (Xen. An. 1,4,11 and 17 f.); a little later, as nauarchos, Conon [1] came to T., 20 days travel from the Cilician Gates [1] (Diod. Sic. 14,21,5), from where the river …

Theodosiopolis

(286 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοδοσιόπολις/ Theodosiópolis, Θεοδοσιούπολις/ Theodosioúpolis). [German version] [1] Modern Ras al-Ain, Syria…

Writing

(3,263 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Wachter, Rudolf (Basle) | Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] I. Definition Writing is understood to be a set of signs for the visual preservation of human language. Within cultural history, creating and employing writing require (1) its usability, (2) a considerable degree of language analysis and (3) a triggering idea. Since writing can be mastered effortlessly even by six-year-olds …