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Dromocleides

(88 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δρομοκλείδης; Dromokleides). [German version] [1] Athenian archon 475/4 BC Athenian archon 475/4 BC. (Diod. Sic. 11,50,1). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian demagogue c. 295 BC Influential and active Athenian demagogue, supporting  Demetrius [2] Poliorketes. In 295 BC he proposed that Piraeus and Munychia be handed over to Demetrius and, probably in 292/1, that the ‘saviour’ Demetrius be asked for an oracle (Plut. Demetrius 13,1-3; 34,1-7).  Athens;  Kolakes Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Habicht, 94; 98-100 Id., Unt. zur polit. Ge…

Lycomidae

(193 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυκομίδαι; Lykomídai). Priestly family from Athens, responsible for a cult of Demeter. Pausanias (1,22,7; 9,30,12) reports of a hymn that can be read in the Pinakotheca at the entrance to the Acropolis which the L. sang in honour of the goddess. The L. had a sanctuary in Phlya in which secret initiation rites took place (Plut. Themistocles 1,4; Paus. 4,1,7), which probably resembled the Mysteria in Eleusis [1]. In the Roman period links between the L. and the priestly families there are attested (IG II/III2 3559). In the older literature political significance was…

Cimon

(972 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Κίμων; Kímōn). [German version] [1] Known as Koálemos, born c. 585 BC, achieved three Olympic victories C., known as Koálemos (‘the Stupid’), son of Stesagoras of Athens, born about 585 BC, had to leave Athens during the tyranny of  Peisistratus. During his exile he achieved two Olympic victories with the four-horse chariot (536 and 532 BC). Since C. had the 2nd victory proclaimed for Peisistratus, he was permitted to return. C.'s high prestige after his third Olympic victory (528) resulted in a conflict between …

Lycomedes

(382 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Λυκομήδης; Lykomḗdēs). [German version] [1] King of the Dolopes on Scyros King of the Dolopes on Scyros, father of Deidamia [1]. Because Achilles is predestined to die in Troy, his mother Thetis disguises him as a girl at the court of L. where Achilles fathers a son Neoptolemus by Deidamia (Apollod. 3,174; schol. Hom. Il. 9,668). Later Odysseus and Phoenix persuade L. on behalf of the Greeks to allow Neoptolemus to come to Troy (Soph. Phil. 343ff.; only Odysseus in Hom. Od. 11,506ff. and in The Ilias P…

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4…

Herms, mutilation of the

(194 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] In summer 415 BC, shortly before the Sicilian expedition, all  Herms in Athens were damaged in one night. The citizens saw in this a bad omen for the enterprise. The posting of high rewards for informers led to the discovery of a further religious heinous deed: the desecration of the Eleusinian Mysteries ( Mysteria) in the private houses of some rich citizens.  Alcibiades [3], initiator of the Sicilian expedition, was accused of participating in both crimes. In the ‘witch hunt’ th…

Ionian Revolt

(306 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] The Greek cities in  Ionia were compliant subjects of the Persians from 546/5 BC. Beginning with the further expansion of the Persian empire towards the west, the limitations to their trade as a result, increasing taxes and conscription led many cities to attach themselves in 499 to the initiator of the rebellions,  Aristagoras [2]. The latter had given up the tyranny in  Miletus, proclaimed   isonomía and secured military support from Athens and Eretria for the revolt. In 498 the Milesians and their allies attacked  Sardes …

Hegetorides

(64 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἡγητορίδης; Hēgētorídēs). Respected citizen of Cos. The story of his daughter who was abducted by the Persians and who, as a suppliant, is said to have been freed by the Spartan ruler  Pausanias after the battle of Plataeae (479 BC), is one of Herodotus' examples of the moral superiority of the Greeks (Hdt. 9,76; cf. Paus. 3,4,9). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Mnesiphilus

(128 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μνησίφιλος/ Mnēsíphilos). Athenian from the deme of Phrearrii. Immediately before the battle of Salamis (480 BC), he advised Themistocles to assert his influence with the allies in order to prevent their planned retreat to the Isthmus. Later writers generally regarded M. as a teacher of practical wisdom in the tradition of Solon and as an adviser and friend of Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 2,6; Plut. Mor. 795c). 14 ostraka from the Kerameikos show that in 487/6 BC M. was nominated for ostrakophoria (see ostrakismós ). Whether he himself wa…

Strattis

(244 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Στράττις/ Stráttis). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Chios, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Chios, who took part in the Scythian campaign in 513 BC as an adviser of Darius [1] (Hdt. 4,138). It can not be determined whether he was deposed at the beginning of the Ionian Revolt. Nevertheless, he was able to resume his reign after the Persians' victory (in 493/2 BC). In 479 he was able to elude a conspiracy (Hdt. 8,132). At the liberation of Ionia after the battle of Mycale in 479 S. may also have been toppled. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 5th/4th cents. BC Attic comi…

Aleuadae

(213 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀλευάδαι; Aleuádai). Aristocratic family from Thessaly, which ruled in  Larissa and surrounding areas. Aleuas ‘the Red’ is supposed to have created the military and political order of the Thessalian federation (Aristot. fragment 497 Rose; Plut. Mor. 492A-B). Numerous A. held the tageia, the highest office of this federation. According to Herodotus (7,6; 130; 9,58) they approached Xerxes before the Persian Wars in order to cause his invasion of Greece; a few even joined the Persian army. From 404 BC the political develop…

Agariste

(126 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Ἀγαρίστη; Agarístē). [German version] [1] Mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens (6th cent. BC) Daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, wife of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens. The story of the long courtship before her marriage around 575 BC can be regarded as the paradigmatic depiction of the lifestyle of the archaic aristocracy (Hdt. 6,126 ff.).  Aristocracy Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography E. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Adelskultur und Polisges., 1989, 117-119. [German version] [2] Athenian, mother of Pericles Athenian, great-grandda…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Ietragoras

(51 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰητραγόρας/ Iētragóras, Ἰητραγόρης/ Iētragórēs) of Miletus, was assigned by the rebellious Ionians in 499 BC with waylaying the Persian fleet returning from Naxos and capturing the pro-Persian tyrants on the ships (Hdt. 5,36f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography U. Walter, Herodot und die Ursachen des Ionischen Aufstandes, in: Historia 42, 1993, 257-278.

Medontidae

(117 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μεδοντίδαι; Medontídai). Aristocratic Athenian family, whose ancestor Medon [5] renounced the royal title in 1069 BC, and was supposedly the first to hold the archonship ( árchontes) for life. The office was then said to have become hereditary within his family, until the term of office was limited to ten years in 753. The ten-year archonship was also said to have been held exclusively by the M. down to 713 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3,3; Paus. 4,5,10). However, there is no authentic evi…

Epicydes

(179 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἐπικύδης; Epikýdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Euphemides of Athens c. 480 BC Son of Euphemides of Athens. In 480 BC, he ran for the office of strategos but  Themistocles supposedly bribed him into withdrawing his candidacy (Plut. Themist. 6; Mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Confidant of Hannibal Brother of Hippocrates, grandson of Arcesilaus, a Syracusian exile in Carthage. E. grew up in Carthage as the son of a Carthaginian woman (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8). He was a confidant of Hannibal and, in 214 B…

Orthagoras

(445 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ὀρθαγόρας/ Orthagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sicyon, 6th cent. BC O. of Sicyon is said to have established the tyrannís there around 650 BC. The ruling dynasty thus established was called the 'Orthagorids' after him. An anonymous ‘history of tyranny (FGrH 105 F 2) preserved on papyrus, and probably deriving from Ephorus, reports that O. had first distinguished himself as a border guard on the frontier with a neighbouring city, and later rose to become commander of the watch and polémarchos . Whether he had the support of the hoplítai for his seizure o…

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …

Helixus

(59 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἕλιξος; Hélixos). Strategos from Megara. In 411 BC, H. led a fleet contingent of the  Peloponnesian League, which caused Byzantium to break away from Athens (Thuc. 8,80). When the city was later besieged by the Athenians, H. defended it until it capitulated in the winter of 409/8 (Xen. Hell. 1,3,15; 17; 21). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Medismos

(229 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (μηδισμός/ mēdismós). The term medismos was used to describe the voluntary collaboration of individual Greeks or whole cities with the Persians, whom the Greeks often referred to as ‘Medes’. Apart from active political-military collaboration with the Great King, the verb mēdízein also refers to the adoption of Persian customs and practices together with a luxurious way of life. Medismos was perceived as a graver offence than the betrayal of the home town to another Greek town, because it affected pan-Greek interests as well as the intere…

Hippocrates

(5,685 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Potter, Paul (London, Ontario) | Gundert, Beate (London, Ontario) | Et al.
(Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs). [German version] [1] Father of Peisistratus, from Brauron Father of  Peisistratus. H. is presumed to have come from Brauron, the later deme of Philaidai, and traced his ancestry back to Neleus (Hdt. 1,59; 5,65; Plut. Solon 10; 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography Traill, PAA 538385. [German version] [2] Son of Megacles from Athens, approx. 6th cent. BC Son of the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonids)  Megacles from Athens, born around 560 BC, H. was the brother of Cleisthenes, the father of  Megacles and Agariste [2] and thus th…

Isagoras

(246 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἰσαγόρας; Isagóras). [German version] [1] Son of Teisander, Cleisthenes' competitor after the fall of the tyrants Son of Teisander, he fought  Cleisthenes for supreme power in Athens after the fall of the tyrants. The conflict was initially between their hetairiai ( Hetairia). It was only when I. was elected archon for the year 508/507 BC, that Cleisthenes was successful in winning the support of the dḗmos. I. too had to mobilize additional sources of power and in traditional aristocratic manner had his guest  Cleomenes I of Sparta intervene in Attica and e…
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