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Phanosthenes

(95 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Φανοσθένης; Phanosthénēs) of Andros. He was named próxenos ( proxenía ) and euergétēs of the Athenians, probably because of his services in introducing shipbuilding timber; he was later granted Athenian citizenship and was selected as stratēgós for 407/6 BC. After the defeat at Notion, Ph. succeeded Conon [1] at the siege of Andros, intercepting two ships from Thurii which were attempting to join the Spartan fleet (Plat. Ion 541d; Xen. Hell. 1,5,18f.; IG I3 182). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography H.A. Reiter, Athen und die Poleis des Delisch-Attisch…

Menexenus

(101 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μενέξενος; Menéxenos). [German version] [1] Son of Socrates A son of Socrates, still a child when his father died (Plat. Apo. 34d; Phd. 116b; Diog. Laert. 2,26). See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography A.-H. Chroust, A Comment On Aristotle's On Noble Birth, in: WS 85 N.F. 6, 1972, 19-32 PA 9975 Traill, PAA 644865. [German version] [2] Pupil of Socrates Pupil of the Sophist Ctesippus, a relative, and of Socrates, at whose death he was present (Plat. Lys. 206d; 211c; Plat. Phd. 59b). Plato named his dialogue ‘M.’ after him. See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bib…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Demaenetus

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Δημαίνετος; Dēmaínetos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Asclepius in Elis Epithet of  Asclepius in Elis, from the name of the cult founder (Paus. 6,21,4). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] From Parrhasia, allegedly transformed into a wolf D. from Parrhasia, a town in Arcadia. He is said to have been transformed into a wolf after he ate the flesh of a boy whom the Arcadians had sacrificed to Jupiter Lycaeus. After 10 years he became human again and was victorious in boxing at Olympia (Scopas FGrH 413 F 1; Varro in Aug. Civ. 18,17). In Paus. 6,8,2 he is called Damarchos. Bloch, René (Ber…

Cleophon

(216 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλεοφῶν; Kleophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC, lyre-maker, apparently not very wealthy (Lys. 19.48). In 410 C. introduced the   diobelía , a maintenance payment to needy citizens ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 28,3). According to Diodorus (13,53,2) he brought about in 410/409, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 34,1 in 406/5, the rejection of peace negotiations with Sparta, though these could have been duplicates of his measures in…

Callixenus

(112 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλίξενος; Kallíxenos). Athenian, successfully pleaded in the Council in 406 BC for a sentencing of the generals because they failed to rescue shipwreck victims after the battle of the Arginusae; his request to have the generals executed when found guilty was submitted to the popular assembly. After  Euryptolemus was forced to drop a suit of unlawfulness ( Paranomon graphe), the generals were sentenced to death. Later when proceedings were initiated against the accusers, C. fled …

Pythodorus

(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) names him as the prosecutor of Protagoras [1]. P. may be identical with the …

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Rhinon

(186 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ῥίνων; Rhínōn). Attic politician, who was a member (Paredros) of the Hellēnotamíai in 417/6 BC and after the fall of the Thirty (Triakonta) was one of the committee of the Ten (Deka), which in 403 achieved reconciliation with the democrats in Piraeus and their return to the city. After democracy was restored, R. accounted for his actions in office and was elected stratēgós for 403/2 and treasurer of the goddess Athena and the other gods for the year 402/1 (ML 77,26 f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 38,3 f.; Aristot. fr. 611 Rose2; Isoc. Or. 18,6; 18,8; IG II/II2 1371). Aeschines [1]…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Cleander

(290 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κλέανδρος; Kléandros). [German version] [1] C. of Gela Founded tyrannis in Gela in 505 BC Son of Pantares. C. founded c. 505 BC the tyrannis in  Gela and was assassinated after governing for seven years. C. created the preconditions for the rise of Gela under his brother and successor Hippocrates [4] (Hdt. 7,154; Aristot. Pol. 1316a 37f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography D. Asheri, in: CAH 42, 1988, 758 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 137. [German version] [2] Spartan commander in Byzantium c. 400 BC Spartan commander ( harmostḗs) in Byzantium. After the Greek…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Corinthian War

(374 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A war named after the area of military operations around  Corinth; triggered by a border conflict between Locrians and Phocians in 395 BC, and brought to an end by the  King's Peace in 386. Sparta as an ally of the Locrians invaded the Phocians' ally Boeotia, which entered into a military alliance ( symmachia) with Athens. After the Spartan defeat outside  Haliartus in 395 (death of  Lysander), Corinth and Argos joined the Athenian-Theban symmachia (StV II2 225). An allied advance against Laconia in 394 ended with the defeat at the Nemea stream. The Spar…

Theomnestus

(215 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεόμνηστος/ Theómnēstos). [German version] [1] From Athens, c. 400 BC Athenian, accused by Lysitheus of cowardice after the battle of Corinthus (in 394 BC) in an action of dokimasia ( epangelía dokimasías) or 'scrutiny'. By being convicted T. was unable to appear as a rhetor in the People's Assembly, but managed to have the verdict quashed by means of an action for false witness against Dionysius. Against a renewed accusation of cowardice raised by Theon T. proceeded with an action of defamation ( díkē kakēgorías; Kakegoria ) and succeeded. He was then cha…

Cleitophon

(67 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Κλειτοφῶν; Kleitophôn). Athenian, a disciple of  Socrates (Pl. Resp. 1,328b; 340a-b). Plato's dialogue C . is named after him. C. proposed to consider Cleisthenes' constitution for the planned changes in 411 BC. In 404 he represented the pátrios politeía viewpoint together with  Theramenes and others ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,3; 34,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 8546 M. Chambers, Aristoteles. Staat der Athener, 1990, 277 Rhodes 375-377.

Alcimenes

(280 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀλκιμένης, Alkiménēs). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: brother of Bellerophontes Brother of Bellerophontes, also Peiren or Deliades, was killed by his brother, providing the reason for the flight to Argus (Apollod. 2,30; Tzetz. Lycophr. 17). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: son of Jason and Medea Son of Jason and Medea, brother of Teisander, both of whom were killed in Corinth by Medea; only Thettalus, A.'s twin brother, escaped. Both of these are buried in the Temenus of Hera and were venerated as heroes (Diod. Sic. 4,54,1; 4,55,1 f.). Gra…

Thrasyllus

(670 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Θράσυλλος; Thrásyllos). [German version] [1] Athenian commander in the Peloponnesian War (also Θράσυλος; Thrásylos). From Athens, served as a hoplite in the armed forces on Samos in 411 BC and was significantly involved there in the overthrow of an oligarchic revolution (Thuc. 8,73). Together with Thrasybulus [3], he organized the resistance against the oligarchs in Athens ( tetrakósioi [2]) and, through an oath, obliged the Athenian forces and the Samians to defend their democracy and continue the war (Thuc. 8,75,2). After being elected stratēgoí (Thuc…

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Timotheus

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Τιμόθεος; Timótheos). [German version] [1] T. of Metapontum Greek physician, c. 400 BC Greek physician, fl. c. 400 BC. According to the Anonymus Londiniensis (8,8), T. believed that disease was the result of the blockage of passages through which residues would have been excreted. Residues that have risen up from the entire body are forced to remain in the head until they are transformed into a saline, acrid fluid. They then break out and cause a wide variety of disease, whose character is determined by the place or places to which they flow.. Humoral theory Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Mnasippus

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνάσιππος/ Mnásippos). Spartan, was sent in 373 BC as naúarchos with a fleet against Cercyra, besieged the city and devastated its territories. The Athenians sent a fleet to the aid of Cercyra in 372, but by the time they arrived M. had already lost control of his mercenaries, owing to arrears in pay, and had been defeated. He fell in battle; Sparta discontinued the operation (Xen. Hell. 6,2,3-26; 31; Diod. 15,47,1-7) [1. 414]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W.K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, vol. 5, 1991.

Phayllus

(158 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάϋλλος/ Pháÿllos). [German version] [1] Phocian strategos (4th cent. BC) A Phocian (Phocis) stratēgós, who was dispatched with 7000 soldiers to support Lycophron [3] of Pherae against  Philip [4] II of Macedonia during the third of the Sacred Wars in 353 BC, but suffered a defeat. After the death of his brother Onomarchus he assumed supreme command over the Phocians as stratēgòs autokrátōr and kept Philip from Thermopylae with Spartan, Athenian and Achaean help and mercenaries, whom he rewarded with treasures from Delphic temples. P. took the war to Boeo…

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…

Epicrates

(390 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης; Epikrátēs). [German version] [1] Democratic Athenian c. 400 BC Athenian who fought with the democrats against the oligarchy in 403 BC. In 397 he and  Cephalus advocated collaboration with Persia and a clean, quick break with Sparta, even at the risk of a new war (Hell. Oxy. 10, 1-2 Chambers). After Conon's victory in the Aegean in 394, he accompanied Phormisius to the Persian king as emissary of Athens. On his return he was accused of corruption but acquitted. In 392/1 he went to Sparta as an …

Eurymedon

(520 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Martini, Wolfram (Gießen)
(Εὐρυμέδων; Eurymédōn, ‘far-prevailing’ [2]). The name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] King of the Giants King of the  Giants, by his daughter Periboea grandfather of Nausithous the son of Poseidon, ancestor of the Phaeacian kings. E. brought himself and his people to ruin (Hom. Od. 7,58-60 with schol. and Eust.). According to  Euphorion fr. 99 Powell (schol. Hom. Il. 14,295-296) he raped Hera, whereupon she bore  Prometheus. For this Zeus later hurled E. into the Tartarus. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Vian, s.v. E.1, LIMC 4.1, 105 2 Kamptz 84, …

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Thrasybulus

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Θρασύβουλος/ Thrasýboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Miletus [2], ca. 600 BC Prýtanis or aisymnḗtēs, then tyrant (Aristot. Pol. 1305a 16-18) of Miletus [2], at the time of its greatest prosperity around the turn of the 7th to the 6th cent. BC; a contemporary of Thales (Diog. Laert. 1,27). According to Herodotus, T. was able to end a twelve-year war against the Lydian kings Sadyattes [2] and Alyattes (Hdt. 1,17-23; Polyaenus, Strat. 6,47) by a trick (Hdt. 1,22: pretended wealth), and to persuade Alyatte…

Strombichides

(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Στρομβιχίδης/ Strombichídēs). Son of Diotimus [1], Attic strategos in 412/1 BC. His operations against Teosin 412 BC were unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,15,1; 8,16,1-2) and he, Onomaclesand Euctemon besieged Chiosin vain (Thuc. 8,30; 8,33,2-34; 8,38; 8,40 f.; 8,55,2-56,1; 8,61-63). From there he went to the Hellespontus in the spring of 411 in order to salvage Athens's lost authority there (conquest of Lampsacus and Sestus, Thuc. 8,62). In 411 he remained true to democracy and was active in the …

Tamia

(66 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμία/ tamía). In a well-to-do Greek house the tamia managed provisions and objects of value stored in the house, usually in a lockable closet ( Tamieion ; Thalamos ). Among the servants she had a special status and enjoyed the trust of the owner of the house (Hom. Od. 2,345; Pind. Ol. 13,7; Xen. Oec. 9,10-13; 10,10; Lib. Or. 16,47). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Philinus

(600 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος; Philînos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician Athenian. P. proposed absorbing all thetai (thetes) into the hoplites ( hoplítai ) (Antiph. fr. 61 from the speech Katà Philînou). In 420/419 BC, he attempted to prevent a case brought against him for the improper use of public funds by inciting one Philocrates to raise a charge of accidental killing against the accuser immediately before the trial. Once the charge was accepted, P.' accuser was no longer permitted to enter any protected places, including places of justice ( nómima) (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfrie…

Thymochares

(148 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Θυμοχάρης/ Thymochárēs). [German version] [1] From Athens, naval commander, c. 400 BC Athenian, strategos of a fleet defeated by Agesandridas at Eretria [1] in 411/10 BC (Thuc. 8,95). T. was also defeated by Agesandridas in a second sea battle (Xen. Hell. 1,1,1). Traill, PAA 518930. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] From Athens, follower of Lycurgus [9], second half of the 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Phaedrus [2] from the Sphettus deme, c. 360-300 BC, follower of Lycurgus [9], in 329/8 epimelētḗs of the Amphiaraus Games of Oropus (IG VII 4254, 29 f. = [5. no. 50]), str…

Xanthippus

(704 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ξάνθιππος/ Xánthippos). [German version] [1] Athenian from the Cholargos deme, father of Pericles, around 500 BC Athenian from the Cholargos deme, father of Ariphron, Pericles [1] and a daughter, born c. 520 BC, married to Agariste [2], a niece of the Alcmeonid Cleisthenes [2]. In 489 BC X. argued as plaintiff for Miltiades' [2] conviction. In Aristoteles [6] X. therefore appears not only as a leading demagogue but also as an adversary of Miltiades ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 28,2). In the spring of 484 X. was banished by ostrakismos from Athens, perhaps as an opponent of Themistoc

Eratosthenes

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἐρατοσθένης; Eratosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, active in the Peloponnesian War An Athenian of rich family. In 411 BC he was serving as a trierarch in the Hellespont, but left his ship in order to support the oligarchs in Athens (Lys. 12,42). After the capitulation of Athens in the Peloponnesian War (404 BC), E. belonged to an action group ─ the five ephors ─ working for an oligarchic coup. After the abolition…

Tamieion

(163 words)

Apophora

(180 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποφορά; apophorá). Payment made by independently working slaves to their master (And. 1,38; Hyp. Ath. 9; 19; Theophr. Char. 30,15). Aeschines (1,97) set the amount of the apophora for a trained craftsman at two oboli daily and for the head of the ergasterion (ἡγημών; hēgēmṓn) at three. The revenue exceeding this amount remained with the slave, who was in this way able to earn money to purchase freedom and occasionally even acquire wealth (Xen. Ath. Pol. 1,11). It is impossible to estimate how large the number of independently working slaves was. Possibly, apophora also…

Melanthius

(610 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος/ Melánthios). [German version] [1] Treacherous goatherd of Odysseus (also Μελανθεύς/ Melantheús). Son of Dolius [2], brother of Melantho [2], treacherous goatherd of Odysseus, negative counterpart to the swineherd Eumaeus and the cowherd Philoetius (Hom. Od. 17,212-22,479). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, 1973, 15-17; 74-77; 142-145. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos, 499/8 BC Athenian strategos who led the troops sent in support of the Ionians when they revolted in 499/8 (Hdt. 5,97). Ionian Revolt Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography PA 9764 Traill, PAA 638260. [German version] [3] Athenian strategos, 411 BC An Athenian involved as a strategos in the fortification of the Eetioneia Peninsula in 411 BC. As this allegedly had the function of allowing the Spartans into the city, it was demolished wi…

Emporos

(443 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἔμπορος; émporos). In the Odyssey emporos is a passenger travelling on a foreign ship (Hom. Od. 2,319; 24,300f.). The merchant and shipowner trading in goods for profit, however, is called πρηκτήρ ( prēktḗr) or ἀρχὸς ναυτάων ( archós nautáōn) in Od. 8,161-164. In keeping with epic language travellers on land and sea are emporoi in Attic tragedies. Hesiod, however, already uses ἐμπορίη ( emporíē; Hes. Op. 646) to describe trading by ship and Herodotus also uses the word in that sense . In the Classical period emporos was used in particular of a merchant trading ove…

Hermon

(497 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Mountain massif Mountain massif (maximum height 2,814 m) south of the Antilebanon; Hebrew Ḥærmôn (from ḥrm ‘ban, taboo’), Greek Ἀερμών; Aermṓn, Latin Hermon, modern Ǧabal aš-Šaiḫ, ‘mountain of the white-haired man’ / Ǧabal aṯ-Ṯalǧ, ‘snow mountain’. Dt 3:9 equates H. with Phoenician Śiriōn and Amorite Śenīr, hence H. would be found as Šryn in Ugaritic, Šarijana in Hittite and Saniru in Assyrian. Biblical tradition considers H. to be the northern border of the land conquered by Moses and Joshua east of the Jordan (Jos 11:17; Dt 3:8). F…

Archias

(769 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀρχίας; Archías). [German version] [1] Corinthian, founder of Syracuse 733 BC Son of Euagetes of Corinth, probably belonging to the family of the  Bacchiadae. He left Corinth following a serious dispute, and, on the instruction of the Delphian oracle, led colonists to lower Italy. In about 733 BC, he founded  Syracusae in Sicily (Thuc. 6,3,2; Str. 6,2,4; Plut. Mor. 772e-773b).  Colonization Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography W. Leschhorn, Gründer der Stadt, 1984, 13-16 H.-P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakus, RE Suppl. 13, 817-819. [German version] [2] Politician from C…

Diagraphein, diagraphe

(253 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (διαγράφειν, διαγραφή; diagráphein, diagraphḗ) . (1) In Attic procedural law, diagraphḗ referred to the deletion of a suit from the court list after the prosecutor had either abandoned the case or failed to pay the court fees, or if the defendant objected to the admissibility of the action either by   paragraphḗ (παραγραφή) or by   diamartyría (διαμαρτυρία). (2) The term diagraphḗ is also used for the registration of shares in mines leased from the polis, with their respective boundaries, in a register (Harpocr. s.v. διαγραφή). (3) Additionally, it is a banking ter…

Charicles

(186 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρικλῆς; Chariklês). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, late 5th cent. BC Athenian from the phyle of Oeneis; son of Apollodorus. As a democrat in 415 BC he investigated the Mutilation of the Herms with Peisander (Andoc. 1,36), and in 414/13 was strategos in the Peloponnesian campaign (Thuc. 7,20;26; Diod. Sic. 13,9,2). However, in 411 he followed Peisander over to the ‘Four hundred’ (Lys. 13,73f.). In 404 played a significant role in the oligarchy of the ‘Thirty’ (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2; Mem. 1,2,31; Andoc. 1,101; Aristot. Pol. 1305…

Sophocles

(4,433 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Σοφοκλῆς/ Sophoklês). [German version] [1] Attic tragedian, 5th cent. BC The 5th cent. BC Attic tragedian Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A. Life Attischer Tragiker des 5. Jh. v. Chr. The most important records are the vita which has survived in several manuscripts and the Suda (σ 815); the complete testimonies have been collected in TrGF, vol. 4. S. was born in 497/…

Charidemus

(227 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρίδημος; Charídēmos). [German version] [1] Member of an Athenian delegation, 4th cent. BC Member of an Athenian delegation which in 359 BC requested the help of Philip II in taking Amphipolis (Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 30a). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Mercenary leader from Oreos, 4th cent. BC M…

Eucrates

(122 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης; Eukrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 432/1 BC Athenian strategos in 432/1 BC (IG I3 365.5), participated in a campaign to Macedonia. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Choregos and strategos in Athens about 415 BC Choregos and strategos in Athens. The brother of  Nicias. In 415 BC accused of the mutilation of the Herms but released (And. 1,47; 66). In 412/1 in Thrace as strategos. In 405/4 again strategos, he resisted together with other generals the peace terms negotiated by Theramenes during the blockade of Athens and, therefore,…

Dicaeogenes

(123 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δικαιογένης; Dikaiogénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, trierarch of the Paralos, feel in 412/11 BC Athenian from a wealthy and respected family (Davies, 145-149 pl. II). When trierarch of the state trireme Paralos he fell at Cnidus in 412/11 BC. An action was brought in 389 concerning the testamentary disposal of his wealth (Isaeus, Or. 5). Traill, PAA 324245. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] of Athens Tragedian and dithyrambic poet (?), tragedian and dithyrambic poet. In the 4th cent. BC victor at the rural Dionysia in the deme of Acharnae i…

Meno

(805 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μένων; Ménōn). [German version] [1] Recipient of Athenian citizenship according to Demosthenes For his support for the Athenians in their attack on Eion [1] on the Strymon, M. of Pharsalus was, according to Demosthenes (Or. 13,23), awarded atéleia or (Or. 23,199) Athenian citizenship [1. 20-23]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Military official under Cyrus the younger, ca. 400 BC M. of Pharsalus, was, like his ancestors, closely connected to the Thessalian dynasty of the Aleuadai (M. was the erṓmenos, ‘beloved’, of Aristippus) and bound by paternal hospitality to the Persian ruling house (Plat. Men. 70b; 78d). M. contributed 1000 hoplites and 500 peltasts to Cyrus the Younger [3] in his campaign against Artaxerxes [2] in 401 BC at Phrygian Colossae (Xen. An. 1,2,6; Diod. Sic. 14, 19, 8). He facilitated Cyrus' invasion of Cilicia. He was the first to cross the Euphrates with his troops, for which Cyrus rewarded him handsomely. He commanded the left wing at the battle of Kunaxa (Xen. An. 1,2,…

Lycomedes

(382 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Λυκομήδης; Lykomḗdēs). [German version] [1] King of the Dolopes on Scyros King of the Dolopes on Scyros, father of Deidamia [1]. Because Achilles is predestined to die in Troy, his mother Thetis disguises him as a girl at the court of L. where Achilles fathers a son Neoptolemus by Deidamia (Apollod. 3,174; schol. Hom. Il. 9,668). Later Odysseus and Phoenix persuade L. on behalf of the Greeks to allow Neoptolemus to come to Troy (Soph. Phil. 343ff.; only Odysseus in Hom. Od. 11,506ff. and in The Ilias P…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Eisphora

(546 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰσφορά; eisphorá). In Athens, the eisphora was an extra-budgetary, direct wealth-tax imposed on wealthy Athenians during financial crises, primarily during wars, by order of the public assembly. According to Aristot. Ath. Pol. 8,3, an eisphora supposedly existed already in the Solonic period. However, the wording of the law cited there mentions only a general collection of taxes through the   naukraroi . According to Thuc. 3,19,1, an eisphora was imposed in 428/7 BC for the first time (πρῶτον) in the amount of 200 talents due to the high costs of war. Since an eisphora

Perses

(346 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πέρσης; Pérsēs). [German version] [1] Son of the Titan Crius and Eurybea (or Persaeus [1]: H. Hom. 2,24). Son of the Titan Crius [1] and Eurybea, brother of Astraeus and Pallas (Hes. Theog. 375ff.; Apollod. 1,8), husband of Asteria [2], father of Hecate (Hes. Theog. 409ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Helios Son of Helios, brother of Aeetes (Hyg. Fab. 27). He seized power in Colchis from Aeetes, for which he was killed either by Medea (Apollod. 1,83) or her son Medus (Hyg. loc.cit.; Diod. Sic. 4,56,1). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Per…

Leptines

(618 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Λεπτίνης; Leptínēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian politician, suggested an alliance with Sparta in 369 BC. In 356, L. carried through a law according to which all exemptions from liturgies which had been granted were to be lifted, and no more were to be granted in the future (Dem. Or. 20 hypoth. 2,2; 20,18). Bathippus brought an action against it on the grounds of illegality, but died shortly thereafter (Dem. Or. 20,144f.). In 355, a new action was brought against the …

Nicomachus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος/ Nikómachos). [German version] [1] Healing hero See Gorgasus and Nicomachus Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian official, 410-404 BC Allegedly the son of a slave and only later accepted as an Athenian citizen. In 410-404 BC, N. led the commission for recording the laws ( anagrapheîs tôn nómōn). Exiled under the Thirty ( triákonta ), he returned in 403 and again became anagrapheús. In 399/8 BC, N. was accused of manipulating the laws, thus e.g. contributing to the sentencing of the demagogue Cleophon [1] in 404, evading his duty of accountability and exce…

Laches

(266 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Λάχης; Láchēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategós from a wealthy family, sent to Sicily in 427 BC with 20 warships Athenian stratēgós from a wealthy family, sent to Sicily in 427 BC with 20 warships to protect the cities allied to Leontini (Thuc. 3,86) against Syracuse, he successfully led a number of campaigns out of Rhegium against the Aeolian Islands, Mylae, Inessa and the Locrians (Thuc. 3,88; …

Aristophanes

(5,353 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστοφάνης; Aristophánēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Son of  Nicophemus, a confidant of  Conon. Repeatedly chorēgós and trierarch. In 393 BC he was supposed to win  Dionysius I of Syracuse on Conon's order as an ally for Athens using a marriage alliance with  Evagoras of Salamis. When Athens sent Evagoras 10 triremes against the Persians in 390/89, A. helped in financing them and participated as a delegate. Returning from this unsuccessful campaign, A. and his father were executed by means of the apagoge and their fortune was confisc…

Satyrus

(1,465 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros). [German version] [1] S. I King of the regnum Bosporanum from 433/2 to 389/8 BC. Son of Spartocus I. S.' co-regent may have been (until 393/2) his brother Seleucus [1]. S. directed his attention at the Asiatic coast of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus [2]). He restored the Sindian King Hecataeus following a revolt, and allied with him through a dynastic marriage. S.'s divorced wife then sent the King of the Ixomates against him (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,55). S. died during the siege of Theodosia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Da…

Erasinides

(160 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐρασινίδης; Erasinídēs). Athenian strategos. In 409 BC he petitioned that Thrasybulus of Calydon be honoured with a golden wreath for the killing of the oligarch Phrynichus (IG I3 102). Elected strategos in the spring of 407, in 406 E. was encircled with Conon at Mytilene, but was able to fight his way through by ship to Athens (Xen. Hell. 1,6,16-22). E. commanded a squadron at the sea-battle at the Arginusae, and subsequently urged a rapid attack on the Spartan fleet lying off Mytilene (Xen. Hell. 1,6,29-38;…

Meletus

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος; Mélētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, c. 415 B.C. Athenian. In the year 415 BC he was denounced for having participated in the profanation of the mysteries and the mutilation of the Herms ( Herms, mutilation of the). He fled from Attica and was condemned to death in absentia (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Possibly the same as M., the great-grandson of the Alcmaeonid Megacles [4] (IG II2 1579,19). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9825 Traill, PAA 639290. [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Andocides, 400 B.C. Athenian; along with Socrates and others he was ordere…

Tamias

(870 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμίας/ tamías, pl. ταμίαι/ tamíai). Administrator of temple coffers or state coffers. In Athens the tamiai of Athena (ταμίαι. τῆς θεοῦ, tamíai tȇs theoû) held the most important treasury office. The ten tamiai were appointed by lot from the property class of the pentakosiomédimnoi , one from each phylḗ . At the beginning of their year of office, in the presence of the council ( boulḗ ) the tamiai were handed the gold-ivory image of Athena, the bronze statues of Nike, covered in silver and gold leaves, the votive offerings and the balance of cash …

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Phleius. All records of him originate with Heraclides Ponticus (fr. 87 Wehrli = Diog. Laert. 1,12; fr.88 = Cic. Tusc. 5,3f./8f.; Sosicrates fr.17 FHG 4,503 = Diog. Laert. 8,8). Pythagoras is said to have been the first to define himself with the word ‘philosopher’ during a conversation with the aristocratic ( princeps: ibid.) L., tyrant of Sicyon or Phleius (Diog. Laert.), on the way from Samos to Croton in 532 BC (Cic. …

Melon

(118 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μέλων; Mélōn). A Theban. Together with Pelopidas and other conspirators, he prepared from Athens for the overthrow of the oligarchy at Thebes in 379 BC. Having secretly returned, they killed the polémarchoi and Leontiades [2], one of the leading figures among the oligarchs (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9; Plut. Pelopidas 8-12; Plut. de genio Socratis 576a; 587d; 596d; 597a). They freed the political prisoners and proclaimed freedom, were honoured in the people's assembly and elected as boeotarchs (Plut.…

Aeneas

(1,657 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [3] Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Αἰνέας; Ainéas). From Stymphalus. Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Xen. Hell. 7,3,1). Whether identical to  Aeneas [2] Tacticus, cannot be clarified.  Thebae Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Whitehead, Aineias the Tactician, 1990, 10-13 A. Winterling, Polisbegriff und Stasistheorie des Aeneas Tacticus, in: Historia 40, 1991, 191-229, 201. [German version] [1] Myth Mythical figure from Trojan war (Αἰνείας, Αἰνέας [Aineías, Ainéas]; Latin Aeneas). Thraco-Illyrian name [17. 311 f.]. Hecke…

Phormio

(259 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Φορμίων; Phormíōn). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos (middle of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian stratēgós , commanded a fleet against Samos in 440/439 BC (Thuc. 1,117,2). Against the Ambraciotes, who were holding Argos in Amphilochia, he led 30 ships in support of the Amphilochi and the Acarnanes, who settled the city from that time on. The Athenians and the Acarnanes concluded a symmachy (Thuc. 2,68,7f.). In 432, with an Athenian army, P. beseiged Potidaea from the landside (Thuc. 1,6…

Loan

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient As a contractual service, in which the recipient of money or other negotiable items undertakes to return them and/or provide a service in recompence, lending is attested in Mesopotamia [4. 189-203] from the middle of the 3rd millennium BC [1. 141-145] into the Hellenistic period [2. 43-45; 3. 119]. As well as private individuals, (representatives of) institutions (temple, palace) are recorded as creditors. The loans involved comprised for the most part silver and ba…

Siteresion

(110 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (σιτηρέσιον/ sitērésion, 'maintenance money'). In Greece from the middle of the 5th cent. BC money was paid out for maintenance to citizens serving as equestrians, foot soldiers or oarsmen on warships. Hence the terms μισθός/ misthós, τροφή/ trophḗ, σῖτος/ sîtos and siteresion were used synonymously in the 5th century BC. From the 4th cent. BC onwards a clearer distinction was made between soldiers' pay and contributions for maintenance (=

Pasion

(382 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων/ Pasíōn). [German version] [1] Greek mercenary commander (late 5th cent. BC) P. of Megara led a mercenary unit to Cyrus [3] in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,2,3), but later, in Myriandrus and under unexplained circumstances, he broke away from the army of Cyrus, together with the mercenary leader Xenias  (ibid. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Freedman from Athens, 4th cent. BC The example of P. provides a good insight in the business of an Athenian trapezítēs . Originally, P. was the slave of Antisthenes and Archestratus; after his …

Lamachus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμαχος; Lámachos). Athenian, carried out a successful expedition in c. 436/5 BC against the tyrant of Sinope (Plut. Pericles 20,1). As stratēgós in 424, L. lost ten warships in a storm off Heraclea (Thuc. 4,75,1f.; Diod. Sic. 12,72,4). In early 421, L. was one of the Athenian emissaries who swore to uphold the Peace of Nicias [1] and the Athenian-Spartan symmachía (Thuc. 5,19,2; 24,1). In 416/5, Alcibiades [3], Nicias and L. were elected stratēgoí autokrátores (‘authorized military leaders’) of the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. 6,8,2; And. 1,11; Lys. 13,…

Hieronymus

(2,779 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Et al.
(Ἱερώνυμος; Hierṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander of the Persian fleet 395 BC, politician Athenian, one of  Conon's representatives in his command over the Persian fleet in 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4), campaigned for more expansive politics in Athens (Aristoph. Eccl. 201; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 73). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 533930. [German version] [2] Statesman in Megalopolis around 350 BC Oecist from Mainalus in Arcadia at the founding of Megalopolis ( Megale Polis) in 370 BC (Paus. 8,27,2), was one of the leading s…

Mnasilochus

(62 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνασίλοχος; Mnasílochos). Athenian, in 411 BC árchōn during the oligarchic regime of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). After two months in office dismissed by the 5000 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 33,1; IG I3 373,2). Probably identical with the Mnesilochus mentioned by Xenophon (Hell. 2,3,2), one of the 30 tyrants of 404/3. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 10324  Traill, PAA 656955. …

Leotrophides

(57 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λεωτροφίδης; Leōtrophídēs). Athenian stratēgós, who together with Timarchus defeated the Megarans at Mount Cerata on the Attic-Megaran border in 409 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,65,1f.); probably identical with the chorēgós L. mocked for his leanness in Aristophanes (Av. 1406), Theopomp. Com. fr. 25 and Hermippus fr. 36 PCG. Traill, PAA 607065. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Agoratus

(121 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀγόρατος; Agóratos). Metic in Piraeus, son of the slave Eumares. In 409 BC, A. was honoured because of his participation in the murder of the oligarch  Phrynichus (GHI2 85; IG I3 102). In 404, he denounced before the council the opponents of the peace treaty with Sparta negotiated by  Theramenes. They were sentenced and executed for treason. Later A. received citizenship. After 400 he was brought before the court by means of   apagoge by a relative of one of the denounced individuals. Lysias wrote his thirteenth speech for the plaintiff. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Pentekoste

(333 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (πεντηκοστή/ pentēkostḗ, the 'fiftieth') was a duty at the rate of two per cent. There is evidence of pentekostaí in many Greek cities, such as Athens, Epidaurus, Troezen, Cyparissia, Ceos, Delos, Cimolos (SEG 44,710 Z.31), Erythrae, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, in the Hermias region and in the cities of Upper Egypt, as an import and export duty raised ad valorem on all goods. Before ships were loaded or unloaded goods had to be declared to the πεντηκοστολόγοι ( pentēkostológoi). In Athens the tax on foreign trade amounted to one per cent until the Peloponnesia…

Diotimus

(622 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Διότιμος; Diótimos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Corcyra 433/2 BC Athenian, son of Strombichides, from Euonymon (his family is known into the 3rd cent.). Strategos in Corcyra in 433/32 BC (Thuc. 1,45,2; IG I3 364,9); 439-32 nauarchos at Neapolis (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 98); he may have led a legation to Susa (Str. 1,3,1). Perhaps identical with D. in Ath. 10,436e. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Fraser/Matthews (1) Davies, 4386. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos c. 390 BC Athenian strategos. Commander of the Athenian mercenary force near Corinth in 390/…

Theogenes

(485 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θεογένης/ Theogénēs). [German version] [1] Athlete from Thasos, 5th cent. BC Famous fighter from the island of Thasos, Olympic champion in 480 BC (against Euthymus of Locri [1. nos. 191; 214; 222]) in fist-fighting [1. no. 201] and in 476 BC in pankration [1. no. 215]. This constellation of victories was first documented for T. on an inscription in Delphi [2. no. 37] dating from the 2nd cent. BC, which a

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker (

Chabrias

(366 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χαβρίας; Chabrías). Important Athenian general and mercenary leader. Taking part in  Thrasybulus' campaigns in Thrace during the Corinthian War, at the beginning of 389 BC he succeeded  Iphicrates as general in the Peloponnese. In 388 he set off for Cyprus with Athenian forces to support King Evagoras against Persia. On the way there, victory against the Spartans on Aegina (Xen. Hell. 5,1,10-13). When the King's Peace (386) made it impossible for him to remain in Cyprus, C. entere…

Peloponnesian War

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A. Definition The term PW is primarily used to describe the military confrontation between Athens and its allies on the one hand (Delian League) and Sparta and its confederates on the other (Peloponnesian League) between 431 and 404 BC. The term PW ( Peloponnēsiakòs pólemos) occurs first in Diodorus Siculus [18] (12,37,2; 13,107,5 etc.); it was already familiar to Cicero (Cic. Rep. 3,44: magnum illud Peloponnesiacum bellum), but probably dates back to Ephorus or a Hellenistic chronicler [3. 60 n. 65; 5. 294f.]. Thucydides speaks of the 'War of t…

Apotimema

(178 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποτίμημα; apotímēma). In cases of wardship the archont transferred the orphan's wealth after an evaluation to the guardian or tenant, who provided a collateral-like surety, the apotimema, for it. The procedure secured the ward's direct access to the mortgaged items at a later time and by granting the apotimema permitted the guardian or tenant to free himself from further demands by the ward. Likewise, the husband provided an apotimema for the dowry received in endowments, so that he was freed from the obligation of reversal in case of a marriage…

Phratria

(502 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(φρατρία/ phratría, 'brotherhood'). [German version] A. Origin and definition In older research the Greek phratries were thought to be associations of kin dating from the migration period (Doric migration Colonisation II). According to more recent research they supposedly derive from neighbourly organizations, which first took on increasing significance in the Archaic period (after the 8th cent. BC). Yet the fact that the term phrátēr already no longer means 'natural brother' in the epics of the 8th cent. BC suggests that phratries as fictional associatio…
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