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Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Zonaras

(424 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Ioannes (Ἰωάννης ὁ Ζωναρᾶς; Iōánnēs ho Zōnarâs). Byzantine historian and ecclesiastical jurist, head of the chancellery (Protasekretis) and high judge ( droungários tēs bíglēs) under the emperor Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118). After Alexius' death Z. became a monk, he died after 1159 (?). One of Z.' main works is his chronicle (Ἐπιτομὴ ἱστοριῶν/ Epitomḕ historiôn), the division of which into 18 bks. is not due to the author. It extends from the creation of the world until the year 1118. Its sources are largely known. For Graeco-Roman…

Literature

(23,376 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Literary communication is communication by means of texts - stabilized, coherent and substantial statements. These may be written or eventually put down in writing, but they may also remain oral ( Literacy). Since for earlier societies as a rule only written texts can be studied, the term ‘literature’ focusses on such sedimented media of literary communication. Nevertheless, particularly for ancient societies the mainly oral character of literary communication must be emp…

Nubia

(1,560 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] A. Name A country on the middle reaches of the Nile; more precisely, the area today settled by a Nubian-speaking population: Lower Nubia from the 1st to the 2nd Nile cataract (Aswān to Wadi Halfa, Republic of Egypt) and Upper Nubia from the 2nd to the 4th cataract (Wadi Halfa to Meroe, northern Sudan). In a culturally and historically understood sense, Nubia also includes the land as far as the 6th cataract and around Khartoum (central Sudan). Besides the general term t-stj for the country, recorded from the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3000 BC), the Egyptian la…

Selymbria

(218 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Xenophon | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Σηλυμβρία/ Sēlymbría). City in Thrace on the Sea of Marmara, 60 km to the west of Byzantium/Constantinople, modern Silivri. The original Thracian settlement, whose name can be interpreted as 'city of Selys', was colonised by Greeks from Megara [2] even before Byzantium, i.e. c. 700-660 BC. S. was conquered by the Persians after the Ionian Revolt in 493 BC, was later a member of the Delian L…

Michael

(1,757 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
(Μιχαήλ/ Michaḗl; Mîkāēl). [German version] [1] Archangel Archangel, [1] One of the most prominent angels (cf. the description archistratēgós, ‘supreme commander’ of the heavenly host, Joseph of Aseneth 14,8, cf. Slavonic Hen 22,5; 33,10), one of the seven (Ethiopic Hen 20,5) or four (Ethiopic Hen 9,1; 10,11) archangels (cf. [1]). The name means ‘who is like God’ or ‘who is victorious like God’. M., who was first mentioned in the ‘Book of Watchers (Ethiopic Hen 1-36, end of the 4th/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC)…

Nonnosus

(148 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Author of a lost Greek report on the travels of a legation to the ruler of Kinda in central Arabia and then to Ethiopia and southern Arabia in the year AD 530/1, the existence of which is known only from the  ‘Library of Photius (cod. 3). Similar journeys had been undertaken by 502 by N.'s grandfather Euphrasius, and several in 524 and later by his father Abram. According to Photius, the report emphasised the courage of N. in hazardous situations and contained information on the r…

Sclavinia

(283 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (Σκλαβηνία/ Sklabēnía, Latin Sclavinia). A term, common since the 6th cent. AD in Greek and Latin, derived from the demonym Σκλαβηνοί/ Sklabēnoí or Sclavi (Slavs) and used to describe communities formed of Slav tribes inside and outside formerly Roman territories in the Balkan peninsula, Carinthia, Pannonia and Transsylvania. They were for the most part organised in warlike tribal associations without fixed territorial borders and also included members of non-Slavonic peoples; some were autonomous, othe…

Thessalonica

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Θεσσαλονίκη/ Thessaloníkē). [German version] [1] City in Thessalia This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Latin Thessalonica, -nice; today also T.) Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] I. Location, Classical Period City on the Thermaic Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) with a favourable natural harbour and best connections with the hin…

Cassia

(219 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] C. Mother of Avidius Cassius Wife of Avidius Heliodorus, mother of Avidius Cassius [1. 217]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Marciana Wife of senator Wife of a senator, relative of Cassius Apronianus (I. Eph. 3, 710B; Raepsaet-Charlier no. 197). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Paterna Wife of Iulius [II 18] Asper Wife of Iulius Asper, cos. II AD 212 (PIR2 C 529). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Syme, SHA-Coll., 1987. [German version] [4] C. Byzantine poet and abbess, died c. AD 800/805 (also Cassiane and Eicasia). Byzantine poet a…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Georgius

(817 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Laodicea Bishop of  Laodicea (died c. AD 360). The Alexandrine presbyter G., dismissed by his local bishop Alexander in c. 320 because of his radical  Arianism, became bishop of Syrian Laodicea c. 330 following his stay in Antioch. In persistent animosity to  Athanasius, he and Basilius of Ancyra gathered the Trinitarian Church Party of the Homoeousians (slogan: ‘The father resembles the son in essence’ ὅμοιος κατ' οὐσίαν) in 358/9. Also, he played a role in drafting the 4th Sirman Creed (22 May 359)…

Moschopoulos, Manuel

(160 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Byzantine philologist, lived c. AD 1265-1316, a pupil of Maximus Planudes. He was the author of the Erōtḗmata grammatiká (Ἐρωτήματα γραμματικά), a Greek grammar in the form of a dialogue, which was still respected by the early Humanists, and scholia on numerous ancient texts, including the first two books of the Iliad, Hesiod's Érga kai hēmérai, Pindar's ‘Olympian Odes, on the Byzantine Triad of Euripides ( Hekábē, Oréstēs, Phoiníssai) and of Sophocles ( Aías, Ēléktra, Oidípous Týrannos), also on works by Aristophanes [3], by Theocritus, the Batrachomyomachía , etc.…

Patrocinium

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
I. Political [German version] A. Definition In Late Antiquity, the term patrocinium referred to relationships of protection and dependence, especially in rural areas, in which the coloni or small farmers placed themselves under the protection of powerful office holders or the owners of large private landholdings. The patrocinium was primarily directed against the imperial administration, particularly against the tax collectors; the rural population sought to escape the obligation of paying taxes through the patrocinium. In modern scholarship, the patrocinium is frequently…

Theophanes

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Θεοφάνης/ Theophánēs). [German version] [1] T. of Mytilene Close confidant and historiographer of Pompey (Pompeius [I 3]). As a recently-discovered inscription [1. 377-383] shows, T., the son of Hieroitas, was already active as prytanis at Mytilene (FGrH 188 T 1) before making the acquaintance of Pompey, whom he accompanied on the campaign against Mithridates [6] in 67 BC (T 2). He received Roman citizenship from Pompey in 62 BC (cf. Cic. Arch. 24 = T 3a) at an army gathering, and he therefore appears in IG XII 2, 150 as Cn. Po…

Syrian dynasty

(796 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Dynasty (AD 717 to 802) during the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium), traditionally referred to as the 'Isaurian dynasty' (Isaurian emperors). The name is derived from the origin of its founder, Leo [6] III, who was from Germanicaea (modern-day Maraş) in northern Syria. The term 'Isaurian dynasty' goes back to the Chronicle of Theophanes (391,6 de Boor), according to which the emperor Leo III came from Isauria; its use was encouraged in polemics by later Byzantine historians opposing the iconoclastic religious policy of the SD. Durin…

Kaminiates, Iohannes

(128 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Author of an account of the conquest of Thessalonica by the Arabs in AD 904. Allegedly, K. was a cleric and an eyewitness of the events. The narrative of the conquest is preceded by a description of the city. The authenticity has been questioned in recent times; in reality, a text originating shortly after 904 was probably revised and enriched with contemporary details under the influence of the conquest of Thessalonica by the Ottomans in 1430. Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography G. Böhlig (ed.), Ioannes Caminiates, De expugnatione Thessalonicae, 1973 Id., Die Einn…

Sergius

(1,659 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family. The tribus Sergia was named after it. The family is attested to have attained consulship in the 5th cent. BC (S. [I 5]) but did not achieve lasting importance in the historical period. The attempt of its best-known member, L.S. Catilina, to attain the consulship once more failed with the Catilinarian Conspiracy. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., M. The brother of L.S. Catilina (?) According to Plutarch (Sulla 32,3; Cicero 10,3), the brother of L.S. Catilina, killed by him in 81 and posthumously put on the proscriptions…

Natural sciences

(43,372 words)

Author(s): Lammel, Hans-Uwe | Krafft, Fritz (Marburg/Lahn) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Landfester, Katharina | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Et al.
Lammel, Hans-Uwe I. The Concept of Nature (physis/natura) (CT) [German version] A. Antiquity (CT) By assuming the early Greek definition of essential being as 'being-that-has-become' [41; 19; 33; 55; 52], Aristotle had given precise expression to Greek physis, which he conceived of as the becoming and essence of all existing matter that contains the origin of its motion within itself (Metaph. Δ 4). In addition to the material substrate, from which becoming was perceived as proceeding, the notions of shape and form ( morphḗ and eídos) appeared as the goal ( télos) of natural becoming,…

Military lands

(225 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Inheritable lands owned by Byzantine soldiers, intended to enable them to defray their cost of living and maintain their accoutrements and a horse during times of peace. The institution of ML probably goes back to the 7th cent. AD, when the Byzantine state, as a result of economic necessity resulting from the wars against the Arabs, was forced to remunerate soldiers by land grants instead of cash [3. 619-621]. The term ML (στρατιωτικὰ κτήματα/ stratiōtikà ktḗmata) first appears in the 10th century in a novella of Constantine [9] VII (944-959), through wh…
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