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Thermaios Kolpos

(118 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Θερμαῖος κόλπος/ Thermaîos kólpos). Bay, still named after the city of Therme, between Thessaly (Thessalians) and Chalcidice, significant for connecting the Macedonian interior with the Aegean Sea (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 146; Hdt. 7,121-123; 8,127; IG I2 302,68; Mela 2,2,35; and Plin. HN 4,36 and 4,72: Thermaicus and Thermaeus sinus respectively). Scyl. 66 and Mela loc.cit. locate the bay at the mouth of the Peneius. The inner corner of the bay, which curves to the northeast, was a favourite geographical point of orientation used to …

Thera

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Külzer
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Θήρα/ Thḗra). [German version] I. Geography An island (73 km2) of the southern Cyclades with a city of the same name (Str. 10,5,1; Paus. 3,1,8), formerly Santorini (from Italian Santa Irene), now Thira, together with the smaller islands Therasia and Aspronisi a group of islands that most likely formed around 1628 BC (dendro-dating) in the wake of a powerful volcanic eruption; Palaia Kaim…

Patmos

(312 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Πάτμος/ Pátmos). With an area of 34 km2, P. is the smallest and northernmost island of the Sporades (today's Dodecanes), being of volcanic origin, to the southwest of the island of Samos. Outer perimeter: irregular, approximately semicircular, open to the east (remains of a crater rim), maximum length of 12 km, width of 300-5000 m, highest elevation is Prophetis Elias in the SE (269 m); the island consists of four main parts with each being connected by a low isthmus, the widest of whi…

Phylakopi

(175 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology (Φυλακοπή/ Phylakopḗ, modern place name). Site of prehistorical settlement on the steep eastern coast of the island of Melos, one of the most important bronze age towns of the Aegean, significant for its obsidian trade. Three phases of settlement have been determined: phase 1 (24th-21st cent. BC), an extensive settlement, barely urban, probably destroyed by earthquakes; phase 2 (2000-1600 BC), fortified, to some ext…

Therasia

(112 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Θηρασία; Thērasía). Island (9 km2, up to 295 m elevation;  Str. 1,3,16; 10,5,1; Plin.  HN 2,202; 4,70; Ptol. 3,15,28;  Just. Epit. 30,4,1; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.) in the group around Thera; with the main island to the east and Aspronisi it is part of the original volcano. In the south of T. a prehistoric settlement, buried by the volcanic eruption, was found showing a close relationship (comparable layout, pottery, artefacts) to Acrotiri on Thera. In the historical period settled by Do…

Tamynae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τάμυναι/ Támynai, also Ταμῦναι/ Tamŷnai). Township in the territory of Eretria [1] (Str. 10,1,10) about 14 km to the north of Porthmus [2] at modern Avlonari, settled from the Early Helladic until the Roman Imperial period (remains of the city wall and a 4th cent. BC Doric temple). The assumption that the Persians landed at T. in 490 BC (textual conjecture on Hdt. 6,101) is untenable. Inscriptions of the 3rd cent. BC record T. as a demos of Eretria (cf. IG XII 9, 191). In the conflicts between Athens and Philippus [4] II over influence on Euboea [1], Ph…

Pordoselene

(162 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Πορδοσελήνη/ Pordoselḗnē). City on the island of the same name (Skyl. 97) in the Hecatonnesi or near them (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Σελήνης πόλις; Str. 13,2,5), in the late and post-Hellenistic Period Poroselene (Ποροσελήνη, Paus. 3,25,7; Ptol. 5,2,5; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.), today probably Alibey or Alibey Adası  ( c. 14 km2), off the coast of Asia Minor near Ayvalık, now joined to the mainland by a causeway. P. was settled by Aeolians. In 425/4 and 421/0 the city is entered in lists of tribute quotas as a member of the Delian League …

Schoenus

(232 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Σχοινοῦς/ Schoinoûs, literally '(bul)rushes'). [German version] [1] River in Boeotia River in the area of Thebes in Boeotia (Σχοινεύς/ Schoineús in Steph. Byz. s. v. Σχοινοῦς/ Schoinoûs; Stat. Theb. 7,268; Nonnus, Dion. 13,63; Nic. Ther. 889) which flowed through the region or town of Schoenus (about 9 km from Thebae; modern Muriki) (Str. 9,2,22 or Hom. Il. 2,497) and into Trephia Limne (modern Lake Paralimni). According to  Steph. Byz. loc.cit., S. was derived from one of the sons of the Theban hero Athamas. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 229-232. [German version] […

Oros

(95 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὄρος). Highest point on the island of Aegina (532 m), modern-day Hagios Elias; cone of volcanic origin on the southern part of the island. Fortified settlement at the summit dating from the Mycenaean period, since the Geometric period a cultic site dedicated to Zeus Hellanios, including an altar and a shrine that continued to be enlarged well into the Hellenistic era: on the north slope a terrace with building remains and inscriptions. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography G. Welter, Aigina, 1938, 26f., 91f., 102  J. Schmidt, s.v. O., RE 18, 1175-77  Philippson/Kirst…

Styra

(174 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League | Aegean Koine (Στύρα/ Stýra). Port in the southwest of Euboea [1], 4 km to the west of modern S. facing the island of Aegilia, probably founded by Dryopes (Hom. Il. 2,539; Hdt. 8,46; Paus. 4,34,11). S. capitulated to the Persians in 490 BC, fought at Salamis [1] on the Greek side in 480 BC (Hdt. 8,1; 8,46; 9,28; Paus. 5,23,2) and was a member of the Delian League (cf. ATL 1, 414 f.). Partially destroyed by Athens in the Lam…

Scyros

(208 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σκῦρος; Skŷros). Infertile island (limestone, slate, the Breccia marble popular in the Roman Imperial period) with many bays, to the east of Euboea [1] (202 km2; Str. 2,5,21; 9,5,16; Ptol. 3,13,47; Plin. HN 4,69; 72), rising in the south to 792 m, surrounded by several islets. The island was settled from the Mesolithic onwards (e.g. finds on Achilli Bay), in the Neolithic it was a staging post for trade in obsidian from Melos to the northern Aegaean (Aigaion Pelagos). The ancient polis of S., on the sit…

Seriphos

(224 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σέριφος/ Sériphos). Island of the western Cyclades (11 km in diameter, 75 km2 in area, with Mount Turlos at 486 m elevation; marble, granite, gneiss) with numerous bays and three islets (modern Bous, Piperi and Seriphopoulo). S. had been settled by the 3rd millennium BC (early Cycladic idols) and the Iones took possession of it in the historical period (Hdt. 8,48). S. resisted Persian demands for tribute and in 480 BC took part on the Greek side in the battle of Salamis [1] (Hdt. 8,46; 48;…

Orobiae

(77 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὀρόβιαι/ Oróbiai). Coastal town north-west of Euboea, in antiquity always dependent on Histiaea, modern Rovies. Oracular centre of Apollo Selinountios. In 426 BC severely devastated by a violent earthquake and tsunami (Thuc. 3,89,2; Str. 9,2,13; 10,1,3; IG XII 9, 1186, 2; 1189,27 and 37). Natural catastrophes Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography F. Geyer, Topographie und Geschichte der Insel Euboia, 1903, 95f.  J. Schmidt, s.v. O., RE 18, 1133f.  E. Freund, s.v. O., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 496.

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Sicinos

(211 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σίκινος; Síkinos). Island in the southern Cyclades (39 km2;  Scyl. 48;  Str. 10,5,1; Ptol. 3,15,31), rising to 552 m  (Agios Mamas), rich in marble and slate; no natural safe harbours, today also named Síkinos. Its poetic epithet Oinóē 'wine-bearing' (Apoll. Rhod. 1,620; Plin. HN 4,69; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.) indicates viticulture. Already inhabited in the 3rd mill. BC (Early Cycladic ceramics), in the historical period it was settled by Ionians. In the 5th cent. BC S. probably capitulated to the Persians (Hdt. 8,46)…

Salamis

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Σαλαμίς/ Salamís). [German version] [1] Largest island in the Saronic Gulf This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture Largest island (93 km2) in the Saronic Gulf (Saronikos Kolpos), with a deeply punctuated coastline, 0.5 km from the coast of Attica at the nearest point; three main mountainous massifs with hilly valleys between them; the highest elevations (366 m) are on the central massif (modern Mavrovouni). The island was original…

Rheneia

(330 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ῥήνεια/ Rhḗneia, Ῥήναια/ Rhḗnaia, Ῥήνη/ Rhḗnē; Latin Rhene, Plin. HN 4,67). An island of the Cyclades, consisting of two parts linked by a narrow isthmus (16 km2 in all, highest point 150 m). At its narrowest point R., present-day Megali Dilos, is 600 m from the neighbouring island of Delos to the east. The ancient polis of R. with its small territory lay on the west coast of the northern area. In 543 BC, Peisistratus [4] had graves transferred from Delos to R., inasfar as they were in sight of the temple of Apollo (Hdt. 1,64; Thuc. …

Samothrace

(1,617 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Σαμοθράκη; Samothrákē). [German version] I. Geography and history Island (178 km2, with Mount Phengari, 1161 m) in the northern Aegean Sea, 30 km out from the Tracian coast, rich in water, with a narrow and flat beach and lacking in natural harbours. There are isolated traces of Neolithic settlements (near Karyotai and Mikro Vuni), in the Bronze Age it was occupied by Thracians. In c. 700 BC, S. was settled by Greek colonists, probably by Aeolis [1] of Lesbos, who fou…

Oenussae

(160 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰνοῦσσαι/ Oinoûssai). [German version] [1] Group of three islands on the southwest tip of the Messenic peninsula off the coast of Methone [1] Group of three islands on the southwest tip of the Messenic peninsula off the coast of Methone [1]: present-day Sapientza, Schiza and Hagia Mariani. The first two have been inhabited since the Hellenistic period. Traces of a Roman settlement were found in Sapientza. References: Paus. 4,34,12; Plin. HN. 4,55; Mela 2,110. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography E. Kirsten, F. Bölte, s.v. O., RE 17, 2281f. [German version] [2] Gro…

Thasos

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Θάσος/ Thásos). [German version] I. Geography Island in the northern Aegean (Aegean Sea); 398 km2, up to 1203 m high, 10 km south-south-west of the mouth of the Nestus [1], separated from the Macedonian mainland by a c. 7 km wide strait, with no particularly deeply carved bays; predominantly marble with deposits of gneiss and mica schist, occasional granite (north-east, south-west); lush vegetation (includin…
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