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Lasion

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λασιών; Lasiṓn). City at the edge of the Pholoe tableland in the Elian mountainous country, in the upper valley of the Ladon [3], remains near modern Kumani. L. was disputed between Elis and Arcadia. Evidence: Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; 4,2,16; 7,4,12f.; Diod. Sic. 14,17,8; 15,77,1-4; Str. 8,3,5; 7,5. Inscription: SEG 11, 1172f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 1989.

Nitiobroges

(229 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tribe in south-western Gaul on the middle Garumna (Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 46,5; Str. 4,2,2; Ptol. 2,7,14: Νιτιόβριγες/ Nitióbriges; Tab. Peut. 2,4f.; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 2,11,1: Nisiobroges) where they settled during the 4th cent. BC. Their neighbours to the north were the Bituriges Vivisci and the Cadurci, to the east were the Cadurci and Ruteni, to the south the Volcae Tectosages and the Ausci (to the river Tarnis, CIL XIII p. 117; Plin. HN 4,109) and to the west there were the Vasates. The capital of the N. was Aginnum (modern Agen). Originally amici populi Romani (‘friends…

Ratomagus

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce Capital of the Veliocasses, present-day Rouen, linked by the Sequana (Seine) and Autura (Eure) to the Liger (Loire) and inner Gaul (Gallia/Gaul), an important harbour for exports to Britannia in the 2nd cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 15,11,12; It. Ant. 382,3; 384,1; Ptol. 2,8,8: Ῥατόμαγος; Tab. Peut. 2,2 f.; CIL XIII 3475: Ratumagus vicus; Notitia Galliarum 2,2: civitas Rotomagensium; Not. Dign. Occ. 37,10; 37,21: Rotomagus). Originally, the Veliocasses fell within the area of Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2…

Corone

(262 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κορώνη; Korone). City on the west coast of the Messenian Gulf, modern Petalidi, c. 30 km south west of Kalamata, at the foot of Mount Mathia (modern Lykodimo) with numerous ancient remains, including parts of the city wall. After Messenia had been freed from Spartan rule by the Boeotians under Epaminondas, a new Boeotian city was allegedly founded (it is impossible to decide conclusively whether there was an older C. [1]); after 184 BC member of the …

Pharae

(247 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] City in southern Messenia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Φαραί/ Pharaí, Φηραί/ Phēraí). City in southern Messenia (Str. 8,4,4f.; 5,8; 7,5; Paus. 4,30,2-31,1; Ptol. 3,16,8 (Φεραί/ Pheraí); Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; [1. 181]), modern Kalamata. In Homer (Hom. Il. 5,543; 9,151; 293) one of the seven cities Agamemnon promised Achilles [2], Spartan perioikoi city. In 394 BC its territory was devastated by Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,7; Nep. Conon 1), made a part of the territory of Messana [2] by Philip [4] II at …

Inachus

(283 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἴναχος; Ínachos; etymology unresolved). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Argive royal house Son of  Oceanus and of  Tethys, who gave the main river of  Argus [II] and of  Argolis their names (schol. Eur. Or. 932). First king of Argus (Acusilaus, FGrH 2 F 23c) and progenitor of the Argive kings and heroes (‘Inachids’: Eur. IA 1088). In the argument between Poseidon and Hera about Argus, I. decides in favour of the goddess and introduces her cult, which causes Poseidon to dry up his river (Paus. 2,15,4-…

Croceae

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Marble (Κροκέαι). Place in South Laconia (modern Κροκεές, Krokeés), famous because of the green porphyry ( lapis Lacedaemonius) quarried about 3 km to the south-east and highly prized in the Roman Imperial period. Attestation: Paus. 3,21,4; Str. 8,5,7; Plin. HN. 36,55; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κrokea. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 203-207 M. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 54f. C. Le Roy, Lakonika, in: BCH 85, 1961, 206-215 G. A. Pik…

Glanum

(333 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul Town in Gallia Narbonensis (modern Saint-Rémy-de-Provence) in the region of the  Salluvii. Located on the great trade route running east-west that connected Italy with Spain (later the via Domitia), G.'s importance was also due to its location at the end of the north-south road which provided G. control over the direct access to the Crau plain. A Celtic-Ligurian sanctuary that was dedicated to the god Glan and the   Matres [1] was located in the vicinity of a mineral spring. The res…

Peloponnesus

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(ἡ Πελοπόννησος/ hē Pelopónnēsos, Doric Πελοπόννασος/ Pelopónnasos). [German version] I. Geography Peninsula in southern Greece (21,439 km²), connected to the mainland (Attica, Boeotia) by the Isthmus of Corinth. It is predominantly mountainous (cf. Cyllene [1], Erymanthus [1], Lycaeum, western Messenian massif with Ithome [1], Taygetus, Parnon) and highly fragmented (cf. the numerous small rivers, particularly in Achaea, e.g. Alpheus [1], Pamisus, Eurotas, Inachus [2]; also the many small coastal plains a…

Coccygium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοκκύγιον ὄρος; Kokkýgion ŕos). ‘Cuckoo mountain’, another name for the mountain Thornax, west of  Hermion(e) on the Argolid headland, with sanctuaries of Zeus and Apollo; today's Hagios Elias. References: Paus. 2,36,1f.; schol. Theoc. 15,64. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Foley, The Argolid 800-600 B.C., 1988, 184.

Divio

(84 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Dibio). An important centre where trade routes crossed at the confluence of the Saône and the Ouche, on the boundary between the civitates of the Lingones and the Aedui, now Dijon. The castrum Divionense described by Gregory of Tours in his History of the Franks 3,19 was built in the 3rd cent. near the road from Lyons to the Rhine frontier. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Frézouls, Les villes antiques de la France II, 1, 1988, 179-274 C. Rolley, s.v. D., PE, 278.

Amyclae

(415 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Ἀμύκλαι; Amýklai). [German version] [1] Pre-Greek settlement This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Dark Ages | Aegean Koine Pre-Greek settlement on and at the foot of the hills bearing the chapel of Agia Kyriaki, inhabited from the early Helladic to the imperial Roman period (Paus. 3,18,6-19,6; IG V 1, 515), c. 5 km south of  Sparta near the modern Tsausi. In historical times, it was a ὠβή ( ōbḗ) of Sparta with its own ephors and other officials (cf. Syll.3 932). The region seems to have reached its peak in the 7th/6th cent. BC. From the late Mycenaean period, it housed a sa…

Phaesana

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαισάνα; Phaisána). Town on the river Alpheus (Pind. Ol. 6,34f.) in the district of Pisatis (Istrus FGrH 334 F 41; Didymus, schol. Pind. Ol. 6, 55a); Phaesana is possibly identifiable as Phrixa. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide, EAA 2. Suppl. 2, 1994, 450.

Pitana

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Πιτάνα/ Pitána, Πιτάνη/ Pitánē). District of Sparta (Pind. Ol. 6,28; Hdt. 3,55; Paus. 3,16,9; Plut. Mor. 601b) west and southwest of the acropolis, preferred as a residential area: even Menelaus [1] is supposed to have lived there (Eur. Tro. 112ff.; Paus. 3,14,6). The grave monument of the royal family of the Agiads (Paus. 3,14,2ff.) also lay there. With Mesoa, Cynosura, Limnae and Amyclae, P. was one of the five villages to form the foundling polis Sparta. P. formed one of the divisions (ὠβά/ ōbá) of the Spartan cit…

Antipolis

(112 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Batavian Revolt (Ἀντίπολις; Antípolis). Harbour town in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Antibes, inhabited from the 10th cent. BC, a colony of  Massalia in the territory of the Deciates, opposite of Nicaea (thus its name: Str. 4,1,5; 9. Plin. HN 3,5,34). In 154 BC, A. was harried by the  Ligures, and called for Rome to help: Pol. 33,7,2. Greek and Latin inscriptions: IG XIV, 2424-30; CIL XII 165-246 [1]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Chastagnol, Inscr. lat. de Narbonnaise 2, 1992. J. Clergues, A…

Gates

(22 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People in Aquitaine between the Elusates and the Ausci (only in Caes. B Gall. 3,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Parthenium

(65 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Παρθένιον/ Parthénion). The lowest part of the Argive-Arcadian border range (elevation up to 1215 m at Hagios Elias) with important roads connecting the Argolid and Arcadia (Arcadians), at elevations from 753 to 900 m, still called Partheni today. Sources: Hdt. 6,105,1ff. [1. 472f.]; Paus. 8,6,4; 54,6f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography 1 Jost. Pritchett 3, 1980, 81-95; 4, 1982, 80-87; 6, 1989, 107-111  Müller, 820.

Ensérune

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Fortified high-altitude settlement ( oppidum?) between Béziers and Narbonne on a hill c. 120 m high, well protected by steep slopes to the north and to the east; it ruled a plain surrounded by ponds and crossed by an important traffic route between the Iberian and Italian peoples. Three settlement phases are documented by ceramic finds (end of 6th cent. BC ─ end of 1st cent. AD). The second phase ( c. 425-220 BC) includes the building of a city wall (4th cent.), and of the necropolis with its numerous Celtic finds; there is evidence of trading relati…

Lusi

(304 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λουσοί/ Lousoí; ethnicon inscription Λουσιάτας/ Lousiátas; literary also Λουσιεύς, Λουσεύς probably after the Attic demoticon). Town in northern Arcadia between Cynaetha and Cleitor near modern Chamakou (at a height of about 1,000 m), sanctuary of Artemis Hemera, Hemerasia games. The sanctuary lies in the foothills of Chelmos southwest of modern Ano-L. and Kato-L. above a small plain in the south. Building remains only from the 4th-3rd cents. BC (propylaea, bouleuterion, Doric temple)…
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