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Kerbela

(194 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] (Arabic Karbalāʾ). Shiite pilgrimage centre in Iraq, situated c. 95 km south-west of Baghdad; until right through to the 20th cent. the final station of caravan routes from Iran and the starting-point for Persian Mecca pilgrims. The name K. describes the palm gardens that surround the funerary sanctuary and the town of Mašhad al-Ḥusain. A town Kerbelā is already mentioned in the OT (Dan 3:21), but Shiite lexicographers explain K. as a combination of Arabic karb (mourning) and balāʾ (disaster). K. became significant for the Shiite Islamic world through the m…

Bostra

(336 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Theatre | Christianity | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Legio | Limes Small town on the southern edge of the Syrian basalt desert (Ḥaurān). The modern name Buṣrā corresponds with the Nabataean and Palmyrenian version BṢR (‘fortress’). B. was a settlement from the early Bronze Age and, in the 2nd. millennium BC, had close relations with Egypt because of its role as a caravanserai and a staging-post on the road to northern Syria and to the Red Sea (…

Mariamme

(392 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] [1] Granddaughter of Aristobulus II. and Iohannes Hyrcanus II. (Hebrew Mirjam; the form Mariamne in Fr. Hebbel's drama is a corruption from later MSS). Granddaughter of Aristobulus [2] II. and Iohannes Hyrcanus [3] II. Born c. 53/52 BC, M. was a celebrated beauty. Married to Herod ( Herodes [1]) the Great, she became involved in the intrigues and conflicts between Hasmoneans and Herodeans. In 29 Herod had her executed on suspicion of unfaithfulness based on the calumnies of his sister Salome (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,218-236). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A…

Damascus

(1,153 words)

Author(s): Klengel, Horst (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Syria | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Mesopotamia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage [German version] A. Ancient Orient Oasis situated on the eastern edge of Antilebanon, watered by the undrained Barada, first mentioned in lists of Syrian towns of the pharaohs Thutmosis III and Amenophis III ( tmsq, Tamasqu) and then in the  Amarna letters ( Di/Dumašqu). In the 13th cent. BC too, D. was under Egyptian control. At the turn of the…

Baalbek

(276 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Coloniae | Asia Minor Town in the Biqa plain between Lebanon and Antilebanon, located at an elevation of 1150 m, 64 km north-east of Beirut. The town's name was changed to Heliopolis (Str. 753; Plin. HN 5,80), probably because the Ptolemies of Alexandria identified the god ‘Baal (Haddad) of Biqa’ with the Egyptian sun god Ra/Helios. After the temporary rulership of the Seleucids (2nd cent. BC), B. became the cult centre for the Itu…

Eduma

(45 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[English version] (Ἐδουμά, h. Dūmā). Nach dem Onomasticon des Eusebios (255,74) Ort der Landschaft Akrabattene im Westjordanland südöstl. von Neapolis (Nablūs). Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) Bibliography S. Herrmann, Die Operationen Pharao Schoschenks I. im östl. Ephraim, in: Zschr. des dt. Palästina-Vereins 80, 1964, 61, 67ff.

Epiphaneia

(441 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Köln) | Lehmann, Gunnar (Jerusalem) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Ἐπιφάνεια). [English version] [1] Stadt in Kilikia Pedias Stadt in Kilikia Pedias (Ptol. 5,8,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. E., 274 Meineke), zuvor Oiniandos (Plin. nat. 5,93), nach Antiochos [6] IV. Epiphanes in E. umbenannt. Straßenstation (Geogr. Rav. 2,16,93; [2. 766]). E. wurde 260 n.Chr. von Šapur I. erobert [1. 312f.]. Mit der Ordnung der Prov. von 408 wurde E. zu den Städten der Cilicia II gerechnet (Hierokles, 705,5). Die Ruinen (Theater und Aquädukt gut erh.) liegen ca. 8 km westl. von Erzin in Gözene/Gözcucler Harabeleri. Sayar, Mustafa H. (Köln) Bibliography 1 A. Maricq, Res Ge…

Kengavar

(90 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[English version] (arab. Kangāwar, Qaṣr al-Luṣūṣ, pers. Kinkiwar). Stadt auf dem westiran. Hochplateau zwischen Hamadān und Kermānšāh. An der Handelsstraße zwischen Mesopot. und Ostiran entstanden Vorgängersiedlungen seit dem 5. Jt.v.Chr. (Godīntappe, Seh Gāvī). Seit parth. Zeit. (2. Jh.v.Chr.) besaß K. (Konkobar bei Isidor von Charax) ein der Göttin Anāhita geweihtes Heiligtum. Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) Bibliography G. LeStrange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, 1889, 188f.  S. Kāmbakhsh Fard, Les fouilles de Kangavar, in: Bāstān-shenāsī va hunar-i Īrān…

Karthago

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Afrika | Afrika | Caesar | Christentum | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Handel | Kolonisation | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Phönizier, Punier | Pilgerschaft | Punische Kriege | Punische Kriege | Roma | Roma | Theater | Wein | Straßen (phoinik. Qrt-ḥdšt, “neue Stadt”; griech. Καρχηδών/ Karchēdṓn, lat. Carthago). I. Historischer Überblick [English version] A. Von der phönizischen Gründung bis zur römischen Kolonie Nach dem Bericht des Timaios (FGrH 566 F 60) wurde K. im J. 814/3 oder 813/2 v.Chr. - an der Stelle des h. Vor…

Kerbela

(161 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[English version] (arab. Karbalā). Schiitisches Pilgerzentrum im Irak, ca. 95 km sw von Baghdad gelegen; bis in das 20. Jh. Endstation von Karawanenrouten aus Iran und Ausgangspunkt für pers. Mekkapilger. Der Name K. bezeichnet die Palmgärten, die das Grabheiligtum und den Ort Mašhad al-Ḥusain umgeben. Eine Stadt Kerbelā ist bereits im AT genannt (Dan 3,21), schiitische Lexikographen erklären K. aber als eine Kombination von arab. karb (Trauer) mit balā (Unheil). Seine Bed. für die schiitisch-islam. Welt erlangte K. durch das Martyrium des Prophetenenkels Ḥu…

Ankyra

(406 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Byzantion, Byzanz | Handel | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Kleinasien | Limes | Pergamon | Pilgerschaft | Pompeius | Regnum Bosporanum | Roma | Roma | Sāsāniden | Theater | Zenobia | Straßen (Ἄνκυρα). Stadt und Festung in Galatia, h. Ankara. Ankerlegenden zur Namenserklärung (Paus. 1,4,5; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.; Anker als Stadtsymbol). Ursprünge in prähistor. /hethit. Zeit; phryg. Zentrum (8.- 6. Jh. v. Chr.; Gründungssage: Paus. 1,4,5). Etappe der persischen Kön…

Dekapolis

(370 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[English version] (ἡ Δεκάπολις). Bezeichnung für den Territorialbereich einer wechselnden Anzahl von Städten mit vorwiegend griech. Bevölkerung, die sich im nördl. Transjordanien, Südsyrien und Nordpalästina konzentrierten. Obgleich einige Orte der späteren D. schon in vorhell. Zeit bestanden hatten, beanspruchten die meisten, von Alexandros [4] d.Gr. gegr. worden zu sein. Arch. Unt. ergaben dagegen, daß die Entwicklung mancher Orte zu städtischen Zentren erst unter seleukidischer und ptolemäische…

Aphrodisias

(1,126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀφροδισίας; Aphrodisías). [German version] [1] City in  Caria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | Asia Minor | Marble | Rome | Education / Culture City in  Caria, 38 km south of the Maeander, in the left side valley of the Morsylos (present-day Dandalaz çayı); the modern Geyre. Traces of neolithic and early Bronze Age settlement on the acropolis; old name of Νινόη (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ninoe) preserved in the local cult ( Zeus Nineudios). A. was for a long time overshadowed by the neighbouring co…

Petra

(874 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Πέτρα/ Pétra, 'rock') [German version] [1] Capital of the Nabataean Empire This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Limes | Rome | Rome | Egypt Capital of the Nabataean kingdom (Nabataei) in Edom, about 80 km to the south of the Dead Sea in the Wādı̄ Mūsā (in modern Jordan). The city is first mentioned by Diodorus [18] under the name Pétra (Diod. Sic. 19, 95-98) as the Nabataei's place of refuge and assembly ('High place, rock'). The inscriptionally documented Semitic name of P. is Raqmu. Although the surrounding are…

Berytus

(536 words)

Author(s): Finkbeiner, Uwe (Tübingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pompeius | Aegean Koine (Βηρυτός; Bērytós). [German version] A. Phoenician period B., modern Beirut, is mentioned as Beruta in the  Amarna letters and in documents from Ugarit (14th and 13th cent. BC respectively), and as Birû in the annals of Asarhaddon (7th cent. BC) [1. 48]. Its identification with the Baurad of the Ebla documents is disputed [2. 68]. Sources document that the Canaanite B. of the 2nd millennium BC was controlled by By…

Carthage

(1,885 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Phoenician Qrt-ḥdšt, ‘new town’; Greek Καρχηδών/ Karchēdṓn, Lat. Carthago). I. History [German version] A. From Phoenician foundation to Roman colony According to Timaeus' report (FGrH 566 F 60), C. was founded in 814/13 or 813/2 BC -- on the site of Tunis' modern suburb of the same name. The colonist were …

Epiphaneia

(502 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Lehmann, Gunnar (Jerusalem) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Ἐπιφάνεια; Epipháneia). [German version] [1] City in Cilicia Pedias City in Cilicia Pedias (Ptol. 5,8,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. E., 274 Meineke), previously Oeniandus (Plin. HN 5,93), renamed E. after  Antiochus [6] IV Epiphanes. Road station (Geogr. Rav. 2,16,93; [2. 766]). In AD 260, E. was captured by Šapur I [1. 312f.]. After the restructuring of the province in AD 408, E. was seen as one of the cities of Cilicia II (Hierocles, 705,5). Its ruins (well preserved theatre and aqueduct) are c. 8 km west of Erzin in Gözene/Gözcucler Harabeleri. Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. …

Chorāsān

(257 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] Middle Persian xwarsārān, ‘[Land of the] Sunrise, the East’. Nowadays denotes the north-eastern part of Iran, with Mašhad as its administrative centre. In the pre-Islamic and early Islamic period C. included parts of Central Asia and western Afghanistan. It was under the Sassanids that C. first formed one of the four great provincial satrapies; it was ruled by a Spāhpat with his seat in Merv, having jurisdiction over the following districts (Yaqūbī, Tarīḫ I, 201): Nīšāpūr, Harāt…

Edessa

(672 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Christianity | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Commerce | Asia Minor | Limes | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome (Ἔδεσσα; Édessa). [German version] [1] City in central Macedonia This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones City in central Macedonia at the eastern entrance to the Kara-Burun pass from Lower to Upper Macedonia, today known as Edessa, formerly as Vodena. In previous times, E. was wrongly regarded as the old Macedonian royal seat of  Aegae [1]. E. was first men…

Samarra

(509 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] ( Sāmarrā; Theophanes Continuatus 3,36: Σάμαρα/ Sámara). Area of ruins of c. 60 km2 and modern town on the left bank of the Tigris, 100 km north of Baghdad (cf. map). At this site, known since the neo-Assyrian Period (Mesopotamia III D), the emperor Julian [11] the Apostate fell in AD 363 in battle against the Sassanids. It was in this area, mainly inhabited by Nestorians (Nestorius), that the Nahrawān canal, dug in the time of Chosroes [5] Anushirvan (period of rule 531-579) began, which be…
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