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Transpadana

(154 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] General term for the area to the north of the Padus (modern Po; cf. Cic. Off. 3,22,88; Catull. 39,13: Transpadanus; [1. 274; 2. 149; 3. 28 f.; 4. 7 f.]), as an adjective connected only with Italia (Tac. Hist. 2,32; CIL X 3870), never with Gallia. Augustus' regional reform recognises a regio XI T. bounded in the east by the Ollius ( Regio with map; Plin. HN 3,123; Tac. Hist. 1,70; Plin. Ep. 6,6). Towards the end of the 3rd cent. AD, T. was understood to be the whole of the Padus plain to the south of the Alpes; divided in the 4th cent. into Aemilia and Liguria [5. 236 f.; 6. …

Mutina

(507 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Natural catastrophes | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt (Μο[υ]τίνη/ Mo[u]tίnē), modern Modena. City on the northern slope of the Appenninus between the two rivers Secia (modern Secchia) and Scultenna (modern Panaro) that both flow into the lower course of the Padus (modern Po) from the right, at a strategically important position, where three passes from the south up over the mountain range meet the road from Ariminum along the southern edge of the Po valley (from 187 BC, the via Aemili…

Clastidium

(73 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Main settlement of the Celtic-Ligurian Anares (Pol. 2,34) in the south of Ticinum, modern Casteggio. Traffic node. In 222 BC the Romans defeated the Gauls near C. (Pol. 2,69; Plut. Marcellus 6; topic of the praetexta of same name by Naevius [1. 30f.]). Relay point on the via Postumia, vicus of Placentia (CIL V 7357). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 R. Chevallier, La romanisation de la Celtique du Pô, 1979. M. Baratta, C., 1931.

Camunni

(144 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Inhabitants of the upper Oglio valley (Val Camonica), described by some sources as Raeti (Str. 4,6,7) or rather Euganei (Plin. HN 3,134) in the central Alps. A continuity in culture of more than 1000 years is evident in numerous rock paintings, ranging from phases I-III (Neolithic to Bronze Age) to phase IV (from the 8th cent.) and IV 4 (3rd to 1st cents. BC), socio-sacral expressions by hunter and warrior tribes [1. 131ff.]. Listed among the gentes Alpinae devictae, who were defeated by Augustus in 16 BC (CIL V 7817), they were possibly put under the admin…

Lacus Verban(n)us

(59 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] A lake formed by the Ticinus in the Alpine foothills, modern Lago Verbano or Lago Maggiore (Pol. 34,10,21 = Str. 4,6,12; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,131; 9,69); Verg. G. 2,159 possibly hints at the lacus Verban(n)us. Vicus Sebuinus, later called Angleria (modern Angera), is on the eastern shore. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 1, 181.

Mantua

(314 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Μάντουα; Mántoua). Small (Str. 5,1,6) fortified (Plin. HN 3,130; Serv. Aen. 10,198) city in the 10th region between the swamps on the river Mincius, modern Mantova (an Etruscan origin for the name cannot be sustained; possible association with local names of watercourses, cf. the names Abdua, Padua, Meduacus). For Plin. in HN 3,130 M. was an Etruscan foundation. In fact, during the Etruscan expansion in the plain of the Padus [2. 18-35] M. was a …

Ticinum

(224 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (modern Pavia). Settlement of the Celtic Libici (Pol. 2,17,4-6; Liv. 5,32,2: Laevi) and Marici (Plin. HN 3,124) in the Transpadana, a region previously settled by the Insubres, where the Ticinus flows into the Padus (modern Po). Despite being patronised by Augustus (honorary arch: CIL V 6416), the municipium ( tribus Papiria) was overtaken in significance by neighbouring Mediolanum [1]. Important junction [1; 2. 227] (roads: Tac. Ann. 3,5,1; Amm. Marc. 15,8,18;  It. Ant. 340,1; 3…

Bergomum

(134 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Centre of the Golasecca culture (6th/5th cent. BC) between the foothills of the Orobian-Raetian Alps (on the location of Parra Oromobiorum: Cato Orig. 40) and the Cenomani of the Celtic Padana (Ptol. 3,1,31) [1. 61f.], modern Bergamo. Municipium [2. 51] from the end of the Roman Republic [1. 181f.], tribus Voturia, in regio IX (from the 4th cent. AD in regio X). Captured by Attila in AD 452 and laid in ruins (Historiae miscellaneae 15,7). Military base on the via Padana at the time of the Goths (Procop. Goth.…

Vercellae

(257 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Chief town of the Libici (modern Vercelli) This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (Οὐερκέλλοι, Οὐερκέλλαι/ Ouerkélloi, -ai). Chief town of the Libici (Str. 5,1,12; Ptol. 3,1,36) on the right bank of the Sesites (modern Sesia), a right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), modern Vercelli [1. 176; 2], probably originally founded by the Salluvii (Liv. 5,35,2; Plin. HN 3,124). No significant archaeological finds [3. 212]. It is not there but at V. [2] that Marius [I 1] is gen…

Meduacus

(67 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Name of two rivers within the problematic hydrographic network of the central course of the Veneto. According to Tab. Peut. 4,4 and 4,5, the M. maior is the modern Brenta, which flows into the Adriatic, and the M. minor is the modern Bacchiglione, which bifurcated at Patavium (Plin. HN 3,121), where it formed a harbour (Liv. 10,2,6). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen 2, 219.

Macri campi

(105 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Area in the Apennines 7 km west of Mutina in the Val di Montirone near modern Magreta (cf. the ancient place name!). A cattle market as early as pre-Roman times. The Roman garrison (from 176: Liv. 41,18,5ff.) developed into an important trading centre (Varro, Rust. 2, pr. 6; Columella 7,2,3; Str. 5,1,11: Μακροὶ Κάμποι/ Makroì Kámpoi) that was abandoned in the mid 1st cent. AD [1]. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Gabba, Mercati e fiere nell'Italia romana in: Studi Classici e Orientali 25, 1975, 141-163. Nissen 2, 265 A. Sabatini, I Campi Macri, in: Rivista st…

Tanarus

(65 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] River rising in the Alpes Maritimae (Plin. HN 3,118) and flowing from the right-hand side into the Padus (modern Po) near Valentia and Forum Fulvi, modern Tanaro. Hasta [4], Alba Pompeia, Pollentia [1] and Augusta [1] Bagiennorum are on its course. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography A. Costanzo, La romanizzazione nel bacino idrografico padano, 1975, 98  E. Panero, La città romana in Piemonte, 2000, 25.

Eretum

(149 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Town of the Sabini (Str. 5,3,1; 11 [1. 479]) at the via Salaria, 18 miles away from Rome, where the via Nomentana branches off (Tab. Peut. 5,5; It. Ant. 306,5). Being situated near the border of Rome, E. was involved in many disputes in the time of the Roman kings (Liv. 3,26,2; 29,7; 38,3; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,32; 59; 4,3; 51; 5,45; 11,3 [2. 435-437]). Finally, E. was incorporated into Nomentum (Liv. 3,26,2; 29,7; 38,3; 42,3; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 11,3,2) and assigned to the tribus Clustumina. E. is modern Casa Cotta di Montelibretti [3. 57]. There is a necropoli…

Euganei

(201 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Name given to a people from the eastern, Venetian part of the Po plain who withdrew to the mountainous interior of the country when the  Veneti came from the east (cf. the Paphlagonian immigrants in Liv. 1,1,2f.). There they mixed with the Raeti and later were frequently confused with them [1. 486f.; 3. 101f.]. Cato (HRR fr. 41) menti ons 34 oppida of the E., among these the  Camunni, Trumplini and Stoeni (uncertain), while for others the Camunni were Raeti (Str. 4,6,8) and the Stoeni were Ligures (Acta Triumphalia for the year 637; Str. …

Ollius

(96 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Left-bank tributary of the Padus (Plin. HN 3,118; Geogr. Rav. 4,36), today the Oglio. It rises on the southern slopes of the Ortler Group, flowing through the valley of the Camunni (today the Val Camonica), forming the Lacus Sebin(n)us (Lago d'Iseo) and flows out into the Padus after a course of c. 280 km south west of Mantua. It formed the frontier between the regiones X and XI. O. was also occasionally a personal name (masc.; fem. form Ollia; cf. CIL III 3893; CIL V 6445). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen 2, 196.

Rigomagus

(288 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] Roman fort in Germania Inferior Roman fort in Germania Inferior (Germani [1] II.) on the road from Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) to Confluentes [1] (Koblenz), modern Remagen. At least from the Claudian era a wood and earth fort existed; from the Flavian era, a stone fort stood in the same place. Numerous stone inscriptions are extant. R. was a beneficiarii station from the 2nd half of the 2nd to the middle of the 3rd cents. AD. A hoard of coins from AD 270/280 (274/5?) has been connected with the occupation of …

Lacus Larius

(156 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Modern Lago Lario or Lago di Como. Formed by the Addua, which flows out again from the eastern arm (Plin. HN 2,224; Str. 4,6,12), it bisects the central foothills of the Alps. In antiquity, it stretched further towards the north (Cato fr. 38). The via Regina [1] runs parallel along the western shore from Comum to the Alpine passes (Splügen/Cuneus Aureus, Maloja, Julier) [2. 14]. In the pre-Roman period ( Golasecca culture) [3. 159] it was an important connection from the Po Plain to central Europe, in the Roman period a com…

Mella

(95 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Small river system [2. 473 f.] in the foothills of the central Alps, with the river Ollius (today: Mella) as its tributary, which has its own tributary called Garza. In Catull. 67,32 poetically called flavus (‘blond’). According to Verg. G. 4,277 f. it passes through sheep pastures near Brixia (Serv. Georg. ad l.c.). In Geographus Ravennas 4,36 it is wrongly called a tributary of the Padus. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 Nissen 2, 196 2 P. Tozzi, L'antico corso del fiumo Garza e Catullo carmina 67, 32-3, in: RIL 107, 1973, 473-498.

Silva Litana

(62 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Forest on the right bank of the Padus (modern river Po) on the Via Aemilia. The praetor L. Postumius [I 5] Albinus was ambushed by the Boii there in 216 BC (Liv. 23,24,7; Frontin. Str. 1,6,4; Zon. 9,3). The consul L. Valerius Flaccus avenged him there in 195 BC (Liv. 34,22,1; 42,2). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen 2, 256.

Placentia

(483 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt (Πλακεντία/ Plakentía). Town on the right bank of the Padus (Po); the mouth of the Trebia lies just westward (ILS 9371; Str. 5,1,11; Plin. HN 3,118; Ptol. 3,1,46), modern Piacenza. The beginnings of the town go back to the Terramare culture, followed by Etruscan settlers (Liv. 5,33,10; cf. the 'liver of Piacenza' of c. 200 BC in the Museo Civico; Haruspices with illustration), and subsequently Galli Anamares (Liv.…
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