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Scarponna

(270 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman bridge station, modern Scarponne near Dieulouard in the département of Meurthe et Meuse, on a route from the Rhodanus (Rhone) to the Rhenus (Rhine) between Divodurum (modern Metz) and Tullum (modern Toul), where the Roman road crossed the four branches of the Mosella on bridges (It. Ant. 365,5; Tab. Peut. 3,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,26: Scarbonna; CIL XIII 9050). The beginning of the Gallo-Roman vicus of the civitas of the Mediomatrici (no traces of pre-Roman settlement) can be viewed in the context of the extension of the traffic network at the beg…

Iura

(221 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 1,6,1; 1,8,1; Iurensis, Iorensis, Sidon. Apoll. Epist. 4,25,5; Greg. Tur. vit. patr. 1; Iures, Plin. HN 3,31; 4,105; 16,197; Ἰόρας/ Ióras, Ἰουράσιος/ Iourásios, Str. 4,3,4; 4,6,11; Ἰουρασσός/ Iourassós, Ptol. 2,9,2; 2,9,10). Mountain chain, c. 250 km long and up to 70 km wide, stretching in an arch shape from the Rhône at the Lac du Bourget, in a northerly/north-easterly direction to Baden in Switzerland. According to Caesar and Strabo, it formed the frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani…

Catalauni

(78 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A tribal group of Gallia Belgica, who probably originally settled in the area of the Remi, in the modern Champagne. Its name and its capital of the same name, modern Châlon-sur-Marne, are only mentioned by later authors (Amm. Marc. 15,11,10; 27,2,4; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 274; Not. Gall. 6,4; Durocatalauni: It. Ant. 361). The  Catuvellauni, who migrated to southern Britannia, are probably part of the same tribal group.  Campi Catalauni Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Solicia

(143 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Place in Gallia Belgica, modern Soulosse-sous-Saint-Élophe, on the road from the Rhodanus to the Rhenus between Andematunnum and Tullum (modern Toul) in the territory of the Leuci (It. Ant. 358,9; CIL XIII 4679); another name was Solimariaca, derived from a deity Solima or Solimara (It. Ant. 385,8; CIL XIII 4681; 4683). Inscriptions provide information on trade and industry (CIL XIII 4678-4703; [1. 4845-4890; 2]). In the 4th century AD a castrum was built on the Saint Élophe hill. In the Carolingian period S. was the main town of the Pagus Solocensis. Schön, Franz (Reg…

Menapii

(483 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People of the North Sea coast of what is now Flanders, originally also north of the Rhine delta (Caes. B Gall. 4,4,2; Strab. 4,3,4). In 56/5 BC, the Germanic Usipetes and Tencteri crossed the Rhine, driving the M. out of their homelands on the right bank of the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,4). The frontier of the C ivitas Menapiorum formed after their subjugation by Rome in 53 BC (stages of conquest 58 BC, Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 56 BC, Caes. B Gall. 3,9,10; 3,28f.; Cass. Dio 39,44; 55 BC, Caes. Gall. 4,22,5; 38,3; 53 BC, Caes. Gall. 6,5,6) ran al…

Titelberg

(460 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Celtic oppidum in the western area of the Treveri near Pétange (Luxembourg) on the southern edge of the Ardenne mountains, c. 100 m above the valley of the Chier (a side arm of the Meuse), situated on a rocky ledge which served as the settlement area (43 ha). From the 1st half of the 1st cent. BC, the area was secured along the edges of the cliff with a fortification wall (2700 m) and with a barrier in the shape of a murus Gallicus at the narrowest connection to the plateau behind it, later with a 'Belgian type' wall. Two gates connected by…

Itium, Itius portus

(162 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Promontory and port of the Morini in Gallia  Belgica, starting-point of Caesar's fleet for the expeditions to Britain (Caes. B Gall. 4,21-23; 5,2). Caesar only mentions I. in the context of his second expedition of 54 BC; τὸ Ἴτιον in Str. 4,5,2 refers to the operation of the preceding year. The promontory (Ἴτιον ἄκρον, Ptol. 2,9,1) is to be located near Cap Gris-Nez rather than near Cap d'Albrech. Of the numerous theories regarding the exact location of this port (e.g. in Flanders…

Contionacum

(79 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A palace complex was developed at Konz bei Trier, above the point where the Saar joins the Moselle, in the middle of the 4th cent. AD and used as a palace until the early 5th cent.; identified as the summer palace C. where Valentinianus I issued several decrees in AD 371 (Cod. Theod. 2,4,3; 4,6,4; 9,3,5; 11,1,17); Auson. Mos. in 369 probably also refers to C. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography A. Neyses, Die spätröm. Kaiservilla von Konz, 1987.

Atrebates

(287 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] People in Gallia Belgica People in Gallia Belgica, Artois region (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5), settled in the catchment area of the Scarpe, especially in the area around Nemetacum. After their subjection together with the neighbouring Nervii (in the east) and the Viromandui (in the south-east) by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 16,2f.; 23,1) the A. maintained a friendly relationship with Rome. Their king  Commius received sovereignty over the Morini (in the north and north-west)…

Raeti, Raetia

(1,367 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[English version] I. Ethnographie der Raeti Die älteste, indirekt überl. Nachricht über die R. stammt von Cato [1], der den raetischen Wein lobt (Serv. georg. 2,95; Plin. nat. 14,16; 67; Strab. 4,6,8; Suet. Aug. 77); dieser stammte, wie aus Plin. l.c. erschließbar ist, aus der Gegend von Verona. Mehrmals findet sich bei ant. Historiographen der Hinweis, bei den R. handle es sich um Etrusci, die, nachdem sie von den vordringenden Kelten aus Oberit. vertrieben worden waren, unter ihrem namengebenden Ahn…

Atrebates

(255 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] [1] Volk in Gallia Belgica Volk in Gallia Belgica, Region Artois (Ptol. 2,9,4; Strab. 4,3,5), siedelte im Einzugsbereich der Scarpe, vornehmlich in der Gegend um Nemetacum. Nach ihrer Unterwerfung zusammen mit den benachbarten Nervii (im Osten) und den Viromandui (im Südosten) durch Caesar 57 v.Chr. (Caes. Gall. 2,4,9; 16,2f.; 23,1) standen die A. in einem freundschaftlichen Verhältnis zu Rom. Ihr König Commius bekam die Oberhoheit über die Morini (im Norden bzw. Nordwesten) und wurde…

Tres Tabernae

(398 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Town between Aricia and Forum Appii Town between Aricia and Forum Appii (modern Faiti) on the via Appia (Cic. Att. 1,13; 2,10; 2,12; It. Ant. 107,3; Tab. Peut. 6,1) where it crosses the road Antium - Satricum - Norba [1], located south-east of modern Cisterna. In TT, members of the Roman Christian community encountered Paulus [2] on his trip to Rome (Acts 28,15). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] City of the Mediomatrici City of the Mediomatrici with the rank of a vicus (CIL XIII 11648), modern Saverne (Dép. Bas Rhin) on …

Raeti, Raetia

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ethnography of the Raeti The oldest, indirectly transmitted information about the R. comes from Cato [1], who praises Raetian wine (Serv. Georg. 2,95; Plin. HN 14,16; 67; Str. 4,6,8; Suet. Aug. 77); this was produced, as can be deduced from Plin. loc. cit., in the region of Verona. Ancient historiographers suggest repeatedly that the R. were in fact Etruscans who, having been driven out of Upper Italy by the invading Celts, had conquered the Alps under their eponymous ancestor Raetus and founded the race of the R. (Plin…

Pannonia

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Up to subjugation by Rome Region and Roman province to the north and east of the Danube (Ister [2]), bordered in the south by the region south of the Savus; the western border ran west of the line between Vindobona, Poetovio and Emona, now the western part of Hungary, the Slovakian territory around Gerulata, the Austrian around the Viennese Basin and Burgenland, as well as the northern strip of Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The country was named after its original inhabitants (Παννόνιοι/ Pannónioi, cf. Str. 7,5,2; Παίονες/ Paíones, cf. 1,1,10). This lllyrian group…

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), and in Latin as M. or Moesae. Other tribes settled there as well, such as the Dardani, Triballi, Timachi and Skythae, who were later counted among the Moesicae gentes as inhabitants of the province of Moesia (Plin. HN 3,149; 4,3). After the territory of the Getae was incorporated into the province of Moesia inferior, its inhabitants as well were referred t…

Moesi, Moesia

(874 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prag) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[English version] A. Geographie Als griech. Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), lat. M. oder Moesae wurden die Angehörigen eines Stammesverbands thrakischer Herkunft bezeichnet, die im NO der Balkanhalbinsel lebten. Neben ihnen siedelten hier auch andere Stämme, z.B. Dardani, Triballoi, Timachi, Skythai, die später als Bewohner der Prov. Moesia zu den Moesicae gentes gezählt wurden (Plin. nat. 3,149; 4,3). Nach Eingliederung des Gebietes der Getai in die Prov. Moesia Inferior wurde auch dessen Bevölkerung als M. bezeichnet (Cass. Dio 51,22,6f.). Di…

Noviomagus

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[English version] [1] Stadt der Bituriges Vivisci in Aquitania Die bei Ptol. 2,7,7 (Νουιόμαγος) erwähnte Stadt N. der Bituriges Vivisci (Βίτουργες Οὐβίσκοι) in Aquitania wird allg. mit einem röm. vicus bei Brion (Saint-Germain-d'Esteuil) im Médoc zw. Lesparre und Pauillac (Dépt. Gironde) identifiziert. Der Ort mit einem alten Heiligtum der Medulli wurde seit dem 3. Jh. v.Chr. besiedelt; Stadtentwicklung ist seit Claudius (41-54 n.Chr.) erkennbar. In dieser Zeit entstanden das fanum (Heiligtum) und das Theater. Nach einer Periode der Prosperität entvölkerte sich …

Isar(a)

(228 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prag)
[English version] [1] Linker Nebenfluß des Rhodanus Linker Nebenfluß des Rhodanus, h. Isère, entspringt in den Alpes Graiae als Bergstrom ( torrens: Plin. nat. 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. fam. 10,15,3) und durchfließt das Gebiet der Allobroges. Hannibal zog 218 v.Chr. von der Mündung der I. in den Rhodanus flußaufwärts (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31), hier schlug Q. Fabius Maximus 121 v.Chr. die Arverni (Flor. epit. 1,37,4). Weitere Belege: Strab. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (Hrsg.), Histoire de la Savoie, 1973. …

Pannonia

(1,692 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prag) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[English version] I. Bis zur Unterwerfung durch Rom Landschaft und röm. Prov., im Norden und Osten von der Donau (Istros [2]), im Süden von dem Bereich südl. des Savus begrenzt; die Westgrenze verlief westl. der Linie Vindobona - Poetovio - Emona, h. der westl. Teil Ungarns, das slowakische Gebiet um Gerulata, das österreichische um das Wiener Becken und das Burgenland sowie der nördl. Streifen von Slowenien, Kroatien und Serbien. Das Land wurde nach seinen urspr. Bewohnern (Παννόνιοι/ Pannónioi, vgl. Strab. 7,5,2; Παίονες/ Paíones, vgl. 1,1,10) benannt. Zu diesem illyris…
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