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Campi Catalauni

(122 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[English version] Siedlungsgebiet der Catalauni in der h. Champagne, wiederholt Schauplatz bed. Schlachten. 273 n.Chr. besiegte hier der Kaiser Aurelianus den gallischen Usurpator Esuvius Tatricus (SHA Aurelian. 23,3; Eutr. 9,13; Hier. chron. 273 n.Chr.), 366 schlug der Feldherr Iovinus ein german. Heer (Amm. 27,2,4). Bes. Berühmtheit erlangten die C.C. durch die “Völkerschlacht” von 451 (südl. von Châlon), als es einer von Avitus zw. Rom und den Westgoten unter Theoderich gebildeten Koalition gel…

Argentorate

(143 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Gallia | Handel | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Raeti, Raetia | Straßen Heute Strasbourg, inschr. erstmals erwähnt z. Z. Vespasians (CIL XIII 9082). Eine kleinere mil. Anlage augusteischer Zeit machte nach der Varus-Schlacht 9 n. Chr. einem Legionslager Platz, das bis zum Britannien-Feldzug des Claudius 43 n. Chr. von der legio II belegt war. Von Detachements anderer Einheiten benutzt, erhielt A. neueren arch. Unt. zur Folge Ende des 1. Jhs. n. Chr. [2] (dagegen noch [1. 89]: Anf. der 70er …

Catalauni

(67 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[English version] Eine wohl urspr. im Gebiet der Remi siedelnde Völkerschaft der Gallia Belgica in der h. Champagne. Name und gleichlautender Vorort, h. Châlon-sur-Marne, werden erst bei späteren Autoren erwähnt (Amm. 15,11,10; 27,2,4; Eutr. 9,13; Hier. chron. 274 n.Chr.; Not. Gall. 6,4; Durocatalauni: Itin. Anton. 361). Die in den Süden von Britannia eingewanderten Catuvellauni sind vermutlich ein Teil desselben Volkes. Campi Catalauni Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Contionacum

(72 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[English version] In Konz bei Trier befand sich oberhalb der Saarmündung in die Mosel eine Mitte des 4.Jh. n.Chr. entstandene und bis ins frühe 5. Jh. benutzte Palastanlage, die mit der kaiserlichen Sommerresidenz C. identifiziert wurde, wo Valentinianus I. 371 n.Chr. mehrere Verfügungen erließ (Cod. Theod. 2,4,3; 4,6,4; 9,3,5; 11,1,17); auch Auson. Mos. 369 ist wohl auf C. zu beziehen. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography A. Neyses, Die spätröm. Kaiservilla von Konz, 1987.

Beda

(94 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bataveraufstand h. Bitburg, vicus auf einer natürlichen Erhebung an der röm. Straße Augusta Treverorum - Colonia Agrippinensium gelegen (Itin. Anton. 372,4), Mittelpunkt des treverischen pagus der Bedenses. Inschr. zeugen von regem Theaterwesen (CIL XIII 4132; BRGK 40, 1959, 125,8) und Aktivitäten der iuniores (CIL XIII 4131). Nach Zerstörungen um 275/6 n.Chr. Anf. 4.Jh. als Wehrkastell mit ovaler Ummauerung (2 ha) neu errichtet und bis in das 5., evtl. sogar 6.Jh. kontinuierlich besiedelt. Schön, Franz (Reg…

Helvetum

(164 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[English version] (Itin. Anton. 252; 350; Ἔλκηβος, Ptol. 2,9,18). Bisher oft gleichgesetzt mit Helellum (Tab. Peut. 3,4) bzw. Alaia (Geogr. Rav. 26) und mit diesem schon im Itin. Anton. 354 verwechselt, ist aber nicht bei Ehl im Elsaß, sondern rechtsrhein. an der Route Mons Brisiacus - Argentoratus beim h. Riegel, Kreis Emmendingen, zu lokalisieren [1]. Kastelle aus claudischer und vespasianischer Zeit, die als Fortsetzung der Kastellreihe an der oberen Donau die Anbindung zum Rhein sicherten. Nach Eroberung der Decumates agri Verlust der mil.-strateg. Bed. Aus den cannabae (La…

Limes

(12,382 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. General In the religious and administrative theory of the land surveyors, the Latin word limes denoted the path marking the boundary between two pieces of land, while in military and political usage (Tac. Ann. 1,50; Frontin. Str. 1,3,10) it meant the border between Roman and non-Roman territory (SHA Hadr. 12). Over recent years, research has led the military connotation of the term limes, which has been used almost exclusively from the 19th cent., to be expanded to comprehend also the historico-geographical and socio-economic fields. Where the limites were origin…

Ambiani

(108 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Coastal people in  Gallia Belgica in modern Picardy, main town was  Samarobriva; participated in the Gallic coalitions against  Caesar of 57 and 52 BC, were finally subjugated in 51 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 7,75,1-3; 8,7,3-4). Their settlement areas between the  Bellovaci in the south and  Morini in the north (Ptol. 2,9,4) encompassed the Somme basin, bordered in the north by the Canche, in the north-east and south-east by the Somme watershed; the Catuslougi [1] documented on the southern border, the Bresle valley, were considered as   pagus of the A. Schön, Franz (Rege…

Bratuspantium

(63 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Oppidum of the  Bellovaci, mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 2,13, localization uncertain. It is a matter of dispute whether it was a settlement on the same location as -- and preceding -- the capital of the civitas  Caesaromagus, or whether is was a Celtic settlement in a completely different location (Bailleul sur Thérain, Breteuil sur Noye). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Argentorate

(155 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Modern Strasbourg, epigraphically first mentioned at the time of Vespasian (CIL XIII 9082). A smaller military installation from the Augustan period was replaced by a legionary fortress following  Varus' defeat in AD 9, where the   legio II was garrisoned until  Claudius' invasion of Britain in AD 43. After use by detachments from other units, recent archaeological research points to A.'s use once again as a permanent garri…

Noviomagus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] City of the Bituriges Vivisci in Aquitania The city of the Bituriges Vivisci (Βίτουργες Οὐβίσκοι/ Bítourges Oubískoi) in Aquitania mentioned in Ptol. 2,7,7 (Νουιόμαγος/ Nouiómagos) is generally identified with a Roman vicus near Brion (Saint-Germain-d'Esteuil) in the Médoc between Lesparre and Pauillac ( département of Gironde). This town with an ancient sanctuary of the Medulli had been inhabited from the 3rd cent. BC; urban development is recognisable from the time of Claudius (41-54 AD). It was in this period that the fanum (sanctuary) and the theatre we…

Tervanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Civitas, capital of the Morini (Tab. Peut. 2,2;  It. Ant. 376; 378 f.: Tarvenna; Ptol. 2,9,8: Ταρουάννα/ Tarouánna), which developed at a ford across the Leie/Lys from a river island to the northern bank. Archaeological finds remain lacking, since the vieille ville was razed in 1553 at the behest of Charles V; the modern town of Thérouanne (in the département of Pas-de-Calais) is farther to the south. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography R. Delmaire, Notes sur l'évolution urbaine de Thérouanne, in: Rev. archéologique de Picardie 1984, 223-228  Id. et al., Le Pa…

Mosa

(431 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River, present-day R. Maas River, modern name Maas, which rises in Germania superior in the land of the Lingones, on the plateau of Langres (differently Caes. B Gall. 4,10,1: in the Vosges), then flows northwards through Belgica, cuts through the Ardennes shortly before Germania inferior and arrives at the Mare Germanicum in the land of the Batavi. The apparently contradictory information from classical authors, as to whether the M. flowed directly into the sea (Plin. HN. 4,100f.; Ptol. 2,9,3) or via the left arm of the Rhine, the Waal, (Caes. B Gall. 4,10,1: Vacalus; …

Beda

(111 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Today's Bitburg, vicus located on a naturally elevated site along the Roman road Augusta Treverorum -- Colonia (It. Ant. 372,4), centre of the Treverian pagus of the Bedenses. Inscriptions indicate that B. sported a lively theatre (CIL XIII 4132; BRGK 40, 1959, 125,8) and activities of   iuniores (CIL XIII 4131). After B.'s destruction around AD 275/6, it was newly built in the 4th cent. as a military fort with oval surrounding walls (two hectares) and was i…

Durocortorum

(572 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Limes | Limes | Rome | Batavian Revolt Capital of the Gallo-Roman civitas of the Remi; modern Reims, on the northern edge of Champagne (Ptol. 2,9,6; 8,5,6); whether it should be identified with the centre of the autonomous Remi (Caes. Gall. 6,44) remains an open question. After sporadic settlement since the end of the Hallstatt period it expanded during La Tène III. In the course of the 1st cent. BC an oppidum arose, c. 90 ha. in area, with a massive earth rampart and ditch and surrounded by a second co…

Matrona

(726 words)

Author(s): Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Term used in family law Under Roman law of the Republican period, there was a difference between the matrona as the legal wife and the mater familias, the wife who was in the manus of her husband and thus belonged to his family (Gellius 18,6,8-9). This difference disappeared along with the marriage with manus ( Marriage), and since Augustus the terms matrona and mater familias are interchangeable in legal texts. In social terms, the word matrona expresses the public function of an honourably wed wife, which in early times possibly corresponded to the functions of the patr…

Lacus Lemanus

(161 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Largest of the Alpine lakes (581 km2), modern Lake Geneva. Documented by Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 8,1; 3,1,1; Str. 4,1,11; 6,6; 11; Luc. 1,396; Mela 2,74; 79; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2; Amm. Marc. 15,11,16. It. Ant. 348,2: lacus Lausonius; Tab. Peut. 3,2: lacus Losanenses. It was the border between Gallia Belgica or Germania superior and Gallia Narbonensis and thus separated the Helvetii in the north from the Allobroges in the south. In Genava harbour installations have been established through dendrochronological methods for the…

Scaldis

(202 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 6,33; Plin. HN 4,98; 105; Geogr. Rav. 263,6: Scaldea; Ptol. 2,9,3; 9: Ταβούλλα/ Taboúlla), modern Schelde (in French Escaut). It rises on Mont Saint Martin near Augusta Viromanduorum (modern Saint Quentin in the department of Oise), flows through Camaracum (modern Cambrai) and Turnacum (modern Tournai) and separates the civitates of the Atrebates [1] and the Menapii on its left bank from that of the Nervii on its right bank. In the region near its mouth (Plin. loc. cit.), which was settled by Ge…

Mosomagus

(104 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (‘Market on the Mosa’), present-day Mouzon (Dépt. Ardennes); town on the road from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum, between the civitates of the Remi and the Treveri on an island between two arms of the Mosa [1]. It was a significant  trading centre especially from the 2nd cent. AD. A fortification dating from Late Antiquity has been archaeologically authenticated. Musmagenses under a magister equitum inter Gallias  are documented (Not. Dign. Occ. 7,105); Merovingian coins mention Mosomo castri. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography J.-P. Levant, Mouzon…

Bellovaci

(109 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica (Picardy region) south of the Ambiani in the Thérain valley (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5). Beauvais ( Caesaromagus), once the capital of the civitas, and the surrounding Beauvaisis owe their names to the B. This mightiest tribe of the  Belgae was defeated by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,5; 2,13-15). They were hesitant participants in the revolt led by  Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75), but in the following year, they organized resistance against Rome (Caes. B Gall. 8,6…
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