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Assos

(596 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attisch-Delischer Seebund | Bildung | Kolonisation | Perserkriege | Theater (Ἄσσος). Der Platz des späteren A. - ein bis zu 234 m hoher Trachytfelsen an der Südwestküste der Troas, h. Behramkale, - war seit der Bronzezeit besiedelt. Man hat deshalb versucht, hier im Siedlungsgebiet der Leleges das homer. Pedasos zu lokalisieren [3. 245f.]. Die aiol. Kolonie A. wurde von Methymna aus gegr. (Strab. 13,1,58). A. selbst war Ausgangspunkt der Gründung v…

Atarneus

(261 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Ἀταρνεύς). In der gleichnamigen Landschaft an der Gegenküste von Mytilene nordöstl. vom h. Dikili gelegen, war eine ion. Polis in der Aiolis (Aioleis) (Plin. nat. 37,156), laut Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄταρνα auf der Grenze zw. Lydia und Mysia. Ähnlich wie in Assos gruppierte sich das Stadtgebiet um die auf einem ca. 200 m hohen Hügel angelegte Akropolis (h. Kaléh Agili). Die Sicherheit von A. resultierte aus einem noch teilweise sichtbaren dreifachen Mauerring aus hell. Zeit [1. 682]. …

Perkote

(156 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Περκώτη). Stadt in der Troas, mit dem h. Bergaz Köyü zw. Abydos und Lampsakos an der Praktios-Mündung (h. Bergaz Çayı) zu identifizieren. P. wurde wohl in der 1. H. des 5. Jh.v.Chr. von der schon bei Homer (Hom. Il. 2,831; 2,834; 11,229) erwähnten Nachbarstadt Palaiperkote gegründet (Strab. 13,1,20). Themistokles erhielt P. vom Perserkönig zum Lehen (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 17a; Phanias FHG 2,296; Athen. 1,54). Am Attisch-Delischen Seebund war P. mit 1000 Drachmen beteiligt. 387 v.Ch…

Aisepos

(89 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Αἴσηπος). Fluß in Mysia, h. Gönen Çay, entspringt auf dem Kotylos im Ida-Gebirge (Strab. 13,1,43). Er wird schon von Homer erwähnt (Il. 2,825; 4,91; 12; 21). Auf seinem Lauf nach Nordosten nimmt er den Karesos auf. Nach 500 Stadien ergießt er sich bei der Insel Halone (h. Pasalimani) in die Propontis (Strab. 13,1,11). Sein Tal bildete schon zu Homers Zeiten die östl. Grenze der Troas (Strab. 13,1,9) und war im Mittellauf dicht besiedelt (Strab. 13,1,45). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923.

Abarnias

(91 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Abarnis, Abarnos, Ἀβαρνίας). Mit A. wird von ant. Autoren die Küste 5 km nordöstlich von Lampsakos (Apoll. Rhod. 1,932; Orph. Arg. 489) bezeichnet [1. 93 f.], die zum Gebiet dieser Polis gehörte. Während der Schlacht von Aigospotamoi (405 v. Chr.) waren hier die Hauptsegel der spartanischen Flotte gelagert (Xen. hell. 2,1,29). Steph. Byz. s. v. A. erwähnt auch eine Polis A., auf die es jedoch keine weiteren Hinweise gibt. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923. G. Hirschfeld, s. v. Abarnis, RE 1, 17.

Thymbra

(141 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Θύμβρα/ Thýmbra). Town in the Troas on the right bank of the Thymbrius, probably identical with a place of settlement near the Hanaytepe to the south of Akçaköy (rich finds of 6th- and 5th-cent. BC pottery; identification and find-spots in [1. 110-123]). T. is described as a polis only in Steph. Byz. s. v. Θ. - according to which Thymbrus, a friend of Dardanus [1], was founder - and elsewhere as a plain ( pedíon) or place ( tópos) (Str. 13,1,35; Suda s. v. Θ.; Hsch. s. v. Θ.; Hom. Il. 10,430). T. was famous because of its (not yet located) Thymbraeum, a …

Neandrea

(182 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Νεανδρία/ Neandría, Νεάνδρεια/ Neándreia). Aeolian foundation of the 8th/7th cent. BC, above Alexandria [2], on the 521 m high Çiğri Dağı, which was probably already settled in the 2nd millenium BC. In mythology, Cycnus [2], lord of N., Colonae and Tenedus (?), came to the aid of his relative Priamus, king of Troy, in battle against the Greeks, and was killed by Achilles (Dictys 2,12f.; cf [3. 21f.]. N. is historically attested by its inclusion in the tribute quota lists of the Delian League with 2,000 drachm…

Percote

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περκώτη; Perkṓtē). City in the Troas, to be identified with today's Bergaz Köyü between Abydus and Lampsacus at the mouth of the Practius (today Bergaz Çayı). P. was probably founded in the 1st half of the 5th cent. BC by the neighbouring city of Palaepercote (Str. 13,1,20), already mentioned by Homer (Hom. Il. 2,831; 2,834; 11,229). Themistocles received P. as a fief from the Persian king (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 17a; Phanias FHG 2,296; Ath. 1,54). P. was a member of the Delian League with a contribution of 1,000 drachmai. In 387 BC, the Spartan Antalcidas was hiding f…

Gergis

(272 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γέργις; Gérgis, Gérgitha, Gergíthion, Gérgithos). City in the Troad, not located at the foot of the Balli Dağı as formerly assumed but at the Karıncalı on the Kursak deresi [1. 349]. According to Ath. 6,256 C, it was founded by the descendants of the Troes (Teucri) under the leadership of a Gergithes. In the context of Xerxes' campaign, Herodotus mentions the Gérgithes Teukroí (7,43), to whom he had referred earlier as the successor tribe of the Teucri (Hdt. 5,122). Ceramic finds from Karıncalı go back to the 6th cent. BC. G. is not mentio…

Atarneus

(293 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀταρνεύς; Atarneús). Located in the region of the same name on the coast opposite to  Mytilene, north-east of the modern Dikili, A. was an Ionian polis in Aeolis (Aeoleis) (Plin. HN 37,156), according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄταρνα ( Átarna) on the border between  Lydia and  Mysia. Like Assus, the town was centred around a hill of about 200 m in height, upon which the acropolis was situated (modern Kaléh Agili). The safety of the town was ensured by a triple walled circle, dating from the Hellenistic period, parts of whic…

Grynium

(212 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Γρύν(ε)ιον; Grýn(e)ion). Aeolian town in the north of Cyme. According to Herodotus, G. was one of the 11 old Aeolian towns (1,149). Further testimonies: Ἀχαιῶν λιμήν (‘Achaean harbour’), Scyl. 98; cf. portus Grynia, Plin. HN 5,121. As a member of the  Delian League G. paid 1/3 talent. At the end of the 5th cent. BC Gongylus of Eretria, to whom Darius had given the town as a seat for his dynasty (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6), ruled here and in Myrina. In 335 BC Parmenion conquered G. and sold…

Miletupolis, Miletopolis

(190 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Μιλητούπολις/ Milētoúpolis, Μιλητόπολις/ Milētópolis). City in Mysia. M. lay on the ‘lake of M.’ (Μιλητοπολῖτις λίμνη) and has been located near Melde, a town in the neighbourhood of modern Mustafa Kemalpaşa; cf. Tab. Peut. 9,3 (20 milia from Apollonia [6]); Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. (περὶ τῶν Ῥύνδακα). M. was founded by Athens at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC [1. 102ff.], was a member of the Delian League from no later than 410/409 BC (ATL 1,342f.;…

Hamaxitus

(202 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἁμαξιτός; Hamaxitós). Small city in the Troad, located, according to Cook ([1. 231ff.], also incl. older attempts at localisation) on the coast in the Beşik Tepesı area north-west of modern Gülpınar. Presumably founded by the Achaeans, H. was settled by the Cilician residents of Chrysa (Str. 13,1,63). After 427 BC, H. was probably dependent on Mytilene, and, in the Attic lists of tribute quotas, was listed among the Actaeic poleis with a phoros of 4 talents. In c. 400 BC, H. was under the rulership of the dynast Mania before Dercylidas' peaceful capture …

Gambrium

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάμβρειον; Gámbreion). Xenophon (Hell. 3,1,6f.) mentions G. and Palaigambreion as seats of dynasties that allied with the Spartans in 399 BC. Both places are assumed east of Pergamum near today's Kınık. Nothing is known of its earlier history; there is no reference in the Attic tribute lists. However, coins are attested in the 4th and 3rd cents. An inscription (CIG 3562) mentions a king Alexander of G. in 326-325 BC and a temple for a certain Artemis Lochia, with remains still extant. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. G., RE 7, 691.

Abrettene

(79 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀβρεττηνή; Abrettēnḗ). Region in northern  Mysia, north of Abbaitis and south of Olympene (Plin. HN 5,123; Str. 12,8,9; 11). At the time of the 2nd Triumvirate (43-36/32 BC) Cleon, a leader of the many local bands of brigands, dominated the region. Confirmed in his leadership by the future  Augustus in about 30 BC, he was also a priest of  Zeus Abrettenus [1. 154]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Schwertheim, Die Inschr. von Hadrianoi und Hadrianeia (IK 33), 1987.

Macestus, Mecestus

(140 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μέγιστος; Mégistos). Aside from the Rhyndacus and the Tarsius, the largest river in northern Mysia (cf. Str. 12,8,11; Plin. HN 5,142; Pol. 5,77,8), modern Simav Çayı that like the Tarsius flows into the Rhyndacus north of Miletupolis. Attalus [4] I was encamped on the M., north of the Pelecas Mountains with the Galatian Aegosages on his campaign against Achaeus [5], when he experienced a lunar eclipse on 1 January 218 BC. A relief of Apollo Mekastenos is probably also reminiscent of this river [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished …

Troad

(719 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τρῳάς/ Trō(i)ás, gen. -ádos, fem. adj. 'Trojan', sc. 'land'), territory in the northwest of Asia Minor. It covered the region of the present-day Biga Peninsula (Biga Yarımadası). Its boundaries and nomenclature fluctuated in antiquity. The confused ancient testimonies on its frontiers are well summarized in [1. 526-531]. In general, reliance is mostly placed on Strabo (12,4,6; 13,1,1-4), who essentially refers to Homer (Homerus [1]): the T. was bounded to the north, west and south by …

Rhodius

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥόδιος/ Rhódios). River in the Troad (Hom. Il. 12,20), modern Koca Çay. It rises in the Ida [2] mountains and flows into the Hellespont between Abydus and Dardanus (Str. 13,1,28). The towns of Gordus and Cleandrea were in its source region (Str. 13,1,44). Coins from Dardanus that date to the Roman period show the river god R. (SNG Danish Nat. Mus., Troas, no. 310). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. R. (2), RE 1 A, 956  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 207 f.  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 55.

Rhoeteum

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ῥοίτειον; Rhoíteion). Coastal town in Troas in the foothills of the same name, probably founded by Astypalaea (Str. 13,1,42), about 4 km to the southwest of Ophryneum, 9 km south of Kepez on the Baba Kalesi [1. 79 f., 87-89]. In 480 BC Xerxes marched past R. (Hdt. 7,43). In 425/4 BC R. paid eight talents in the Delian League (ATL 1,393; 544; 2,82; 4,108). Its favourably sited harbour seems to have made R. rich (Thuc. 4,52; 8,101; Dio…

Assos

(680 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture (Ἄσσος; Ássos). The location of what was to become A. -- a trachyte rock (up to 234 m in height) on the south-western coast of the Troad, modern Behramkale -- had been inhabited from the Bronze Age onwards. For that reason, attempts have been made to localize the Homeric  Pedasus within the settlement area of the Leleges [3. 245f.]. The Aeolian colony of A. was a Methymnian foundatio…
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