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Antissa

(108 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Ἄντισσα; Ántissa). Harbour town in the north-west of  Lesbos, c. 9 km north-east of the modern Antissa, settled from the 14th cent. BC. A. was a member of the  Delian League, and participated in the secession of Lesbian towns on the initiative of  Mytilene (Thuc. 3,18. 28). It was a member of the Second Athenian Confederacy. In 167 BC, it was destroyed by the Romans, and its population resettled in  Methymna (Liv. 45,31,14; Plin. HN 5,139). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. …

Galaesus

(71 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] River, also known as Eurotas (Pol. 8,35,8), 40 stades (Pol. loc. cit.) or 5 miles (Liv. 25,11,8) from Tarentum. In 212 BC, Hannibal built a camp on its banks. Mentioned in Virgil (Georg. 4,12,6), Horace (Carm. 2,6,10), and Propertius (2,34,67). Its water is praised as particularly suited for the washing of wool (Mart. 2,43,3; 4,28,3; 5,37,2; 8,28,3; 12,63,6; Stat. Silv. 3,3,93). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 870.

Camirus

(369 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Delian League (Κάμιρος; Kámiros, Lat. Camirus). City on the western coast of  Rhodes near the modern Kalavarda; it was one of the three ancient Rhodian cities, together with  Ialysus and  Lindus (this configuration is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,656). According to the evidence of grave finds, C. was already inhabited in Mycenaean times. Its true foundation was by Dorian settlers. Together with Ialysus and …

Hierapytna

(200 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ἱεράπυτνα; Hierápytna). Town on Crete, modern Ierapetra, at the narrowest point of the island between eastern and central Crete (Str. 10,4,3). In the Hellenistic period a significant political player as attested by several treaties primarily from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC with other Cretan towns (Praesus, Itanus, Gortyn, Lyttus, Lato) [1]. There were links to powers outside Crete (Macedonia, Rhodes, Pergamum: Stv III 502; 551; Syll.3 627). An aggressive territorial policy in eastern Crete, especial…

Itanus

(129 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states | Crete | Apollo (Ἴτανος; Ítanos). Port in the extreme north-east of Crete, between two acropoleis, modern Erimupolis. Traces of settlement date as far back as the Minoan period. In the 7th cent. BC, Corobius, a purple fisher from I., allegedly led colonists from  Thera to  Cyrene (Hdt. 4,151). In the Hellenistic period, it served as the Aegean base of the Ptolemies [1]. In 112 BC, rivalries with  Hierapytna were mediated on Roman i…

Mochlos

(123 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μόχλος). Small island  situated on the north-east coast of Crete and south-east of the Gulf of Mirabello. In Antiquity the island was probably connected to the mainland by an isthmus. Costly finds from the Minoan necropolis indicate considerable prosperity. Mochlos was also important in Roman (remains of walls and towers) and Byzantine times. Roman containers for holding fish lie beneath the surface of the water close to the mainland. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Beister, s.v. M., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 439  J.W. Myers et al., Aerial Atlas …

Eresus

(357 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Ἔρεσος; Éresos). City on the west coast of Lesbos (Str. 13,2,4; Plin. HN 5,139; Ptol. 5,2,29; Mela 2,101), 4 km south of today's town of Eresos near Skala Eresou. Few archaeological remains: ring wall of the acropolis, port facilities from the 5th/4th cents. BC, relics of the Hellenistic city wall, Roman cisterns; early Christian churches from the 5th cent., i.a. a basilica of St.…

Polyrrhenia

(290 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Πολυρρηνία/ Polyrrhēnía). City in north-western Crete (Ptol. 3,17,10; Str. 10,4,13; Scyl. 47: Πολύρρηνα/ Polýrrhēna; Plin. HN 4,59: Polyrhenum) south of the Bay of Kissamos in an exposed position on a steep hill on the site of a village still called P. today. P. is one of the oldest Doric settlements in Crete (the place name is pre-Greek with its own dialect [1]). At the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, P., through the mediation of Sparta, entered into an a…

Lycormas

(58 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λυκόρμας; Lykórmas). Earlier name of the river Evenus [3] in Aetolia (Str. 7,7,8; 10,2,5). The L. plays a part in the story of the rape of Marpessa [1], the daughter of Evenus by Alcippe (Hom. Il. 9,555ff.; Ov. Met. 2,245; Bacchyl. 15,34). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography B. Snell, Bakchylides' Marpessa-Gedicht, in: Hermes 80, 1952, 156-163.

Lindus

(796 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Theatre | Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture (Λίνδος; Líndos). [German version] A. Topography Town on the eastern coast of Rhodes in an exposed topographical situation, with an acropolis rising steeply (116m) from the sea and a natural twin harbour. The territory of L. extended to more than half of the island. L. held land in Asia Minor (Physcus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] B. History Together with Ialysus and Camirus, L. formed the triad…

Mentores

(58 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tribe of the northern Adriatic (Dalmatia), in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 62 neighbours but in Plin. HN 1,139 part of the Liburni (together with the Himani, Encheleae, Peucetti). The M. were later ruled by the Iapodes. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung u. Ges. der röm. Prov. Dalmatia, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.

Nesti

(36 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νέστοι/ Néstoi). Tribe, probably Thracian or Illyrian, of the north-eastern Adriatic, with territory between the Nestus and the Naro (Ps.-Scyl. 23f.; Apoll. Rhod. 4,1215: Νεσταῖοι/ Nestaîoi). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography J.J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 7.

Lappa

(167 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete | Macedonia, Macedones | Pompeius (Λάππα; Láppa). Town in western Crete (Str. 10,4,3) near the modern village of Argyropolis. Involved in the internal Cretan conflicts of the Lyttian War in 220 BC (Pol. 4,53-55). L. concluded an alliance with Gortyn around 200 BC, acknowledging the supremacy of its eastern neighbour [1. no. 31, p. 265-267]. In 183 BC, L. was one of the 30 Cretan towns to unite in a coalition with Eumenes II [2. 179]. In 67 BC, L. was destroyed by the Romans. Under Augustus, L. received the privileged status of a ci…

Mare Tyrrhenum

(151 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] The Tyrrhenian Sea, the western part of the Mediterranean Sea ( Mare Nostrum), bordered by the Italian west coast, the Sicilian north coast and by Corsica and Sardinia. The name goes back to the Greek name of the Etruscans (Τυρσανοί/ Tyrsanoí; Τυρσηνικὸν πέλαγος/ Tyrsēnikòn pélagòs in Thuc. 4,24). The Romans spoke of the Tuscum mare (Varro, Rust. 3,9,17; Cic. Orat. 3,19,69; Liv. 5,33,8) or, in contrast to the mare superum (Adriatic), of the mare inferum (Cic. Att. 9,5,1). Before Roman rule was established in the Punic Wars, the Mare Tyrrhenum was freque…

Oaxus

(203 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὄαξος/ Óaxos, Ἄξος/ Áxos). Mountain town in northern central Crete bordering on the region of Tylissus, c. 30 km to the south of Heraklion and called Axos in later sources (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄ.). O. was situated on the northern foothills of the Ida mountain range, on a steep acropolis with few archaeological remains (walls). Already inhabited in late Minoan times, O. had developed since the 8/7 cents. BC into a significant town whose building fabric is preserved today only in a rudimentary form. …

Knossos

(691 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Christianity | Coloniae | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Crete | Apollo | Linear B | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Κνωσός; Knōsós; in later practice the spelling is Κνωσσός/ Knōssós; Latin usually Gnosos or Gnosus). City in central Crete, about 5 km south-east of Heraklion on the western bank of the river Caeratus; settlement already too…

Rhithymna

(106 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ῥίθυμνα/ Rhíthymna). City on the northwest coast of Crete (Plin. HN 4,59), modern Rethymnon, settled already in the Minoan period (temple and necropolis in the south of the city). Its temporary renaming as Arsinoe (after the wife of Ptolemaeus [7] IV) in the 3rd century BC indicates Ptolemaic influence. No remains from the Classical and Hellenistic periods survive, but one building from the late Roman period does. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae 2, 268-277  I. F. San…

Aecae

(81 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town in  Apulia on the via Traiana (Tab. Peut. 6,3), modern Troia. In the Second Punic War, it was at times allied with Hannibal, 214 BC recaptured by Rome (Liv. 24,20,5). In the later imperial period colonia Augusta Apula Aecae. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 844 L. Vendola, Su alcune iscrizioni latine di Aecae (Troia), in: Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia di Bari 27/28, 1984/85, 23-39.

Tityrus

(53 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τίτυρος; Títyros). Extended headland in the northwest of Crete on the Rodopou peninsula, about 16 km long and 6 km wide, with a sanctuary to Dictynna in the extreme north (Str. 10,4,12). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Guarducci (ed.), Inscriptiones Creticae vol. 2, 1939, 129 f.  D. Gondicas, Recherches sur la Crète occidentale, 1988, 286.

Natural catastrophes

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] For the whole of antiquity there are numerous reports of natural catastrophes (NC). Especially in the eastern Mediterranean, but also in Italy, tectonic conditions resulted in an extraordinary susceptibility for frequently disastrous seismic activity (earthquakes and resulting tsunami, volcanic eruptions). The ancient perception was that phenomena such as storms, epidemics, rains of stones, comets (Cic. Nat. deor. 2,14) and solar and lunar eclipses (e.g. Plut. Nicias 23; Eclipses) were also in the category of NC. Earthquakes (cf. map) …
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