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Lacus Brigantinus

(140 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Flußsee, gebildet vom Rhenus, am Alpennordfuß (538,5 km2, größte Tiefe 252 m), ben. nach den anwohnenden Brigantii (Brigantium), h. Bodensee (nach der Kaiserpfalz Bodman). Von Strab. 4,3,3 ohne eigenen Namen erwähnt (vgl. auch Strab. 4,4,9; 7,1,5; 5,1; Mela 3,24; Cass. Dio 54,22,4; erstmals bei Plin. nat. 9,63: lacus Raetiae Brigantinus). Seine Umwohner waren Vindelici, Helvetii und Raeti. Mela 3,24 unterscheidet Obersee ( lacus Venetus) und Untersee ( lacus Acronus). Plin. nat. 9,63 erwähnt eine Fischart mustela im l.B.; Amm. 15,4,3 nimmt die L des l…

Arrabona

(82 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Pannonia Militärstützpunkt und Straßenknoten am oberpannonischen limes an der Mündung des Ar(r)abo (Ptol. 2,11,5; 14,1; 15,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3; Marcianos 2,36) in die Donau (Itin. Anton. 267,10; Not. dign. occ. 34,27; Geogr. Rav. 4,19), h. Györ, dt. Raab. Seit Mitte des 1. Jh. n.Chr. Alenkastell (auf dem Káptalanhügel), ab dem 2.Jh. für die ala I Ulpia Contariorum Milliaria . Im Süden und Osten vicus , Brand- und Körpergräberfeld. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Dra(v)us

(65 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Ein in den norischen Alpen entspringender schiffbarer Fluß (Plin. nat. 3,147), der bei Mursa in Pannonien in die Donau mündet, h. Drau. Manche Kosmographen lassen den D. auch in der Donau entspringen (cosmographia 1,20; 24; Iulius Honorius, cosmographia B 24). Der D. war ein bed. Verkehrsweg (Ven. Fort. Vita Martini 4,649) und genoß in Pannonien als Flußgottheit Verehrung. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Alpes (Alpen)

(781 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] A. Kenntnis der Alpen Vorindeur. Bezeichnung für “Berg”. Ant. Etym. Fest. 4,9 f. (von der weißen Farbe des Schnees); Serv. georg. 3,474; Aen. 4,442; 10,13; schol. Lucan. 1,183; Isid. orig. 14,8,18 (kelt. “hohe Berge”). A. werden auch andere Gebirge gen. (Pyrenäen, A. Bastarnicae, Numidicae). Erste Erwähnungen bei Hdt. 4,49,2 (Fluß Alpis) und Lykophr. 1361 (Salpia) sind unsicher. Genauere Informationen liegen seit Hannibals Marsch 218 v. Chr. vor. Die Ausdehnung reichte im Westen bis …

Pons

(1,276 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prag) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[English version] [1] s. Straßen- und Brückenbau s. Straßen- und Brückenbau Eder, Walter (Bochum) [English version] [2] Stimmbrücke Mit p. (in der Regel im Pl. pontes) werden auch die engen “Stimmbrücken” in Rom bezeichnet, die in den comitia auf dem Weg zur Abstimmung überschritten werden mußten. Der Ursprung des Sprichworts Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere), das dazu auffordert, ‘Sechzigjährige von der Brücke zu werfen’ (Cic. S. Rosc. 100; Fest. 452; Macr. Sat. 1,5,10) wird mit dem von den Jüngeren verlangten Ausschluß der Alten von der Abstimmung…

Duria

(54 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Name zweier Nebenflüsse des Po (Plin. nat. 3,118). Der kürzere, h. Dora Riparia gen. Fluß begleitet den Alpenübergang am Mont Genèvre (Liv. 5,34,8); der längere, goldhaltige (Strab. 4,6,7) Dora Baltea fließt durch das Aosta-Tal an Ivrea vorbei und mündete bei Industria in den Po (h. bei Crescentino). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Mons Poeninus

(218 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Gebirge (Ptol. 2,12,1; 3,1,1; 20) und Paß (2469 m) auf der Route von Italien nach Gallien und Rätien, h. der Große St. Bernhard. Seit dem Neolithikum genützt, mit dichterem Verkehr ab der Latène-Zeit, diente er den Kelten für ihren Einfall in It. (Liv. 5,35,2). Spekulationen über den Zug des Hannibal (mit volksetym. Namensdeutung) weist schon Liv. 21,38,6ff. zurück. Unter Augustus wurde der M.P. von den Römern besetzt (Strab. 4,6,7; 11); Meilensteine bezeugen den Ausbau zur Fahrs…

Alpes Graiae

(70 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] A. wurde mit dem sagenhaften Alpenzug des Herakles in Beziehung gesetzt. Procuratorische Prov. am Kleinen St. Bernhard (wohl seit Claudius), oft mit den A. Poeninae verwaltet; Hauptort Axima (h. Aime). Vom 2. bis Ende des 3. Jhs. n. Chr. (Diocletianus) ist A. durch den Namen A. Atrectianae ersetzt; seither unter dem praeses der dioecesis Galliarum. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Walser, Via per A. Graias, 1986.

Ceutrones

(111 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] [1] Kleines Volk in Flandern Kleines Volk in Flandern, clientes der Nervii (Caes. Gall. 5,39,1). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography C. Goudineau, César et la Gaule, 1990  E.M. Wightman, Gallia Belgica, 1985. [English version] [2] Kelt. Volk in den Alpes Graiae Kelt. Volk in den Alpes Graiae im Tal der Isère (Caes. Gall. 1,10,4; Strab. 4,4,6; Ptol. 3,1,33), bekannt durch Kupfer-Abbau (Plin. nat. 34,3) und Käseherstellung (Plin. nat. 11,240). Verleihung des ius Latii wohl unter Claudius (Plin. nat. 3,135). Vororte waren Axima (Aime) und Darantasia (Moutiers). Graßl…

Alpes Maritimae

(120 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Nach röm. Unterwerfung ligurischer Stämme im Sommer 14 v. Chr. (Cass. Dio 54,24,3) standen die A. unter dem Kommando eines ritterlichen praefectus civitatium (Strab. 4,6,3). 63 n. Chr. Verleihung des ius Latii (Plin. nat. 3,135; Tac. ann. 15,32), Verwaltung durch einen procurator, seit dem 3. Jh. n. Chr. mit dem Titel praeses. Vorort war Cemenelum (h. Cimiez). Unter Diocletianus wurde die Prov. um Teile der Narbonensis und Alpes Cottiae vergrößert und der praefectura Galliarum ( dioecesis Viennensis) zugeteilt. Neuer Hauptort wurde Eburodunum. Graßl, Herbert (…

Emona

(210 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Legio | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Straßen h. Ljubljana (Laibach). Ort in verkehrsgünstiger Lage am Bernsteinweg und an der Verbindungslinie vom Balkan nach It. am Ufer der schiffbaren Ljubljanica. Seit dem 12. Jh.v.Chr. intensiv besiedelt (Nekropolen der Urnenfelder- und frühen Eisenzeit). Unter Augustus wohl mil. Besiedlung (Lager der legio XV Apollinaris). Stadtgründung als colonia Iulia Emona (Plin. nat. 3,147) planmäßig im Rechteck (522 × 432 m) um cardo und decumanus maximus

Eporedia

(90 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bataveraufstand | Bundesgenossensystem | Theater h. Ivrea, kelt. Siedlung an der Mündung der Dora in den Padus. Gründung der röm. Bürgerkolonie auf Geheiß der Sibyllinischen Bücher (Plin. nat. 3,123) 100 v.Chr. im Gebiet der Salassi (Ptol. 3,1,30; irrig Vell. 1,15,5 in Bagiennis). Strab. 4,6,7 erwähnt in E. einen Sklavenmarkt für die unterworfenen Alpenvölker, Plin. nat. 21,43 die dort betriebene Parfum-Herstellung. In der Spätant. Bischofssitz. Arch. Monumente: Rechteckiger Mau…

Randgruppen

(1,974 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] A. Begriff Die Soziologie beschäftigt sich seit den 20er Jahren des 20. Jh. (Schule von Chicago) mit dem Phänomen der R. Im deutschsprachigen Raum ist der Begriff seit den 60er Jahren wiss. eingeführt. Unter R. werden Minderheiten verstanden, ‘die von der Mehrheit als außerhalb der sozialen Normalität stehend betrachtet werden, also einen sozialen Außenseiterstatus haben... Gruppen, die sozial deklassiert sind und/oder sozial verachtet werden. Ein wesentlicher Teil von ihnen lebt i…

Flavia Solva

(73 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae Stadt in Noricum, h. Wagna bei Leibnitz. Seit Vespasianus municipium (Plin. nat. 3,146); Zerstörung durch Einfall von Marcomanni um 170 n.Chr., danach Wiederaufbau. Orthogonales Straßensystem mit insulae, Gräberfeld (spätant. auf dem Frauenberg). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography E. Hudeczek, F.S., in: G. Christian (Hrsg.), Leibnitz, 1988, 21-54 M. Hainzmann, E. Pochmarski, Die römerzeitlichen Inschr. und Reliefs von Schloß Seggau bei Leibnitz, 1994.

Salassi

(207 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the valley of the Duria Maior (modern Dora Baltea); according to Cato in Plin. HN 3,134, part of the Taurisci. The S. controlled the western passes of the Alps (Liv. 21,38,7; Str. 4,6,11) and collected road tolls (Str. 4,6,7; App. Ill. 17). Rich gold deposits allowed them to mint their own coins, but led to conflicts with neighbouring tribes and Roman publicani ('tax farmers'; Plin. HN 18,182). In 143 BC, Claudius [I 22] subjugated the S. (Cass. Dio 22 fr. 74,1; Liv. per. 53; Obseq. 21; Oros. 5,4,7). When the…

Tricorii

(69 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Τρικόριοι; Trikórioi). Celtic people of Gallia Narbonensis (Plin. HN 3,34) in the valley of the Drac in the Alps (Str. 4,1,11; 4,6,5). In 218 BC Hannibal [4] marched through their territory (Liv. 21,31,9; Amm.  Marc. 15,10,11). In 58 BC they joined the march of the Helvetii  (cf. App. Celt. 1,8: Τρίκουροι). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 325-330.

Duria

(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Name of two tributaries of the Po (Plin. HN 3,118). The shorter of the two, today called the Dora Riparia, flows along the Alpine pass at Mont Genèvre (Liv. 5,34,8); the longer, gold-bearing (Str. 4,6,7) Dora Baltea flows through the Aosta valley past Ivrea, and joins the Po near Industria (near modern Crescentino). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Varus

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…

Velauni(i)

(70 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic people in the western Alpes, subjugated by  Augustus (G.) between 25 and 14 BC (Plin. HN. 3,137). A treaty of hospitality (σύμβολον πρὸς Οὐελαυνίους) with a Greek city is recorded by a Greek inscription on a bronze hand (2nd/1st cent. BC, IG XIV 2432, now in the Cabinet des Médailles in Paris). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 372 f.

Trump(i)lini

(74 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpine people in the modern Val Trompia (regional name Trumplia: CIL III 7452); subjugated in 16 BC by P. Silius [II 7]  (Plin. HN 3,136) and assigned to the municipium of Brixia. The T. are mentioned in an inscription at the Sebasteion in Aphrodisias [1] (AE 1982, 892 o). A princeps and a praefectus cohortis Trumplinorum (CIL V 4910) attest to recruiting from the tribe by the Roman army. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Scar(a)bantia

(107 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] City in Pannonia on the Amber Road, modern Sopron (in Hungary). A late Celtic hilltop settlement,  it was used as a place of relocation of veterans in the early 1st cent. AD (Plin. HN 3,146); from the time of Domitianus (AD 81-96) municipium Flavium S. (Ptol. 2,14,4). Destroyed in the war against the Marcomanni (AD 167-182), it was fortified and had a Christian congregation from the beginning of the 4th cent. AD. The forum, castle wall, amphitheatre and necropoleis have been investigated. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography J. Gömöri, Recent Archaeological Find…

Vallenses

(104 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Four tribes in the Wallis canton (ILS 169: civitates quattuor Vallis Poeninae). The territory of the Nantuatae, Veragri, Seduni and Uberi was occupied by Rome in its Alpine campaign of 16/15 BC and initially administered in common with Raetia and Vindelicia (Vindelici) under a legatus. Claudius [III 1] united the V. with the Alpes Graiae, whose procurator occasionally had a residence in Octodurus. This new civitas was given Latin law (Plin. HN 3,135). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Walser, Studien zur Alpengeschichte in antiker Zeit, 1994, 59-…

Lacus Brigantinus

(178 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Lake formed by the river Rhenus at the northern foot of the Alps (538.5 km2, greatest depth 252 m), named after the Brigantii ( Brigantium) who lived there, modern Lake Constance. Mentioned by Str. 4,3,3 without a name of its own (cf. also Str. 4,4,9; 7,1,5; 5,1; Mela 3,24; Cass. Dio 54,22,4; first by Plin. HN 9,63: lacus Raetiae Brigantinus). Inhabitants of the region were the Vindelici, Helvetii and Raeti. Mela 3,24 differentiates between the upper lake ( lacus Venetus) and the lower lake ( lacus Acronus). Plin. HN 9,63 mentions a type of fish, mustela, in the lacus Briganti…

Ceutrones

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Small tribe in Flanders Small tribe in Flanders, clientes of the Nervii (Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography C. Goudineau, César et la Gaule, 1990 E. M. Wightman, Gallia Belgica, 1985. [German version] [2] Celtic people in the Alpes Graiae Celtic people in the  Alpes Graiae, in the valley of the Isère (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,4; Str. 4,4,6; Ptol. 3,1,33); known for copper mining (Plin. HN 34,3) and cheese-making (Plin. HN 11,240). Granted   ius Latii , probably under Claudius (Plin. HN 3,135). Main centres were Ax…

Druna

(16 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern Drôme, tributary of the Rhône (Auson. Mos. 479). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Arrabona

(98 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Military base and road junction on the upper Pannonian   limes , at the mouth of the Ar(r)abo (Ptol. 2,11,5; 14,1; 15,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3; Marcianos 2,36) into the Danube (It. Ant. 267,10; Not. Dign. occ. 34,27; Geogr. Rav. 4,19), modern Györ, German name Raab. From the middle of the 1st cent. AD alae fort (on the Káptalan hill), from the 2nd cent. garrison of the   ala I Ulpia Contariorum Milliaria .   Vicus to the south and east, burial and cremation graves. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Ucenni

(36 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpine people in the Romanche valley at L'Oisans (Str. 4,1,11; 4,6,5: Ἰκόνιοι/ Ikónioi), subjugated by Augustus  (Plin. HN. 3,137). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 318.

Segovii

(41 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Tribe in the Alpes Cottiae, mentioned on the Augustus Arch in Segusio (CIL V 7231; [1. 77]). Not located, presumably at Montgenèvre in the French Alps. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography 1 J. Prieur, La province romaine des Alpes Cottiennes, 1968, 77.

Taurisci

(287 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Ταυρίσκοι/ Taurískoi). Celts in the area of the Alpes and the Ister [1] (Danube), first mentioned at the southern edge of the western Alpes, where they appeared in 225 BC as part of the Celtic war alliance against Rome (Pol. 2,15,8; 28,4; 30,6); the Taurini were also counted among them (Pol. 3,60,8). Cato Orig. 2,6 includes the Lepontii and the Salassi among the T. In the late 1st cent. BC, Timagenes [1] (FGrH 88 F 2) mentions that the tribal hero, a Gaulish tyrant, was annihilate…

Flavia Solva

(82 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town in Noricum, modern Wagna near Leibnitz. Municipium (Plin. HN 3,146) from the time of Vespanian; destroyed by the invasion of Marcomanni around AD 170, built up again after that. Orthogonal street system with insulae, burial area (from Late Antiquity, on the Frauenberg). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography E. Hudeczek, F.S., in: G. Christian (ed.), Leibnitz, 1988, 21-54 M. Hainzmann, E. Pochmarski, Die römerzeitlichen Inschr. und Reliefs von Schloß Seggau bei Leibnitz, 1994.

Alpes Maritimae

(129 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] After Roman subjugation of Ligurian tribes in the summer of 14 BC (Cass. Dio 54. 24. 3), the Alpes Maritimae stood under the command of a knightly praefectus civitatium (Str. 4,6,3). In AD 63 the conferment of the   ius Latii (Plin. HN 3,135; Tac. Ann. 15,32), administration by a procurator, with the title praeses since the 3rd cent. AD. A suburb was  Cemenelum (today Cimiez). Under Diocletian the province was enlarged by parts of the Narbonensis and  Alpes Cottiae and allocated to the praefectura Galliarum ( dioecesis Viennensis).  Eburodunum became the new capital. Graßl…

Druentia

(77 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern river Durance, rises in the  Alpes Cottiae and flows into the Rhône (Str. 4,1,3; 11; Ptol. 2,10,4). It was along this torrential river (Str. 4,6,5; Plin. HN 3,33; Auson. Mos. 479) that Hannibal marched with his army (Liv. 21,32,8; 32,6; Sil. Pun. 3,468; Amm. Marc. 15,10,11). Nautae Druentici are mentioned in inscriptions (CIL XII 731; 982). In late antiquity the region's security was maintained by fortresses (Cassiod. Var. 3,41,2). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Victumulae

(115 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Ἰκτούμουλαι/ Iktoúmoulai). Settlement of Celtic Insubres in the territory of Vercellae [1]. Expanded, fortified and settled with inhabitants of the surrounding area by the Romans as a trade centre in the war with the Galli (225-222 BC) (Liv. 21,57,9 f.). In 218 BC Hannibal [4] pitched camp near V. (Liv. 21,45,3) before conquering the town (Liv. 21,57,9 ff.). In the process the men of the settlement are said to have burned themselves in their houses or killed themselves and their families (Diod. 25,17). A lex censoria prohibited the tenants of nearby rich goldmi…

Seduni

(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe on the upper Rhône in the modern Swiss canton of Valais (Liv. 21,38,9), who fought against Caesar (Caes. Gall. 3,1,1 ff.; 3,7,1) and were subjected by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137); Their Late Antiquity capital Sedunum (modern Sion) was named after them. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 309-311.

Mons Poeninus

(251 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Mountain (Ptol. 2,12,1; 3,1,1; 20) and pass (2,469 m) on the route from Italy into Gaul and Rhaetia, the modern Great St. Bernhard. Used from the Neolithic period, traffic increasing from the La Tène period, it served the Celts on their invasion of Italy (Liv. 5,35,2). Liv. 21,38,6ff. was already dismissing speculation concerning the expeditionary route of  Hannibal (with etymological place-name interpretation based on the ethnic). Under Augustus, the MP was occupied by the Romans…

Savincates

(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the Alpes Cottiae, mentioned on the Augustus Arch in Segusio (CIL V 7231) and at the Mausoleum of Escoyères en Queyras (CIL XII 80). It can therefore presumably be located in the region to the southeast of  Briançon. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 175-177, 356 f.

Valcum

(70 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: ( Volgum, modern Fenékpuszta). Station on the road from Sopianis to Savaria at the western end of Lacus Pelso (modern Lake Balaton; It. Ant. 233,3). Late Antiquity fortress with numerous excavated buildings, including the Palatium, a warehouse and a basilica. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography L. Barkóczi, s. v. V., PE 952 E. Toth, Zur Urbanisierung Pannoniens, in: Folia Archaeologica 37, 1986, 163-181.

Alpes Cottiae

(129 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] After the entry of the regnum into the Roman empire, administration by means of  Cottius as praefectus civitatium (CIL V 7231), after the death of Cottius II in AD 63, transformation of the Alpes Cottiae (AC) into a procuratorial province (Suet. Nero 1), since the 3rd cent. AD under a praeses; main town  Segusio; other centres were  Eburodunum and Brigantio (today Briançon). Under Diocletian the western part came to the  Alpes Maritimae, the eastern part was allocated under a praeses to the dioecesis Italia (Amm. Marc. 15,10,6). Starting in the 6th cent. AD, Lig…

Marginalized groups

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A. Definition Since the 1920s sociologists (Chicago School) have studied the phenomenon of marginalized groups (MG). In the German-speaking countries scholars have used the term ( Randgruppen) since the 60s. MG are defined as minorities ‘who are seen by the majority as outside of the social norm, and who therefore have the status of social outsiders ... groups who are socially declassed and/or are socially despised. A significant percentage of them live in poverty’ [3. 666]. Population groups whose values,…

Vennones

(105 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic people in the area around Comum (Str. 4,6,6: Οὐέννωνες/ Ouénnōnes), subjugated by the Roman proconsul P. Silius [II 7] in 16 BC (Cass. Dio 54,20,1: Οὐέννιοι/ Ouénnioi), probably identical with the Vennonetes mentioned by Plin. HN 3,136 in an inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium (CIL V 7817; Tropaea Augusti ). The V. mentioned in Str. 4,6,8 as a subtribe of the Vindelici should probably be distinguished from the latter, and similarly the Vennonenses located by Plin. HN 3,135 on the upper reaches of the Rhenus [2]; these in turn are presumably the Οὐέννονες ( Ou énnones…

Veamini(i)

(41 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Ligurian tribe in the  Alpes Maritimae, subjugated by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137;  cf. the inscription on the Augustus Arch in Segusio: CIL V 7231). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruch, Les peuples préromaines du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 360 f.

Vintium

(55 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Οὐίντιον). Municipium in the Alpes Maritimae in the territory of the Ligurian Nerusii (Ptol. 3,1,41; Notitia Galliarum 17,8), modern Vence to the west of Nice; a bishopric since the 5th century  (Greg. Tur. Franc. 9,24). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 368 f.  Rivet, 342.

Rigomagus

(288 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] Roman fort in Germania Inferior Roman fort in Germania Inferior (Germani [1] II.) on the road from Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) to Confluentes [1] (Koblenz), modern Remagen. At least from the Claudian era a wood and earth fort existed; from the Flavian era, a stone fort stood in the same place. Numerous stone inscriptions are extant. R. was a beneficiarii station from the 2nd half of the 2nd to the middle of the 3rd cents. AD. A hoard of coins from AD 270/280 (274/5?) has been connected with the occupation of …

Lacus Pelso

(302 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (also L. Pelsois, L. Pelsodis). Lake in Pannonia (today 591 km2, 106 m above sea level, average depth 3 m), important as a shipping route with many overland connections, modern Balaton in western Hungary. Pliny (HN 3,146) has Lacus Pelso (LP) border on the territory of the Norici ( Noricum) and the deserta Boiorum ( Boiohaemum), which commonly led to the assumption that Lake Neusiedel was also called LP [1. 26f.; 2; 3. 61]. While the area west of LP is supposed to have been dependent on the Norici in the early 1st cent. AD [4. 15f.]…

Iugum Cremonis

(36 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern Mont Cramont on the route of the Little St Bernard Pass, over which, according to Coelius Antipater (HRR fr. 14 = Liv. 21,38,7), Hannibal crossed the Alps. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Eporedia

(117 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Batavian Revolt Mod. Ivrea, Celtic settlement at the confluence of the Dora and the Padus. the Roman citizen colony was founded in 100 BC at the order of the Sibylline oracle (Plin. HN 3,123) within the territory of the  Salassi (Ptol. 3,1,30; falsely Vell. Pat. 1,15,5 in Bagiennis). According to Str. 4,6,7, there was a slave market in E. for the subjugated Alpine tribes, and Plin. HN 21,43 mentions E. for its perfume production. In late antiquity, it becam…

Octodurus

(148 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Capital of the Veragri on the route through the Great Saint Bernard pass from Italy to Gaul, modern Martigny. In 57 BC the battle between the Twelfth Legion under Sulpicius Galba and the Gauls took place there (Caes. B Gall. 3,1,4); Roman occupation in c. 15 BC. Under Claudius in c. AD 47, O. was refounded as Forum Claudii Augusti or Vallensium with Latin rights (Plin. HN 3,135). In the subsequent period it grew into a reloading point for Alpine traffic, laid out like an insula, with forum (with basilica), baths, nymphaeum, amphitheatre, Gallo-Roman peripteral tem…

Alpes Graiae

(80 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpes Graiae (AG) was connected with the legendary march through the Alps by Heracles. Procuratorial province at the Little St. Bernhard (likely since Claudius), often administered with the Alpes Poeninae; capital is Axima (today Aime). From the 2nd until the end of the 3rd cent. AD (Diocletian), AG is replaced by the name Alpes Atrectianae; from then it is under the praeses of the dioecesis Galliarum. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Walser, Via per A. Graias, 1986.

Dra(v)us

(69 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A navigable river having its source in the Norian Alps (Plin. HN 3,147), flowing into the Danube at Mursa in Pannonia, modern Drava. Some cosmographers also have the Draus rise in the Danube (cosmographia 1,20; 24; Iulius Honorius, cosmographia B 24). The Draus was an important transportation route (Ven. Fort. Vita Martini 4,649) and enjoyed veneration in Pannonia as a river deity. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
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