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Paisos

(109 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Παισός). Ortschaft in der Troas (Hom. Il. 2,822; 5,612), wohl milesische Gründung (Strab. 13,1,19). P. war über den gleichnamigen Fluß mit dem Meer verbunden. Die Lage von P. wird bei Fanar, nordöstl. vom h. Çardak vermutet [1. 99]. Nachbarstädte waren Lampsakos und Parion, die wie P. 497 v.Chr. von Daurises, dem Schwiegersohn des Dareios [1] I. erobert wurden (Hdt. 5,117). Im Attisch-Delischen Seebund zahlte P. 1000 Drachmen (ATL 3,26, Nr. 135). Zur Zeit Strabons (um die Zeiten…

Lekton

(101 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Λεκτόν, Λεκτός, Kap Lekton). Westl. Ausläufer des troischen Ida, der bis in die Agäis reicht (Hom. Il. 14,283; Hdt. 9,114; Thuk. 8,101; v.a. Strab. im 13. B.). Die Quellen lassen nur darauf schließen, daß Kap Lekton oder ein Ort L. in der Nähe des h. Babakale lag, Genaueres läßt sich nicht ausmachen. In der Nähe stand ein arch. nicht nachweisbarer Altar für die Zwölfgötter (Strab. 13,1,48), der Sage nach von Agamemnon errichtet. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 227  L. Bürchner, s.v. L., RE 12, 1889  J.M. Cook, The Troad, 19…

Larisa

(1,854 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα). Name zahlreicher Orte Griechenlands und Kleinasiens, vgl. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [English version] [1] Burgberg von Argos Der 289 m hohe Burgberg von Argos mit myk. Resten (nicht genau identifiziert) [1]. Der Tempel des Zeus Larisaios und der Athena Polias unter der großen venezianischen Burg ist ausgegraben. Belege: Strab. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [English version] [2] Stadt der Achaia Phthiotis Bed. Stadt der Achaia Phthiotis am Süd…

Aigai

(494 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] [1] Residenz und Begräbnisstätte der maked. Argeadenkönige Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaimenidai | Bildung | Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Makedonia, Makedones | Makedonia, Makedones | Perserkriege (Aigeai, Αἰγαί, Αἰγέαι). Residenz und Begräbnisstätte der maked. Argeadenkönige beim h. Vergina. Ausgangspunkt der maked. Eroberung von Pieria und Bottiaia, Hauptresidenz, bis im 4. Jh. v. Chr. Pella dazu ausgebaut wurde. Seither nur zeremonielle Bedeutung. Fundort der Königsgräber (“Grab Philippo…

Kaïkos

(152 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Zingg, Reto (Basel)
(Κάϊκος). [English version] [1] Fluß in Westkleinasien h. Bakır Çayı. Fluß in Westkleinasien (Hdt. 6,28; 7,42; Xen. an. 7,8,18; Strab. 12,8,12; 13,1,70; Arr. an. 5,6,4; Paus. 1,10,4; 5,13,3). Er entspringt im Westen des Temnos-Gebirges, einer Landschaft, die bei Livius (37,37,3) und Plinius (nat. 5,125) als Teuthrania bezeichnet wird. Die nach dem K. ben. Ebene war fruchtbar und gut besiedelt. Zw. Elaia und Pitane in der Aiolis erreichte der K. das Meer, wo er das Land durch Ablagerungen weit in die Bucht von Elaia (den Ἐλαΐτης κόλπος, h. Candarlı körfezi) hinausschob. Schwertheim, E…

Adramyttion

(425 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Pergamon | Perserkriege | Xenophon (Ἀδραμύττιον oder Ἀτραμύττιον). Die Polis A. wurde im 19. Jh. westl. des Dorfes Kemer auf dem Kap Karatas (h. Ören) gegenüber von Lesbos lokalisiert. Zur Frühgesch. von A. liegen widersprüchliche Nachrichten (Vorgängersiedlung) vor. Umstritten ist auch, ob die Gründung auf thrak. oder lyd. Initiative zurückgeht. Steph. Byz. s. v. A. nennt den Bruder des lyd. Königs Kroisos, Adramys, als Gründer der Stadt [1. 185 f.]. Im lyd. Reich scheint A. eine wichtige Rolle gespielt z…

Hamaxitos

(192 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Ἁμαξιτός). Kleine Stadt in der Troas, nach Cook ([1. 231ff.], dort auch die älteren Lokalisierungen) im Bereich des nordwestl. vom h. Gülpınar an der Küste gelegenen Beşik Tepesı. Vermutlich von den Achaioi gegr., wurde H. von kilikischen Bewohnern von Chrysa besiedelt (Strab. 13,1,63). Nach 427 v.Chr. war H. wohl von Mytilene abhängig, wurde in den att. Tributquotenlisten mit 4 Talenten Phoros zu den aktaiischen Poleis gezählt. Etwa 400 v.Chr. stand H. unter der Herrschaft der …

Gambreion

(92 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Γάμβρειον). G. und Palaigambreion erwähnt Xenophon (hell. 3,1,6f.) als Dynastensitze, die sich 399 v.Chr. den Spartanern anschlossen. Beide Orte werden östl. von Pergamon beim h. Kınık vermutet. Über die frühere Zeit ist nichts bekannt, es findet sich keine Erwähnung in den att. Tributquotenlisten. Eigene Mz.-Prägung findet sich dagegen im 4. und 3. Jh. v.Chr. Eine Inschr. (CIG 3562) nennt 326/5 v.Chr. einen König Alexandros von G. und den Tempel einer Artemis Lochia, dessen Spuren sich bis h. erh. haben. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, …

Myrina

(595 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Külzer, Andreas (Wien) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μύρινα). [English version] [1] Amazone Amazone (Dionysius Chalcidensis FHG 4 F 2), Tochter des Kretheus, Frau des Thoas (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,601); Eponymin der gleichnamigen Stadt (M. [3]) auf Lemnos (Hekataios FGrH 1 F 138c). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [English version] [2] Tochter des Teukros Tochter des Teukros, Gattin des Dardanos [1], zuerst erwähnt bei Hom. Il. 2,814; ihr Grabhügel wurde vor Troia als Batieia gezeigt (Strab. 12,8,6). Sie wurde in der Ant. für eine Amazone gehalten. Weite Raubzüge nennt Diod. 3,54f. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [English version] [3] Stadt im SW von Lemnos Dies…

Rhodios

(86 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Ῥόδιος). Fluß in der Troas (Hom. Il. 12,20), h. Koca Çay. Er entspringt im Ida [2] und mündet zw. Abydos und Dardanos in den Hellespontos (Strab. 13,1,28). Im Quellgebiet lagen die beiden Städtchen Gordos und Kleandreia (Strab. 13,1,44). Mz. röm. Zeit aus Dardanos zeigen den Flußgott Rh. (SNG Danish Nat. Mus., Troas, Nr. 310). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. Rh. (2), RE 1 A, 956  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 207 f.  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 55.

Assos

(596 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attisch-Delischer Seebund | Bildung | Kolonisation | Perserkriege | Theater (Ἄσσος). Der Platz des späteren A. - ein bis zu 234 m hoher Trachytfelsen an der Südwestküste der Troas, h. Behramkale, - war seit der Bronzezeit besiedelt. Man hat deshalb versucht, hier im Siedlungsgebiet der Leleges das homer. Pedasos zu lokalisieren [3. 245f.]. Die aiol. Kolonie A. wurde von Methymna aus gegr. (Strab. 13,1,58). A. selbst war Ausgangspunkt der Gründung v…

Atarneus

(261 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Ἀταρνεύς). In der gleichnamigen Landschaft an der Gegenküste von Mytilene nordöstl. vom h. Dikili gelegen, war eine ion. Polis in der Aiolis (Aioleis) (Plin. nat. 37,156), laut Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄταρνα auf der Grenze zw. Lydia und Mysia. Ähnlich wie in Assos gruppierte sich das Stadtgebiet um die auf einem ca. 200 m hohen Hügel angelegte Akropolis (h. Kaléh Agili). Die Sicherheit von A. resultierte aus einem noch teilweise sichtbaren dreifachen Mauerring aus hell. Zeit [1. 682]. …

Killa

(217 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Nünlist, René (Basel)
[English version] [1] Name zweier Orte (Κίλλα, lat. Cilla). Es scheint mindestens zwei Orte dieses Namens gegeben zu haben. Den einen erwähnt Hdt. 1,149; er gehörte zu den 11 aiolischen Städten und lag nach [1. 216f.] nicht in der Troas. Der andere wird in der ‘Ilias erwähnt (Hom. Il. 1,38; 452) und soll in der Nähe von Chryse und Thebe - wohl nordwestl. der Bucht von Adramytteion - gelegen haben; seine genaue Lokalisierung ist noch nicht gelungen. Davon unterschieden werden kann vielleicht auch noch di…

Perkote

(156 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Περκώτη). Stadt in der Troas, mit dem h. Bergaz Köyü zw. Abydos und Lampsakos an der Praktios-Mündung (h. Bergaz Çayı) zu identifizieren. P. wurde wohl in der 1. H. des 5. Jh.v.Chr. von der schon bei Homer (Hom. Il. 2,831; 2,834; 11,229) erwähnten Nachbarstadt Palaiperkote gegründet (Strab. 13,1,20). Themistokles erhielt P. vom Perserkönig zum Lehen (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 17a; Phanias FHG 2,296; Athen. 1,54). Am Attisch-Delischen Seebund war P. mit 1000 Drachmen beteiligt. 387 v.Ch…

Aisepos

(89 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Αἴσηπος). Fluß in Mysia, h. Gönen Çay, entspringt auf dem Kotylos im Ida-Gebirge (Strab. 13,1,43). Er wird schon von Homer erwähnt (Il. 2,825; 4,91; 12; 21). Auf seinem Lauf nach Nordosten nimmt er den Karesos auf. Nach 500 Stadien ergießt er sich bei der Insel Halone (h. Pasalimani) in die Propontis (Strab. 13,1,11). Sein Tal bildete schon zu Homers Zeiten die östl. Grenze der Troas (Strab. 13,1,9) und war im Mittellauf dicht besiedelt (Strab. 13,1,45). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923.

Abarnias

(91 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[English version] (Abarnis, Abarnos, Ἀβαρνίας). Mit A. wird von ant. Autoren die Küste 5 km nordöstlich von Lampsakos (Apoll. Rhod. 1,932; Orph. Arg. 489) bezeichnet [1. 93 f.], die zum Gebiet dieser Polis gehörte. Während der Schlacht von Aigospotamoi (405 v. Chr.) waren hier die Hauptsegel der spartanischen Flotte gelagert (Xen. hell. 2,1,29). Steph. Byz. s. v. A. erwähnt auch eine Polis A., auf die es jedoch keine weiteren Hinweise gibt. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923. G. Hirschfeld, s. v. Abarnis, RE 1, 17.

Thymbra

(141 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Θύμβρα/ Thýmbra). Town in the Troas on the right bank of the Thymbrius, probably identical with a place of settlement near the Hanaytepe to the south of Akçaköy (rich finds of 6th- and 5th-cent. BC pottery; identification and find-spots in [1. 110-123]). T. is described as a polis only in Steph. Byz. s. v. Θ. - according to which Thymbrus, a friend of Dardanus [1], was founder - and elsewhere as a plain ( pedíon) or place ( tópos) (Str. 13,1,35; Suda s. v. Θ.; Hsch. s. v. Θ.; Hom. Il. 10,430). T. was famous because of its (not yet located) Thymbraeum, a …

Caicus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Zingg, Reto (Basle)
(Κάϊκος; Káikos). [German version] [1] River in Western Asia Minor Today called Bakır Çayı. River in western Asia Minor (Hdt. 6,28; 7,42; Xen. An. 7,8,18; Str. 12,8,12; 13,1,70; Arr. Anab. 5,6,4; Paus. 1,10,4; 5,13,3). It rises in the western Temnus mountains, a landscape that Livy (37,37,3) and Pliny (HN 5,125) referred to as Teuthrania. The plain named after the river C. was fertile and well populated. C. reached the ocean between Elaia and Pitane in the Aeolis, where the river's sedimentation has pushed the land far into the bay of Elaia (the Ἐλαΐτης κόλπος; Elaítes kólpos, today's Can…

Neandrea

(182 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Νεανδρία/ Neandría, Νεάνδρεια/ Neándreia). Aeolian foundation of the 8th/7th cent. BC, above Alexandria [2], on the 521 m high Çiğri Dağı, which was probably already settled in the 2nd millenium BC. In mythology, Cycnus [2], lord of N., Colonae and Tenedus (?), came to the aid of his relative Priamus, king of Troy, in battle against the Greeks, and was killed by Achilles (Dictys 2,12f.; cf [3. 21f.]. N. is historically attested by its inclusion in the tribute quota lists of the Delian League with 2,000 drachm…

Abydus

(516 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin)
(Ἄβυδος; Ábydos). [German version] [1] City at the narrowest part of the Dardanelles This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture  Miletus founded A. as a polis in the 1st half of the 7th cent. BC, by permission of the Lydian king  Gyges (Str. 13,1,22). It is situated at the narrowest part of the Dardanelles, on the Asian shore, 5 km east of Çanakkale on the promontory of Cape Nagara and already known to Homer (Il.…

Aeolians

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Gschnitzer, Fritz (Heidelberg) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] [1] Name of one or more Greek tribes (Αἰολεῖς; Aioleîs). Gschnitzer, Fritz (Heidelberg) [German version] A. Etymology A. (Sg. Aioleus), older form Aiwolēwes (Sg. Aiwoleus), is the name of one or several Greek tribes and its (their) members, of which the first mention is probably in a late Mycenean text found in Cnossus (Ws 1707) and then next in Hesiod (Op. 636; fr. 9 M.-W.). The name of the tribe and the mythological personal name   Aeolus are both derived from the adjective αἰ()όλος, which was already in use in Mycenean times (as the name of a bull a3-wo-ro/ Aiwolos/KN Ch 8…

Percote

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περκώτη; Perkṓtē). City in the Troas, to be identified with today's Bergaz Köyü between Abydus and Lampsacus at the mouth of the Practius (today Bergaz Çayı). P. was probably founded in the 1st half of the 5th cent. BC by the neighbouring city of Palaepercote (Str. 13,1,20), already mentioned by Homer (Hom. Il. 2,831; 2,834; 11,229). Themistocles received P. as a fief from the Persian king (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 17a; Phanias FHG 2,296; Ath. 1,54). P. was a member of the Delian League with a contribution of 1,000 drachmai. In 387 BC, the Spartan Antalcidas was hiding f…

Gergis

(272 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γέργις; Gérgis, Gérgitha, Gergíthion, Gérgithos). City in the Troad, not located at the foot of the Balli Dağı as formerly assumed but at the Karıncalı on the Kursak deresi [1. 349]. According to Ath. 6,256 C, it was founded by the descendants of the Troes (Teucri) under the leadership of a Gergithes. In the context of Xerxes' campaign, Herodotus mentions the Gérgithes Teukroí (7,43), to whom he had referred earlier as the successor tribe of the Teucri (Hdt. 5,122). Ceramic finds from Karıncalı go back to the 6th cent. BC. G. is not mentio…

Atarneus

(293 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀταρνεύς; Atarneús). Located in the region of the same name on the coast opposite to  Mytilene, north-east of the modern Dikili, A. was an Ionian polis in Aeolis (Aeoleis) (Plin. HN 37,156), according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄταρνα ( Átarna) on the border between  Lydia and  Mysia. Like Assus, the town was centred around a hill of about 200 m in height, upon which the acropolis was situated (modern Kaléh Agili). The safety of the town was ensured by a triple walled circle, dating from the Hellenistic period, parts of whic…

Grynium

(212 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Γρύν(ε)ιον; Grýn(e)ion). Aeolian town in the north of Cyme. According to Herodotus, G. was one of the 11 old Aeolian towns (1,149). Further testimonies: Ἀχαιῶν λιμήν (‘Achaean harbour’), Scyl. 98; cf. portus Grynia, Plin. HN 5,121. As a member of the  Delian League G. paid 1/3 talent. At the end of the 5th cent. BC Gongylus of Eretria, to whom Darius had given the town as a seat for his dynasty (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6), ruled here and in Myrina. In 335 BC Parmenion conquered G. and sold…

Miletupolis, Miletopolis

(190 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Μιλητούπολις/ Milētoúpolis, Μιλητόπολις/ Milētópolis). City in Mysia. M. lay on the ‘lake of M.’ (Μιλητοπολῖτις λίμνη) and has been located near Melde, a town in the neighbourhood of modern Mustafa Kemalpaşa; cf. Tab. Peut. 9,3 (20 milia from Apollonia [6]); Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. (περὶ τῶν Ῥύνδακα). M. was founded by Athens at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC [1. 102ff.], was a member of the Delian League from no later than 410/409 BC (ATL 1,342f.;…

Hamaxitus

(202 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἁμαξιτός; Hamaxitós). Small city in the Troad, located, according to Cook ([1. 231ff.], also incl. older attempts at localisation) on the coast in the Beşik Tepesı area north-west of modern Gülpınar. Presumably founded by the Achaeans, H. was settled by the Cilician residents of Chrysa (Str. 13,1,63). After 427 BC, H. was probably dependent on Mytilene, and, in the Attic lists of tribute quotas, was listed among the Actaeic poleis with a phoros of 4 talents. In c. 400 BC, H. was under the rulership of the dynast Mania before Dercylidas' peaceful capture …

Gambrium

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάμβρειον; Gámbreion). Xenophon (Hell. 3,1,6f.) mentions G. and Palaigambreion as seats of dynasties that allied with the Spartans in 399 BC. Both places are assumed east of Pergamum near today's Kınık. Nothing is known of its earlier history; there is no reference in the Attic tribute lists. However, coins are attested in the 4th and 3rd cents. An inscription (CIG 3562) mentions a king Alexander of G. in 326-325 BC and a temple for a certain Artemis Lochia, with remains still extant. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. G., RE 7, 691.

Abrettene

(79 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀβρεττηνή; Abrettēnḗ). Region in northern  Mysia, north of Abbaitis and south of Olympene (Plin. HN 5,123; Str. 12,8,9; 11). At the time of the 2nd Triumvirate (43-36/32 BC) Cleon, a leader of the many local bands of brigands, dominated the region. Confirmed in his leadership by the future  Augustus in about 30 BC, he was also a priest of  Zeus Abrettenus [1. 154]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Schwertheim, Die Inschr. von Hadrianoi und Hadrianeia (IK 33), 1987.

Cilla

(241 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] [1] Name of two settlements (Κίλλα; Kílla, Lat. Cilla). There seem to have been at least two settlements of this name. One is mentioned in Hdt. 1,149; it was one of the eleven Aeolian cities, and, according to [1. 216f.], was not located in the Troad. The other is mentioned in the ‘Iliad’ (Hom. Il. 1,38; 452) and was supposedly located near Chryse and Thebe -- probably north-west of the bay of Adramytteum; an exact localization has not been possible as yet. Different from that was perhaps…

Macestus, Mecestus

(140 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μέγιστος; Mégistos). Aside from the Rhyndacus and the Tarsius, the largest river in northern Mysia (cf. Str. 12,8,11; Plin. HN 5,142; Pol. 5,77,8), modern Simav Çayı that like the Tarsius flows into the Rhyndacus north of Miletupolis. Attalus [4] I was encamped on the M., north of the Pelecas Mountains with the Galatian Aegosages on his campaign against Achaeus [5], when he experienced a lunar eclipse on 1 January 218 BC. A relief of Apollo Mekastenos is probably also reminiscent of this river [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished …

Troad

(719 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τρῳάς/ Trō(i)ás, gen. -ádos, fem. adj. 'Trojan', sc. 'land'), territory in the northwest of Asia Minor. It covered the region of the present-day Biga Peninsula (Biga Yarımadası). Its boundaries and nomenclature fluctuated in antiquity. The confused ancient testimonies on its frontiers are well summarized in [1. 526-531]. In general, reliance is mostly placed on Strabo (12,4,6; 13,1,1-4), who essentially refers to Homer (Homerus [1]): the T. was bounded to the north, west and south by …

Rhodius

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥόδιος/ Rhódios). River in the Troad (Hom. Il. 12,20), modern Koca Çay. It rises in the Ida [2] mountains and flows into the Hellespont between Abydus and Dardanus (Str. 13,1,28). The towns of Gordus and Cleandrea were in its source region (Str. 13,1,44). Coins from Dardanus that date to the Roman period show the river god R. (SNG Danish Nat. Mus., Troas, no. 310). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. R. (2), RE 1 A, 956  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 207 f.  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 55.

Rhoeteum

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ῥοίτειον; Rhoíteion). Coastal town in Troas in the foothills of the same name, probably founded by Astypalaea (Str. 13,1,42), about 4 km to the southwest of Ophryneum, 9 km south of Kepez on the Baba Kalesi [1. 79 f., 87-89]. In 480 BC Xerxes marched past R. (Hdt. 7,43). In 425/4 BC R. paid eight talents in the Delian League (ATL 1,393; 544; 2,82; 4,108). Its favourably sited harbour seems to have made R. rich (Thuc. 4,52; 8,101; Dio…

Assos

(680 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture (Ἄσσος; Ássos). The location of what was to become A. -- a trachyte rock (up to 234 m in height) on the south-western coast of the Troad, modern Behramkale -- had been inhabited from the Bronze Age onwards. For that reason, attempts have been made to localize the Homeric  Pedasus within the settlement area of the Leleges [3. 245f.]. The Aeolian colony of A. was a Methymnian foundatio…

Abarnias

(93 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Abarnis, Abarnos, Ἀβαρνίας; Abarnías). Abarnias is the name given by ancient authors to the coastline 5 km north-east of  Lampsacus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,932; Orph. A. 489) [1. 93 f.] which belonged to the territory of this polis. During the battle of  Aegospotami (405 BC), the main sails of the Spartan fleet were stored there (Xen. Hell. 2,1,29). Steph. Byz. (s.v. A.) is the only source also to refer to a polis of the same name. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923. G. Hirschfeld, s. v. Abarnis, RE 1, 17.

Sigeum

(270 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Σίγειον/ Sígeion, Latin Sigeum). Promontory (Σιγειὰς ἄκρα/ Sigeiàs ákra, Str. 13,1,31; 46) and city at its southern end (for the geography see [3. 173 ff.]) in the Troad; its location to the north of modern Yenişehir near Kumkale [2. 180-185] appears to be verified by inscriptions and coins. S. was founded by Mytilene and shared with Rhoeteum the territory of Ilium (Troy) until the latter was refounded (Str. 13,1,42). Conflicts between Athe…

Adramyttium

(482 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Pergamum | Persian Wars (Ἀδραμύττιον; Adramýttion or Ἀτραμύττιον; Atramýttion). The polis of A. was discovered and identified in the 19th cent. to the west of the village of Kemer on Cape Karatas (modern Ören) opposite  Lesbos. The early history is subject to contradictory evidence (regarding an earlier settlement). It is also unclear whether Thracian or Lydian initiative had led to its foundation. Steph. Byz. s. v. A. names  Adramys, a brother of the Lydian king  Croesus, as its founder [1. 185 f.]. Within the Ly…

Colonae

(356 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Κολωναί; Kolōnaí). [German version] [1] Attic mesogeia deme belonging to the Leontis phyle Attic mesogeia deme belonging to the Leontis phyle, provided two bouleutaí, on Mount Pentelicon [1. 37217] near Hecale [2. 64f.] or near Michaleza [3. 131]. The Demotikon is Κολωνεύς and also Κολωνῆθεν.  Colonus Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. J. Bicknell, Akamantid Eitea, in: Historia 27, 1978, 369-374 2 W. E. Thompson, Notes on Attic Demes, in: Hesperia 39, 1970, 64-67 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 61f., 131. Traill, Attica 6, 47, 62, 69, 110 no. 70, 125, table 4. …

Myrina

(670 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μύρινα; Mýrina). [German version] [1] Amazon Amazon (Dionysius Chalcidensis FHG 4 F 2), daughter of Cretheus, wife of Thoas (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,601); eponym of the city of the same name (M. [3]) on Lemnos (Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 138c). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Teucer Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardanus [1], first mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,814; her burial mound was displayed outside Troy as Batieia (Strab. 12,8,6). She was regarded as an Amazon in ancient times. Extensive raids are mentioned in Diod. 3,54f. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] City in southw…

Apollonia

(1,493 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλωνία; Apollōnía). [German version] [1] City in southern  Illyricum This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League City in southern  Illyricum, in antiquity on the north bank of the Aous, c. 6 km from the sea, near modern Pojani (Albania). Founded by Corinthians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC, with the participation of Corcyra (mythical oikist Gylax). Hdt. 9,93-95, Paus. 5,22,3 f. and inscriptions attest to the wealth of A. during the 5th cent. BC; …

Callicolone

(174 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Καλλικολώνη; Kallikolṓnē). Place 40 stades east of Troy, the settlement mound of Karatepe east of Sarıçalı (also Sarçalı) [3. 110f.]. There, above the river Simois, Ares allegedly called the Trojans to battle (Hom. Il. 20,51; Str. 13,1,35). According to schol. Hom. Il. 20,3, it was also the location of the contest of the three goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite (judgement of  Paris). Whereas Forchhammer only discovered few traces of habitation and some foundations [1. 26], Virc…

Lampsacus

(640 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Xenophon | Colonization | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League (Λάμψακος; Lámpsakos). Town in the Troad (Str. 13,1,18f.; Ptol. 5,2,2), named after Lampsace, daughter of the Bebrycian king Mandron; modern Lâpseki, entirely built over in modern times, so that ancient remains are scarce. L. was founded (Eus. chronikoi kanones 95d) in 654/3 BC by Phocaeans [2. 107f.], not by Milesians (Str. 13,1,19). In 560 BC, a dispute broke out with…

Granicus

(96 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γράνικος; Gránikos). River in Asia Minor which has its source in the Ida mountains (Kaz Dağları) and flows through the Troad along the Mysian border. North of Biga (where the river is known today as Biga Çayı) it flows into the Propontis. It is famous for the battle which Alexander the Great won here against the Persian satrap Memnon in summer 334 BC. The site of the battle is sought today not far from Biga, near the road from Zelia to Lampsacus. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 L. Bürchner, s.v. G. 3), RE 7, 1814f.

Scamander

(203 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σκάμανδρος/ Skámandros, Latin Scamander). River in Troas, modern River Menderes, which rises below the highest peak of the Ida [2]. Together with the Simoeis it forms the Plain of Troy (cf. Hom. Il. 5,77). Below Scepsis and Cebren a road leads along its bank into the interior of Asia Minor. In the Iliad the S. appears as a god; it is named S. only by humans, the gods call it Xanthus (Hom. Il. 20,73). As a son of Zeus (ibid. 14,434) and Idaea it is the father of  Teucer and hence an …

Paesus

(126 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Παισός; Paisós). Town in the Troas (Hom. Il. 2,822; 5,612), probably founded by the Milesians (Str. 13,1,19). P. was linked with the sea via the river of the same name. The position of P. is presumed to be near Fanar, north-east of modern Çardak [1. 99]. The neighbouring cities were Lampsacus and Parium, which like P. were conquered in 497 BC by Daurises, the son-in-law of Darius [1] I (Hdt. 5,117). In the Delian League, P. paid 1,000 drachmas (ATL 3,26, No. 135). At the time of S…

Achilleum

(123 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀχίλλειον; Achílleion). Town on the north-western coast of the  Troas near Besik Bay [1. 185 f.; 2. 195], built by  Mytilene in the 6th cent. BC as a base against Athenian-occupied  Sigeum (Hdt. 5,94; Str. 13,1,39); probably one of the Aeolian coastal towns ( Aeolians [1. 180]). In the Hellenistic period, A. was taken by Illium ( Troy), and destroyed following an uprising (Str. 13,1,39). The town took its name from the burial mount of Achilles, visited by, amongst others, Alexander the Great (Arr. Anab. 1,2,12) and Caracalla (Cass. Dio 77,16). Schwertheim, Elmar …

Mygdonia

(367 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μυγδονία; Mygdonía). [German version] [1] Region in northwestern Asia Minor Region in northwestern Asia Minor whose name is derived from the Thracian Mygdones who, like the Doliones and the Mysi (Mysia), migrated to the northwestern part of Asia Minor in the 12th cent. BC. The area in which they settled was bordered at the northwest by the Dascylitis (Δασκυλῖτις, now Kuş Gölü), at the northeast by Apameia [1]; in the southwest their settlements reached to the Mysian Olympus [13] (modern-day Uludağ), in t…

Antander

(287 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄντανδρος; Ántandros). [German version] [1] of Syracuse Brother of Agathocles [2], end of the 4th cent. BC Brother of Agathocles [2]. At the beginning of the African campaign in 310 BC appointed ‘curator of Syracuse’ (Diod. Sic. 20,4,1) by his brother, whose life he later chronicled (Diod. Sic. 21,16,5), although Jacoby considers it a mere obituary. By some scholars, e.g. by Manni, A. is considered the author of the P Oxy. 2399 (FGrH 565 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Note siceliote, I: un frammento di Antandro?, in Kokalos 12, 1966, 163-171 K. Meister…

Gargara, Gargaris

(240 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάργαρα, Γαργαρίς; Gárgara, Gargarís), town in Aeolis on the 780 m high crest of Koca Kaya, a western extension of the Ida range (Hom. Il. 8,48; 14,292; 14,352 Γάργαρον ἄκρον; Plin. HN 5,122 Gargara mons). Founded by Assus (Str. 13,1,58) and inhabited by Leleges (EM s.v. Γ.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ.), G. already existed in the mid-6th cent. BC, as temple finds on the acropolis indicate [1]. G. is mentioned in the Attic tribute lists with an amount of 4,500 drachmes. When the, probably only partial, resettlement to a …
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