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Tribus

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
Subunit of the Roman population ( populus ), arranged solely on a local basis according to residence from at least the Republican period. [German version] I. Meaning and oldest form Roman etymology already derived tribus from its recollection of tres ( 'three'), the number of the oldest tribus. According to Varro (Ling. 5,55), the Roman territory was at first divided into three parts, and the term tribus derived from the Titi(ens)es, Ramnes and Luceres ( ager Romanus primum divisus in partes tres a quo tribus appellata Titiensium, Ramnium, Lucerum 'the Roman land was first divided i…

Latin law

(922 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
( ius Latii). [German version] I. Before the dissolution of the Latin league Because of their common language and culture, Romans and Latins possessed largely identical legal systems. This fact was given precision in the foedus Cassianum . It included commercium and conubium , the right to the spoils in joint wars as well as the right to settle in other states of the Latin federation and to become citizens (basis of the exilium ). This legal status was also granted to newly founded Latin coloniae . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) II. As a legal status in the Imperium Romanum [German version] A. To th…

Lapis Satricanus

(263 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Stone inscription, slightly damaged, of the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC, discovered in 1977 at Satricum (Latium) beneath the Temple of Mater Matuta, which was constructed around 500 BC. The inscription, one of the earliest in the Latin language, is readily legible: - - -iei steterai Popliosio Valesiosio/suodales Mamartei (‘dedicated by the companions of Publius Valerius to Mars’). The incomplete beginning is probably to be read as [med h]ei (‘me here’), the object thus addressing the reader (see [1]; less likely Sal]iei, see [2], or Iun]ei, see [3]). The inscriptio…

Lex Salpensana

(95 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Municipal law from the time of Domitian (end of the 1st cent. AD) for the Latin municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Facialcazar near Utrera (province of Seville) in southern Spain, of which a bronze tablet with chs. 21-29 was found together with the lex Malacitana (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid) in 1861. The text is, with some differences, identical to the corresponding chs. in the lex Irnitana . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography CIL II 1963 ILS 6088 H. Freis, Histor. Inschr. zur röm. Kaiserzeit, 1984, no. 59 (German translation).

Votive inscriptions

(323 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] VI, which denote an object as a votive offering to a deity (or deities) by one or more persons, are among the oldest inscriptions; they may express gratitude for victory in a battle or for a merchant ship that has returned safely home. VI were often made because of a vow taken in a moment of danger, hence the formula VSLM, votum soluit libens merito ('he has honoured the vow of his own free will and according to custom'). The inscription medium was either a stone pedestal (such as for statues) or the dedicated object itself (for instance, helmets or chest ar…

Origo

(340 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] ('Derivation'). In contrast to the Greek poleis and the independent local communities of pre-Roman Italy, a distinction existed in the Hellenistic kingdoms and thereafter in the Roman Empire between the sense of belonging to the greater political unit and the feeling of membership of the community in which one was born and lived. The former was mostly called politeía in Greek and civitas (B.) in Latin, and for the latter, primarily in Ptolemaic Egypt, the Greek expression ἡ ἰδία <κώμη> ( hē idía <kṓmē>, 'one's own village') was common. In Rome from the Imperial …

Conciliabulum

(189 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Conciliabulum (from concilium) in the legal meaning is an assembly place or, more often, just the venue ( locus ubi in concilium convenitur, Fest. p. 33) at which citizens gathered for the proclamation of laws, levying etc. The word describes a settlement with elementary self-government in the territory of one of the tribus rusticae. In the context of the ager Romanus we hear of per fora et conciliabula (Liv. 25,22,4; 39,14,7 etc.), which -- as in the lex Poetelia of 358 -- provides an excellent parallel to the nundinae in the city of Rome. In late Republican laws it…

Provincia

(1,263 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Meaning of the word The etymological connection of Latin provincia (‘province’) with pro- vincere (‘defeat beforehand’) in Festus (253: “provinciae appellantur quod populus Romanus eas provicit, i.e. ante vicit”) is not plausible and probably based on a popular etymology. Likewise, Isidore’s explanation of provinciae as overseas territory ‘far from’ ( procul) Italy is no more convincing (Isid. Orig. 14,5,19: “procul positas regiones provincias appellaverunt”). The most probable link is with proto-Germanic * fro, ‘lord’ [1. 377 f.]. However, the meaning o…

Monumentum Ancyranum

(573 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Among the documents left behind by Augustus and read out in the Senate after his death in AD 14 was an index rerum a se gestarum (‘Report of Actions’), which was then published on two bronze tablets set up in front of the Mausoleum Augusti (Suet. Aug. 101,4; Cass. Dio 56,33 and R.Gest.div.Aug. prooem.; on the setting up of the tablets and their reconstruction see [8. 6 fig.]). A copy of this text with a Greek translation was attached to the temple of the imperial cult in Ancyra (modern Ankara), the capita…

Tabula Lugdunensis

(107 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Bronze tablet from Lugdunum (modern Lyon) with part of a speech by the emperor Claudius [III 1] in the Senate in which as censor in AD 47/8 he supports the wish of Gaulish nobles to be accepted into the Senate. Comparison of the original text (CIL XIII 1668 = ILS 212) with the version in Tacitus (Ann. 11,23-25) is revealing of the latter's way of working. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography H. Freis, Historische Inschriften zur römischen Kaiserzeit, 21994, no. 34 (German translation)  F. Vittinghoff, Zur Rede des Kaisers Claudius über die Aufnahme von 'Gall…

Socii

(298 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Rome's allies in Italy and, in exceptional cases, also communities and individuals outside Italy were already known as socii in antiquity. The socii in Italy were listed in the formula togatorum, a schedule which laid down the extent of the obligation to provide military contributions, as communities from which Rome was accustomed to require the provision of soldiers for the Roman army (' socii nominis(ve) Latini quibus <sc. Romani> ex formula milites in terra Italia imperare solent': lex agraria of 111 BC, FIRA 1, no. 8, ll. 21 and 50). The criterion for m…

Ingenuus

(400 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than Gallienus in 260 AD Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than  Gallienus in AD 260 by the Moesian legions after  Valerianus was captured by the Persians and the Sarmatians threatened to invade (S HA Tyr. Trig. 9,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Zon. 12,24, p. 143 D). Gallienus' cavalry leader  Aureolus defeated him at Mursa near Sirmium. I. lost his life while fleeing (Zon. loc. cit..; Aur. Vict. Caes. 32,2; Eutr. 9,8,1; Oros. 7,22,10; Chron. min. 1, 521,45 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Boch…

Lex Ursonensis

(216 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Flavian copy of the municipal law of the Caesarean colonia Iulia Genetiva in Urso, of which four almost complete tablets were found in 1870/71, and an additional 12 fragments were found in and near Osuna (province of Seville) in Southern Spain (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid) in 1925. Originally the law probably comprised nine tablets with three or five columns of text each and just over 140 sections ( rubricae), of which 61-82, 91-106 and 123-134 are almost entirely extant and several others are preserved in fragments. The charter of the colony …

Municipium

(1,885 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Etymologie and Definition It is possible that the Latin term municipes predates that of municipium. In the view of historians such as Varro (Ling. 5,179), the former is derived from munia (or respectively munera) capere, ‘the undertaking of duties’; the explanation ‘the receiving of gifts’ in [7. 26] has to be rejected in the same way as the ancient interpretation by Gellius (16,13,7) that municipium was to be seen as munus honorarium (‘honorary privilege’). Varro referred to obligations by Roman citizens such as military service and payment of taxes which the munici…

Pagus

(449 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Pl. pagi, etymologically related to pangere and pax; 'region with fixed borders'). The Latin pagus refers to the non-urbanized 'district', whose population lived in individual farms and villages ( vici; see vicus ), possibly with one or more oppida ( oppidum ) serving as a refuge; the pagus was the customary form of settlement for many Italian tribes, esp. the Oscan population of the mountainous regions of Central Italy [4] and among the Celts of Upper Italy [2]. The Romans used pagus as the designation for the subdivision of an urban territory. The pagi in the Roman Con…

Tabula Banasitana

(124 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Bronze inscription from Banasa (in Mauretania Tingitana) with copies ( exempla) of three documents and a list of 12 witnesses, probably members of the imperial consilium. It deals with a conferment of citizenship under Marcus Aurelius on 6 July AD 177: at his own request, Iulianus, a princeps of the Zegrensi tribe, and his family are granted Roman citizenship for extraordinary service ( maxima merita), without prejudice to his tribal rights ( salvo iure gentis). The TB is important evidence of the conditions for conferring citizenship at the end of the …

Senatus consultum de Bac(ch)analibus

(539 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Edict of the consuls Q. Marcius [I 17] Philippus and Sp. Postumius [I 8] Albinus, on the basis of a Senate ruling ( senatus consultum ) of 7 October 186 BC, ordering the suppression of the Bacchanalia in Rome and Italy (ll. 2 f.). The sole surviving copy of the edict, found at Tiriolo (province of Catanzaro) in 1640, is directed towards the authories in the Bruttian ager Teuranus (ll. 30), and orders official announcements to be made on at least three market days (l. 22 f.). The bronze tablet, measuring 27 x 28 cm and contained in a Baroque frame…

Meddix

(230 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Oscan medìss). Oscan ( Osci) and Volscian ( Volsci) term for an official (Fest. 123), which is etymologically equivalent to the Latin iudex. If the term refers to the supreme magistrate of a touta, an ‘(entire) people’, occasionally (for example, among the Campanians, Liv. 24,19,2) tuticus is added (analogous to magistratus populi or publicus). In Ennius [1] (Enn. Ann. 298) there is an alter meddix in addition to the summus meddix (= m. tuticus), possibly the meddix of a pagus as well. There also seem to have been other meddices whose particular responsibilities were…

Tabula Bantina

(273 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Fragments of a bronze tablet, inscribed on both sides, from Bantia (at modern Venosa) in Lucania. The front, written first, contains the sanctio of a Roman statute. Since present and future magistrates are bound in it by oath to refrain from any undertaking against the law, it is often seen as part of a l ex Appuleia ( agraria or maiestatis; Ap(p)uleius [I 11]) of 103 or 100 BC; in any case, it is from the end of the 2nd cent. BC. Listed on the back, used later, are several sections of the municipal law of Bantia (or a draft of it), in the…

Lex Malacitana

(115 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Municipal law from the time of Domitian (end of the 1st cent. AD) for the Latin municipium Flavium Malacitanum, modern Málaga in southern Spain, of which a bronze tablet was found in 1861 with chs. 51-69 together with the lex Salpensana (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid). The text of chs. 59-69 is identical, with several differences, to that of the corresponding chs. in the lex Irnitana ; this would probably also apply to the rest of the law. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography CIL II 1964 ILS 6089 H. Freis, Histor. Inschr. zur röm. Kaiserzeit, 1…
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