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Vetus Salina

(220 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman auxiliary fort and civilian settlement ( canabae and vicus) on the Aquincum - Intercisa - Altinum Limes road (Ptol. 2,16,4: Σαλίνον/ Salínon; It. Ant. 245,4: Vetus Salinae; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,16,37: Vetusalina; Tab. Peut. 5,4: Vetusalo; Geogr. Rav 220,8: Belsalino = Bet(u)salino?; CIL III 10305: ' cives Romani ad Vetussalinas consistentes'/"Roman citizens settled at VS"), modern Adony in the megye of Fejér in Hungary. Originally a wood-and-earth fort was built in VS (three building periods from the middle of the 1st cent. until the 12…

Naissus

(645 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Pilgrimage [German version] I. Site; Roman period Municipium in Moesia Superior (or Dardania; Ναϊσσός/ Naïssos: Ptol. 3,4,9; Νάϊσ(σ)ος/ Náïs(s)os: Zos. 1,45,1; 3,11,1f.; Procop. Goth. 3,40,2; Ναϊσσούπολις/ Naïssoúpolis: Procop. Aed. 4,1,31; Naissus/ Naisus is the usual form in Latin sources; Naessus: Amm. Marc. 21,10,5), modern Niš in Serbia. Originally a Thracian settlement, which by the 1st cent. AD was evidently used by the Romans as an occasional base. Its indig…

Florentiana

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Φλωρεντίανα; Phlōrentíana: Procop. Aed. 4,4,1-3). Roman fortress on the Danuvius (Danube) near the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok). Originally in Moesia Superior, from AD 271 in Dacia Ripensis, probably modern Florentin near Vidin in Bulgaria. The fortress, destroyed in late antiquity, was rebuilt at the time of Justinian for strategic reasons. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. I. Velkov, Die thrak. und dak. Stadt in der Spätant., 1959, 75 (Bulgarian with German summary) TIR L. 34, 1968, 59 (bibliography).

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Ad Novas

(137 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Military post in Pannonia inferior Military post in  Pannonia inferior (It. Ant. 246,3; Not. Dign. occ. 32,9: Novas; 32,28: equites Dalmatae, Novas; 32,40: Auxilia Novensia, Arsaciana (Antiana?) sive Novas; cf. CIL III 10665). Remains of buildings, graves, ceramics and finds of coins north-east of Zmajevac near Osijek are presumed to represent the remains of Ad Novas. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien, 1932, 112 TIR L 34, 25. [German version] [2] Military post in Moesia Superior Military post in  Moesi…

Intercisa

(301 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Military camp in Pannonia inferior Military camp, toll station and civilian settlement near the limes of Pannonia inferior on the Aquincum - - Altinum - Mursa road (It. Ant. 245,3; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,25f.; 38), modern Dunaújváros, district of Fejér in Hungary. This fortification, which was originally made of wood and earth, was probably built by the ala I Augusta Ituraeorum sagittariorum in the late Flavian period. A military base of the ala I Flavia Augusta Britannica (AD 105-106), the ala I Tungrorum Frontoniana (until 118/9) and the ala I Thracum veteranoru…

Germisara

(86 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia (CIL III 1395; Γερμίζερα; Germízera Ptol. 3,8,4; cf. Germigera Geogr. Rav. 4,7; Germizera Tab. Peut. 8,1). Roman fortress and civilian settlement in Dacia superior, modern Geoagiu (Romania). G. lay in the Marisus valley and was administratively dependent on Sarmizegetusa. Tile of the Legio XIII Gemina (CIL III 8065; 14h). Thermae at the site (cult of nymphs) and a quarry in the vicinity. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34, 1968, 60 (Bibliogr.).

Latobici

(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λατόβικοι; Latóbikoi, Ptol. 2,14,2; Latovici, Plin. HN 3,148; Latobici, inscription). A probably Celtic tribe in Pannonia superior near Noricum. In the Augustan period a city-like settlement ( municipium Latobicorum, tribus Quirina, CIL III, 3925) arose as a centre of the tribal area that was given the ius Latii ( Latin law) and was called Neviodunum from the time of Vespanian (AD 69-79). A duovir iure dicundo, a patronus municipii and a praeceptor Graecus (CIL III, 3925; 10804; 10805) are attested. There are votive inscriptions to Jupiter Optimus Ma…

Gerulata

(113 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (It. Ant. 247,3; Gerolate Not. Dign. Occ. 34,21). Roman military encampment established in Pannonia superior between Carnuntum and Ad Flexum before 116 BC, once located on a tributary of the Danuvius, modern Bratislava-Rusovce. In the 2nd and 3rd cents. the ala I Cannenefatium was stationed in G. (CIL III 4391; XVI 64; 76f.; 84; 96f.; 104; 178). The equites sagittarii were mentioned as garrison there during the 4th cent. (Not. Dign. Occ. 34,21). Rich archaeological finds from the 2nd-4th cents.: temple of Jupiter, remains of buildings, bu…

Lacringi

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] A Lugian (Vandalic) tribe (Λάκριγγοι/ Lákringoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,2; Lacringes, SHA Aur. 22,1), who fought against Rome in the Marcomannic Wars in AD 170. The L. were settled as foederati in the north of Dacia, where they defeated the Asdingi. Both tribes later counted as Roman allies (cf. Cass. Dio 71,11,6). In later years the L. intermingled with other members of the Vandalic tribes. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography L. Schmidt, H. Zeiss, Die Westgermanen, 1940, 163, 165, 167, 169.

Callatis

(276 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Patricius (Κάλλατις; Kállatis). Port town on the western coast of the  Pontus Euxinus, modern Mangalia in Romania, founded at the end of the 6th cent. BC by  Heraclea [7] Pontica. The economic boom of the town was originally brought about by the agricultural production from its surrounding area; C. was of less importance as a harbour town, compared with Odessus, Tomis and …

Dierna

(166 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Daci, Dacia (Δίερνα; Díerna). Originally a Dacian settlement, Romanized since Trajan, modern Orşova in Banat/Romania. Supposedly already a colonia iuris Italici in Trajan's time (Ulpianus in Dig. 50,15,1,8) and a municipium in the Severian period (CIL III 14468). D. was located on the Danube west of Drobeta and was the starting point of the rural road to Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa. A ports, toll station and brick production were located nearby. The military garrison was supplied by the cohors I Brittonum miliaria,…

Durostorum

(297 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Settlement on the right bank of the lower Danube in Moesia inferior, the modern Silistra (northern Bulgaria). Customs post and important junction between the country road from Marcianopolis and the road along the bank of the Danube leading into the delta zone. The military importance of D. is demonstrated by the presence there of the legio IX Claudia (from AD 105/6). It was probably under Antoninus Pius that a civilian settlement ( canabae) arose in D., elevated …

Potaissa

(175 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Wine | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Commerce | Legio | Limes (Ptol. 3,8,7: Πατρούισσα/ Patroúissa; Geogr. Rav. 4,14: Potabissa; CIL III 1627; CIL III 2086: Patavisensis). Settlement in Dacia Porolossensis to the southeast of Napoca, modern Turda (district of Cluj in Romania). The significance of P. consisted in its military garrison, which from the outbreak of the Marcomanni Wars in AD 168/9 was formed by the legio V Macedonica. The original vicus gained size and significance after the rise of the Canabae

Candidiana

(154 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Late-antique Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube in Moesia inferior, west of Durostorum, near the modern Malăk Preslavec in north-eastern Bulgaria (It. Ant. 223,2; Not. Dign. or. 40,24; Procop. Aed. 4,7,9). It had probably been built under Diocletian, in order to replace the Nigrinianis fortress (Tab. Peut. 8,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,7), an important link in the Danube limes, which had been destroyed by the Carpi (?) towards the middle of the 3rd cent.It was the garrison of the cohors I Lusitanorum Maximiana. Remains of buildings, archaeological finds, tre…

Margus

(305 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
(Μάργος; Márgos). [German version] [1] Strategos 255 BC M. from Carynea, probably serving as nauarch of the Achaean fleet contingent during the Illyrian War, was killed in 229 BC near Paxos ‘after faithfully serving the koinon of the Achaeans ’(Pol. 2,10). During the reformation of the league, he killed the tyrant of Bura in 275, thus forcing Iseas, the tyrant of Carynea, to resign and to have his town join the league (Pol. 2,41). Before Aratus [2] he played a prominent part and in 255 he was the first to be elected sole strategos (Pol. 2,43). Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Ptolemai…

Capidava

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube from Axiopolis to Carsium, Moesia inferior, modern Topalu/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3; It. Ant. 244; Geogr. Rav. 179,3; Not. Dign. or. 39,4,13). Built under Trajan, destroyed by Goths in the mid-3rd cent. AD. Rebuilt in the 4th cent., and newly fortified at the end of the 6th cent. Late-antique posting of the beneficiarii consulares and of a cuneus (unit) equitum Solensium. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography Gr. Florescu, C. I, 1958, pass…

Matrica

(96 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Auxiliary fort on the right bank of the Danube on the road from Aquincum to Intercisa in Pannonia inferior; the modern Százhalombatta in Hungary. The camp was built in approximately the 2nd century (Itin. Anton. 245,5; Matrice, Not. dign. occ. 33,36). Under Commodus, burgi ( burgus ) were built in the vicinity, which were intended to prevent ‘the clandestine crossing of brigands’ (CIL III 3385). Remains of canabae and baths (partially restored) are extant. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 78-79 Zs. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1…

Varciani

(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)

Costoboci

(120 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κοστοβῶκοι; Kostobôkoi, Paus. 10,34,5; Κοστουβῶκοι; Kostoubôkoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,1; Costoboci, SHA Aur. 22,1; Costobocae, Amm. Marc. 22,8,42; Castaboci/ Castabocae, ILS 1327). A people of Dacian (Thracian?) origin that lived on the eastern margin of the Carpathians. In AD 170, the C. took part in the Marcomanni Wars against Rome. A raid took them through Dacia (cf. CIL III 14214 = ILS 8501) into Greece where they were defeated in  Phocis (Paus. 10,34,5; cf. ILS 1327). The Asdingi inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 171/2 (Cass. Dio 71,12,1). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bib…
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