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Crete

(1,586 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Κρήτη, Krētē, Latin Creta). [German version] A. Settlement geography C. is the largest Greek island, with an east-west extension of 250 km and a north-south extension of max. 60 km. The narrowest part is the Isthmus of Hierapytna in the east. The island's topography is shaped by its mountains. Three large mountain ranges dominate: in the west the ‘White Mountains’ (  Leúka órē , 2,482 m), in the centre the  Ida Mountains (Piloritis, 2,456 m) and in the east the  Dicte Range (highest elevation 2,147 m) with the Lassithi Plateau (moun…

Ampelus

(250 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἄμπελος; Ámpelos). [German version] [1] Cape on the south-eastern coast of  Crete Cape on the south-eastern coast of  Crete (Ptol. 3,17,4), according to Plin. HN 4,59 also one of the oppida insignia. The town is to be localized close to the modern town of Xerokampos. Graves and ceramics (i.a. of Rhodian origin) from the Hellenistic-Roman period. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 2, 1972, 577 f. I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete, 1982, 137. [German version] [2] Cape on the south-western tip of the island of  Samos Cape on the south-western …

Lethaeus

(131 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ληθαῖος; Lēthaîos). [German version] [1] Tributary of the Peneius Left-hand tributary of the Peneius in north-west Thessalia, flows through Tricca (Paus. 14,139), modern Trikkalinos. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 121. [German version] [2] River in southern Crete River in southern Crete, which flows through Gortyn from north to south (Str. 10,4,11), modern Mitropolianos. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [3] Tributary of the Maiander Right-hand tributary of the Maeander (river god: coins o…

Omphalium

(222 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ὀμφάλιον/ Omphálion). [German version] [1] Plain in Crete Plain (Diod. Sic. 5,70) on Crete in the area of Knossos on the river Triton (modern Platyperama; Callim. H. 1,42ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland, vol. 2, 1868, 570  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. 1, 1935, 45f. [German version] [2] Place in Thessalia Place in Thessalia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.) near modern Lutra Smokovu, possibly the sanctuary of Omphale. The Dolopian cities of Angeae and Ctimenae fought over its possession [1]. Kramolisch,…

Therapnae

(329 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Tausend, Sabine | Fell, Martin (Münster)
(Θεράπναι/ Therápnai). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete, probably in the central north (presumably between Eleutherna and Cydonia; [cf. 1. 198]), reckoned one of the island's more important towns (Mela 2,113; Plin. HN 4,59). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P. Faure, La Crète aux cents villes, in: Κρητικὰ Χρονικά 13, 1959, 171-217. [German version] [2] Place in Laconia This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Cult site in Laconia (Laconica) on the left bank of the Eurotas, c. 2 km to the southeast of Sparta on a foothill of the Parnon…

Nestus

(226 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Νέστος/ Néstos, Μέστος/ Méstos, Νέσσος/ Néssos). [German version] [1] River in Thrace River in Thrace which rises in the Rila mountain range, (according to mistaken classical belief from the Scomius mountains, the present-day Vitoša Mountains, : Aristot. Mete. 1,13,350b 16f.) and after 234 km flows through the swampy delta area near Abdera [1] and into the Aegean (Hdt. 7,109; Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,1,5; Ps.-Skyl. 67). N. is already known as a river god in Hes. Theog. 341. In Roman times, N. was the border between the provinces of Macedonia and Thracia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Biss…

Naxos

(1,805 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Island and city in the Cyclades This item can be found on the following maps: Ionic | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Νάξος, Náxos, Latin Naxus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Geography City and island of the same name, the latter, with an area of just 420 km2, the largest of the Cyclades. A significant topographical  characteristic is a chain of mountains dividing the island from north to south (highest peak the Zia at 1004 m, also the highest poi…

Eunostidae

(207 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
(Εὐνοστίδαι; Eunostídai). [German version] [1] Attic deme (?) of the phyle Ptolemais Attic deme (?) of the phyle Ptolemais, first attested to in 201/0 BC (IG II2 2362), cf. the inscriptions of 108/7 BC (IG II2 1036 l. 37; [1. 159; 2]). In AD 154/5 (IG II2 2067) and AD 173/4 (IG II 2 2103) ephebes of the phyle Ptolemais from Εὐν and Εὐ, respectively, are mentioned. Position unknown. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 C. A. Hutton, The Greek Inscriptions at Petworth House, in: ABSA 21, 1914/16, 155-165 2 Traill, Attica 90, 114 No. 12. [German version] [2] Phratry in Naples Phratry in Naple…

Minoa

(355 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μινώα/ Minṓa). [German version] [1] Region on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf According to Ptol. 3,14,32 a harbour, according to Str. 8,6,1 a phroûrion (‘fortification’), according to Paus. 3,23,11 foothills on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf, the modern island of Monemvasia with medieval and modern fortifications. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M.D. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 55f.  A.J.B. Wace, F.W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907-1908, 176ff.  H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Pre-Historic Laconia 2, in:…

Pyrrha

(494 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Πύρρα/ Pýrrha). [German version] [1] Daughter of Epimetheus In Greek mythology daughter of Epimetheus (brother of Prometheus) and Pandora and wife of  Deucalion. She and her husband were the only people to survive the flood sent over the earth by Zeus to punish the people of the Bronze Age; on the advice of Prometheus they built a boat on which they sailed around for nine days and nine nights. Deucalion and P. created a new race of people (Pind. Ol. 9,43-56; Ov. Met. 1,318-415), by - on the instruction…

Messana, Messene

(2,692 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Town in northeastern Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Μεσσάνα/ Messána, Ionian Μεσσήνη/ Messḗnē, Lat. Messana). Town in northeastern Sicily, modern Messina. The original name Zancle (Ζάγκλη/ Zánklē = Siculan: ‘sickle’) is derived from the topographically suggestive shape of the natural harbour (Thuc. 6,4,5). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Foundation The site was settled at an early time because of its o…

Daedala

(277 words)

Author(s): Schuler, Christoph (Tübingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Δαίδαλα; Daídala). [German version] [1] Fortified settlement north-west of Telmessus This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia Fortified settlement north-west of Telmessus in the border region between Lycia and Caria, the eastern part of the Rhodian Peraea [2. 54-57, 97f.]. References: Str. 14,2,2; 3,1; Liv. 37,22,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Plin. HN 5,103. D. is identified with the ruins of Inlice Asarı [1. 32f.]; for location cf. Ptol. 5,3; Stadiasmos maris magni 256f.; inscriptions are lacking (orig…

Heracleum

(399 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ἡράκλειον; Hērákleion). [German version] [1] Town on Crete's northern coast Town on Crete's northern coast, modern Iraklion. In a legal support agreement with Miletus (259/250 BC) H. appears as a sovereign town allied with  Knossos (Stv III 482 I) [1]. H. was in the 1st cent. BC, probably in succession to Amnisus, the port town of Knossos (Str. 10,4,7f.) and probably subject to it (cf. Str. 10,5,1). Based on Plin. HN 4,59, it was presumed that H. also bore the name Mation [2]. However, the consensus is that Pliny misunderstood his Greek source (πολισμάτιον Ἡ.; polismátion H., ‘the little…

Drepanon

(501 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Δρέπανον; Drépanon). Name of several foothills; the external shape of the mountain may have given rise to the name D. (‘sickle’). [German version] [1] Vorgebirge an der Nordküste von Westkreta On the north coast of western Crete (Ptol. 3,15,5), known in antiquity and today as D. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography M. Guarducci, Inscript. Cret. 2,10. [German version] [2] Nördlichster Vorsprung der Peloponnesos in den Korinth. Golf Northernmost outcrop of the Peloponnese into the Corinthian Gulf, 7 km north-east of Rhion (with which i…

Miletus

(3,516 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | von Graeve, Volkmar (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μίλητος; Mílētos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the city of Miletus Mythical founder of the city of M. [2]; from Crete; son of Apollo and Areia, daughter of Cleochus whose tomb was in the sanctuary of Didyma [1. 165f.] (Apollod. 3,5f.), or of Apollo and Deione (Ov. Met. 9,443ff.) or of Apollo and Acacallis, daughter of Minos (Antoninus Liberalis 30). Minos fell in love with M., but M. fleed to Caria, establishds M. there [2] and married Eidothea; the children of their union are Byblis and Caunus [1]. According to Ephorus FGrH 70 F 127 M. was founded by Sarpedon. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bi…

Marsyas

(971 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας; Marsýas). [German version] [1] Phrygian rivergod and Celaenae's god of protection Phrygian river god and Celaenae's god of protection, represented as satyr or silenus. The name is derived from a toponym that can be found repeatedly throughout Asia Minor and Syria; the river, at the source of which Celaenae lies, also carries this name (M. [5]). M. was considered the discoverer of flute playing ( aulós), the inventor of the bandage used for flute playing ( phorbeiá) and of songs for the worship of the goddess Cybele. According to the myth, the possibility to pla…

Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…

Arethusa

(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Phoenix

(1,747 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Φοῖνιξ/ Phoînix, Latin Phoenix). Persons P. [1-4], the mythical P. bird [5], the date palm P. [6], geographical locations P. [7-9]. [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus, son of Agenor [1] and Telephassa (Apollod. 3,2-4), brother of Europe [2],  Cadmus [1] and Cilix, according to others also their father (Hom. Il. 14, 321); other children: Phineus (Apoll. Rhod. 2, 178), Carne (Antoninus Liberalis 40). Eponym of the Phoenicians and the Poeni ( Poeni; cf. Phoenicians, Poeni). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Amyntor Son of Amyn…
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