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Holy Water

(198 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda
[German Version] Although properties of cleansing (Purification) and atoning (Expiation) were ascribed to water in Judaism and in the ancient world, it was only in the 6th century that there is documented evidence for water being blessed in the West (there with salt added). In the 8th century, the practice of aspersion with holy water at the start of the Sunday mass began in Merovingian and Carolingian monasteries. This practice found its way into parish church services in the 9th century, where i…


(177 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda
[German Version] with one or both knees differs from kneeling, from falling to one's knees, but also from the related bowing and the intensive form, prostration, or major and minor metanie (Byz.). The prayer gestures genuflection and kneeling embody the humility of the creature in the act of worship, veneration and supplica-¶ tion. As liturgical gestures (II; R. Guardini, Von heiligen Zeichen, 1923; ET: Sacred Signs, 1956) in Western liturgies, they express appropriate contrition and supplication and constitute an attitude of receptiveness (ordination, marria…

Guardini, Romano

(453 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1885, Verona, Italy – Oct 1, 1968, Munich), Catholic philosopher of religion and theologian. With his conception of a Christian worldview, Guardini developed a universally acknowledged contribution to the interpretation and significance of Christianity under the intellectual conditions of the 20th century. He construed the task of his chair of philosophy of religion and Catholic (later Christian) ideology in Berlin (1923–1939), Tübingen (1945–1948), and Munich (1948–1962)…


(509 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda | Sporbeck, Gudrun
[German Version] I. In the Liturgy The paten (Lat. patena, from Gk πατάνη/ patánē, “flat dish”) serves as a container for the consecrated bread of the Eucharist; it is a functional parallel to the chalice holding the wine (Liturgical vessels, Liturgical implements). Originally it was as a platter on which the bread was broken and arranged; after the change to smaller hosts in West, it was reduced to a flat plate for a host, 12–20 cm in diameter, fitted to the top of the chalice (unlike the δίσκος/ dískos used in the East). In Catholic and Evangelical church practice, paten and chal…


(438 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda | Sporbeck, Gudrun
[English Version] I. Liturgisch Die P. (patena, lat. Lehnwort von griech. πατα´n̆η/pata´nē, »Schüssel«) nimmt als Hostienschale das in der Eucharistiefeier verwendete Brot auf und entspricht so funktional dem Abendmahlskelch mit Wein (Gefäße, liturgische; Geräte, liturgische). Urspr. als Schüssel für die Brechung und Austeilung des Brotes verwendet, wird sie nach dem Aufkommen von Hostien im Westen auf einen flachen, der Kelchöffnung angepaßten Teller von 12–20 cm Durchmesser für eine Hostie reduziert (anders der δι´σκος/di´skos im Osten). Kath. und ev. werden P.…

Mystery Religions

(3,778 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. | Betz, Hans Dieter | Felmy, Karl Christian | Brüske, Gunda | Stolz, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. The Christian Cult and the Mysteries – III. Art History I. Religious Studies Modern discussion of the Greek mysteries goes back to the material collected by the Dutch scholar Jan de Meurs (1619), which served as the main source for I. Casaubon's argument that the Early Church borrowed but changed some terminology and institutions from the mysteries ( Exercitationes, 1655). The belief that there was a specific religious phenomenon, “the mystery cults of antiquity,” that could be compared directly with the practice…
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