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Kudummul

(167 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a small volcanic island in the Red Sea in 17° 52’ N lat., called Kotumble on the English Admiralty charts and Qotanbul in Admiralty handbook, Western Arabia and the Red Sea, London 1946, 133. The island has a rich flora, which has been studied by the botanist Ehrenberg, and is noteworthy for its iron deposits, which are mentioned as early as the geographer Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (d. 630/1233). Kudummul, which lies near Ḥamiḍa on the Arabian coast off ʿAsīr [ q.v.], once marked the boundary between the land of the Kināna and Yemen. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿArab,…

Maʿāfir

(811 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Smith, G.R.
(or al-Maʿāfir ), the name of a South Arabian tribe, the genealogy of which is given as Yaʿfur b. Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Murra b. Udad b. Humaysaʿ b. ʿAmr b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ib b. ʿArīb b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ; they are included among the Ḥimyar. The name was also given to the territory which the tribe inhabited and this corresponded roughly with the Turkish ḳaḍāʾ of Taʿizziyya and the present Yemen Arab Republic province ( ḳaḍāʾ) of al-Ḥud̲j̲ariyya (pronounced locally al-Ḥugariyya), itself part of the administrative area ( liwāʾ ) of Taʿizz. In early and mediaeval times it is described as a mik̲h̲…

al-Sarāt

(454 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Donzel, E. van
(a. “the back”), the collective name, not particularly widespread, of the chains of mountains which run from the Gulf of ʿAḳaba down to the Gulf of Aden [see al-ʿarab , D̲j̲azīrat, ii]. The word sarāt occurs quite often in the construct state, as in sarāt al-azd, sarāt al-hān , etc. In both Saudi Arabia and in Yemen, al-Sarāt separates the lowlands along the Red Sea [see al-g̲h̲awr ; tihāma ] from the high plateau. The commonest view in the Arab sources is that al-Sarāt is identical with al-Ḥid̲j̲āz [ q.v.] “the barrier”. As a whole, the chains of mountains are cut up into large and…

Ibb

(310 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, formerly the capital of the ḳaḍāʾ of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizz in the Yemen; now, since 1946, a separate liwāʾ , comprising the ḳadāʾ s Ibb, ʿUdeyn, D̲h̲ī Sufāl, Ḳuʿtaba and Yerīm. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen, we find also Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town, with a population estimated at 4,000, belonged to the territory of D̲h̲ū D̲j̲ibla. It is situated on the ‘upper road’ leading from ʿAdan to Ṣanʿāʾ. According to the proposals of the A. Beneyton mission of 1911 fo…

Muḳrā

(170 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, name of a district and a village south of Ṣanʿāʾ in the Yemen, known to the Arab geographers for its mine of carnelian. It is also the name of a mountain chain in al-Sarāt [see d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab , ʿasīr , al-ḥid̲j̲āz ]. According to Sprenger, there is no reason to identify the Himyaritic tribe of this name with the Μοκρι̃ται of Ptolemy, since the latter must be localised in the neighbourhood of Nad̲j̲rān. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography Ḥamdānī, Ṣifa, ed. D.H. Müller, 68, 104 ff. Muḳaddasī, 91 Ibn al-Faḳīh, 36 Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 141 Yaʿḳūbī, Buldān, 319, tr. Wiet, 158 Yāḳūt, iii, 130, iv, …

Ḳalam

(926 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
(κάλαμος, reed), the reed-pen used for writing in Arabic script. It is a tube of reed cut between two knots, sliced obliquely (or concave) at the thicker end and with the point slit, in similar fashion to the European quill and later the steel pen. The reed has to be very firm so that it does not wear away too quickly; the best kind comes from Wāsiṭ and grows in the marshes ( baṭāʾiḥ ) of ʿIrāḳ, but those from the swamps of Egypt (al-Muḳaddasī, BGA, iii, 203, 1. 13) or from Fāris were also recommended. Those from a rocky ground were called ṣuk̲h̲rī , those from the seashore baḥrī (Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi, al-ʿIḳd…

Kawkabān

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the name of several places in south Arabia. 1. The name of a sanctuary mentioned in the inscription Halévy No. 686, 3—4, copied from a building in ʿAden by J. Halévy ( miḥrābān Kaw-kabān ). ¶ Cf. also F. Hommel, Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des alten Orients , ii, Leipzig 1925, 707. 2. The name of a castle near Ẓafār north of Nāʿaṭ. It was called Kawkabān, “the two stars,” i.e. star-castle, because it was adorned with silver stripes outside, the roof was covered with white slabs of stone, the interior panelled with cypress wood and pav…

K̲h̲awlān

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Irvine, A.K.
1. The name of a South Arabian tribe, of great antiquity and now divided into two branches. The larger section, which al-Hamdānī calls K̲h̲awlān al-ʿāliya , is now known as K̲h̲awlān al-ṭiyāl and dwells south-east of Ṣanʿāʾ on the upper reaches of the Wādī D̲h̲ana, with the lands of Murād to the south-east and Nihm, in the highlands proper, to the north-west. The tribe now belongs to Bakīl. Their territory, which was described by Carsten Niebuhr in 1763 and visited by Eduard Glaser in 1885-6, is a very m…

al-K̲h̲aṭṭ

(359 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a strip of coast on the Persian Gulf. The Arab geographers are not agreed as to its exact extent. While Yāḳūt limits the name to the coast of al-Baḥrayn and ʿUmān, which is also apparent from the mention of al-Ḳaṭīf, al-ʿUḳayr and Ḳaṭar, al-Bakrī says definitely that al-K̲h̲aṭṭ is the whole coast between ʿUmān and al-Baṣra on the one side and Kāẓima and al-S̲h̲iḥr on the other. This difference of opinion is probably the result of the variation in extent of ʿUmān and al-Baḥrayn in the wider sense of these terms in course of time. There are in any case authors who allot al-K̲h̲aṭṭ to eithe…

al-Yaman

(12,475 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Brice, W.C. | Smith, G.R. | Burrowes, R.D. | F. Mermier | Et al.
, Yemen, the southwestern part of the Arabian peninsula, now coming substantially within the unified Republic of Yemen (which also includes as its eastern region the former People’s Democratic Republic of South Yemen, the pre-1967 Aden Protectorate, essentially the historic Ḥaḍramawt [ q.v. in Vol. III and also in Suppl.; see also suḳuṭra ]). ¶ 1. Definition and general introduction. The name is variously explained in the Arabic sources; some say it was given because al-Yaman lies to the right of the Kaʿba or to the right of the sun (al-Bakrī, ii, 856), …

al-Ḳunfud̲h̲a

(953 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a port on the Red Sea coast of the Tihāma or lowland of the southern Ḥid̲j̲āz, situated in lat. 19°9′ N. and long. 41°04′ E. and at the mouth of the Wādī Ḳanawnā. It lies 210 miles south of D̲j̲idda or D̲j̲udda [ q.v.] and 45 miles north of Ḥaly. The town is in the form of a large rectangle enclosed by a wall, strengthened at several points by towers and pierced by three gates. Practically the only stone buildings are at the harbour, where is the bazaar with its one-storied warehouses in an irregular line, and the chief mosque and smaller mosq…

Nad̲j̲d

(2,933 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | McLachlan, K.S.
(a. “uplands”), conventionally defined as the plateau region of the Arabian peninsula lying to the east of the Red Sea lowlands (al-Tihāma [ q.v.]) and the mountain barrier running down through the western side of the peninsula (al-Ḥid̲j̲āz [ q.v.]). 1. Geography and habitat. ¶ The exact application of this originally topographical conception is very differently understood, and sometimes it means more generally the elevated country above the coastal plain or the extensive country, the upper part of which is formed by the Tihāma and the Yam…

al-Sarī

(313 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
b. al-Ḥakam b. Yūsuf al-Balk̲h̲ī , governor and financial controller of Egypt from 1 Ramaḍān 200/3 April 816. On 1 Rabīʿ I 201/27 Sept. 816, the troops openly mutinied against him, and al-Maʾmūn was forced to remove al-Sarī from his post and replace him by Sulaymān b. G̲h̲ālib; al-Sarī was put in prison and Sulaymān entered upon his office on Tuesday, 4 Rabīʿ I 201/30 Sept. 816. He was removed from office as early as 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 201/22 Feb. 817, as the result of a repeated revol…

Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī

(300 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Kennedy, H.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās , member of the ʿAbbāsid family (92-152/711-69) who played an important part in the success of the ʿAbbāsid revolution in Syria, assisting his brother ʿAbd Allāh in the assault on Damascus and, with Abū ʿAwn ʿAbd al-Malik b. Yazīd al-ʿAtakī leading the pursuit of the last Umayyad caliph, Marwān b. Muḥammad to Egypt. He was appointed governor of Egypt on 1 Muḥarram, 133/9 August 750 and remained there for a year, establishing ʿAbbāsid power. On 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 1, 133/4 March 751 he was moved to Palestine and in the same year sent Saʿīd b. ʿAbd Allāh to lead the first ṣāʾifa [ q.…

Raḍwa

(147 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a range of hills in South West Arabia, a day’s journey from Yanbuʿ and seven stages from Medīna, between Yanbuʿ and al-Ḥawrāʾ. It lies on the right side of the road to Medīna, and on the left of the road in the direction of Mecca, two nights distant from the sea. The hills, which are mentioned in a tradition of the Prophet, have passes and valleys, are very well watered and covered with all kinds of trees so that they look green from Yanbuʿ. The rocks produce whetstones which were exported to all countries. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, in B. G. A.,i. 21 Ibn Ḥawḳal, in B. G. A., ii. 28 al-Ba…

Zailaʿ

(648 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a port on the African coast o the Gulf of ʿAden. It lies on a narrow tongue of land, which is cut off from the mainland at high water and is the only harbour of importance in British Somaliland. Formerly an important trading centre and one of the largest ports of export for the slave trade with Arabia, the town now only possesses modest remnants of buildings of the middle of the xivth century like the tomb of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Ibrāhīm, and also the fort erected to the west of it by the Indian government, the palace of S̲h̲armakai ʿAlī of which only the groundfloor and the …

Ṭirāz

(2,194 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, Addendum. The above article had already been completely set up when, while I was in Cairo, Prof. G. Wiet most kindly gave me access to his rich collection of ṭirāz inscriptions, which contains a wealth of new material, some of which is in the possession of dealers or private collectors and some in various museums. Pride of place must be given to the Arab Museum in Cairo which has in the course of the past few years added to its valuable collection of textiles a whole series of fine pieces with ṭirāz inscriptions; next in i…

al-Riyāḍ

(1,404 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, capital of the kingdom of Nad̲j̲d, in the oasis of the same name which lies on the left bank of the Wādī Ḥanīfa stretching towards the north, forming a shallow valley which forms part of the S̲h̲amsīya basin. The lozengeshaped oasis is three miles long and barely one broad. The town is surrounded on all sides except the northeast by dense palm-groves. In the north-east, a few scattered groves interrupt the view to the highlands of Abū Mak̲h̲rūḳ, from which the main source of water for the oasi…

Ibb

(179 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the capital of the ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʾizz in the Yemen. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen we also find Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town with a population estimated at 4,000 belonged to the territory of Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. It stands on a hill on the pilgrims’ road which runs from Ḥaḍramawt to the Yemen Tihāma or from ʿAden to Ṣanʿāʾ, in a fertile region where cereals and fruit are grown, also coffee, ḳāt, indigo and wars. In the vicinity there was at one time a silver mine (photographs in the Islām-Stiftung in Leiden). (A. Grohmann) Bi…

al-Muḳawḳas

(3,049 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, al-Muḳawḳis, the individual who in Arab tradition plays the leading part on the side of the Copts and Greeks at the conquest of Egypt. The Prophet is said to have sent a letter to him in the year 6 a. h. In the address on this letter, the text of which is given in Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (ed. Torrey, p. 46), al-Maḳrīzī ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 29), al-Suyūṭī ( Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara, i. 58) and al-Manūfī (p. 29), as well as in an entirely different version in Pseudo-Wāḳidī (p. 10), and also in the accounts of the incident in the Arab historians, the position of Muḳawḳis is described in the following phrases: 1. Ṣāḥib al-Iskan…
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