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Japan trade

(797 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark
Within a few years of the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama in 1497/98, the Portuguese had built an extensive network of bases in the Indian Ocean stretching as far as the Strait of Malacca in the east. Although word of the wealth of China and Japan had fired the imaginations of Europeans since the reports of Marco Polo, forging commercial relations with these empires initially proved difficult.When the first Portuguese arrived in Japan in 1543, the country was riven by conflicts between regional princes ( daimyo). Some of them welcomed the Portuguese as tradin…
Date: 2019-10-14

American indigenous peoples, trade with

(1,231 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark
1. The beginnings of trade-relations between native Americans and Europeans After the Spaniards had subjugated the great indigenous empires of continental Central and SouthAmerica (Conquista), they set up a colonial government and secured for themselves the control over productive land as well as the affiliated trade monopolies (Colonial empire); the trade with the native population was more or less restricted to barter in hard-to-access frontier regions. In pre-1600North America, however,  all European a…
Date: 2019-10-14

Global commodity

(2,351 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark
1. Definition In the early modern period, a great variety of commodities were traded, but only a limited range of them can be called global commodities in the sense that they played a significant role in intercontinental trade in quantity and value. There were several reasons for this. Danger of spoilage imposed limits on trade in many foodstuffs and other perishable goods (Foodstuffs, conservation of), as did transportation costs of goods whose price differential between place of origin and final destination was small.Varying consumer preferences (Consumption) and tastes a…
Date: 2019-10-14

India trade

(1,266 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark
1. The Portuguese (16th century) The Indian subcontinent was already woven into wide-ranging commercial networks by the time the sea route from Europe to Asia was discovered. Merchants from Gujarat exported goods including rice to Malindi in East Africa and Hormuz on the Gulf of Persia. They also pursued trading relations with Sumatra and Malacca. Arabian merchants transported Indian pepper (Spices), silk, and precious stones to the ports of the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, from where the car…
Date: 2019-10-14

Caravan trade

(1,468 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark
1. Introduction Before the innovations in navigation technology in the 14th and 15th centuries and the subsequent voyages of discovery, long-distance trade between global regions mostly took the land route. The arid regions of the Asian interior, the Orient, and the Sahara presented considerable obstacles here, and traders had to deal with extreme fluctuations of temperature, scarcity of food and water, and a terrain that generally offered few navigational landmarks. From Antiquity until the 20th…
Date: 2019-10-14

Animal trade

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark
1. Introduction The great importance of animals to humans, as food, means of transport and propulsion, and prestige objects and status symbols, was reflected in a complex animal trade in the early modern period. Distinctions can be made between the trade in animals for slaughter (Cattle, Sheep, Pig) to supply urban populations (Livestock), the trade in horses as a versatile riding, draft, and working animal (see below, 3.), and the trade in exotic animals in the context of elites’ appetite for lux…
Date: 2019-10-14

Gold

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark
1. Africa In the late Middle Ages, the high material and symbolic value of gold in Europe, helped by a generally low price point, led to rising demand that the Central- and Eastern-European deposits could no longer supply. This shortage made the search for gold deposits outside of Europe attractive; the centuries-long phenomenon of African gold arriving in the Mediterranean from the Sahara via the caravan trade was an important motivation for the Portuguese voyages of discovery (see Expansionism) …
Date: 2019-10-14

Enclosure

(756 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark
1. DefinitionThe term  enclosure denotes the allocation of agricultural land formerly worked in common to individual property owners and the associated transformation of the English countryside by the erection of fences, walls, and hedges, along with the layout of new roads and paths. Enclosure also superseded tithes;  the beneficiaries were compensated with land.Mark Häberlein2. HistoryIn England enclosure began in the late Midle Ages; in the southern Midlands, by the late 17th century a third of the agricultural land had already been enclosed.…
Date: 2019-10-14

Factory (trading post)

(1,564 words)

Author(s): Denzel, Markus A. | Häberlein, Mark
1. Europe The term  factory was much more common in Europe in the high and late Middle Ages than in the early modern period. The Italian word  fattoria, the etymon of the loanword, first appears in connection with the great Tuscan trading companies of the high Middle Ages; it denoted a fortified outpost or “branch” of a trading company in a foreign commercial center, headed by a factor (Italian  fattore) [6]. The network of factories of the great South German companies (Fugger family; Welser) with permanent offices in the major European commercial centers (A…
Date: 2019-10-14

Copper

(3,283 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark | Bartels, Christoph | Fried, Torsten
1. Introduction The resurgence of the European population after the plague epidemics of the 14th and 15th centuries, which also brought about a revival of long-distance trade (see Trade, long-distance), led to rising demand for copper, the softness, durability, and malleability of which made it suitable for many different applications (see below, 3.). European expansionism overseas made copper and brass goods important commodities in the Portuguese Africa and Asia trades from the 16th century (World economy) [3. 335, 337, 347 f.]. The development of new refining metho…
Date: 2019-10-14

Forgery

(2,708 words)

Author(s): Häberlein, Mark | Tschopp, Silvia Serena | Keazor, Henry
1. Counterfeiting 1.1 Criminal aspectsThe theory of criminal law and legislation of European states in the early modern era defined and sanctioned crimes of counterfeiting in very different ways. In German criminal-law theory from the 16th to the 19th century, the application of Roman law (Ius commune) was of primary importance, which recognized a series of  crimina falsi such as false witness, falsification of documents (charter), falsified boundaries, counterfeit coin, and falsification of weights and measures. The medieval Italian jurisprudence…
Date: 2019-10-14