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Midas

(755 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μίδας/ Mídas). [German version] I. Historical King of Phrygia, son of Gordius [1]. Assyrian sources document him as Mit-ta-a, ‘king of the land of Muski, ’ for 718-709 BC. In the epichoric inscriptions of Yazılıkaya (‘city of Midas’) the name M. is found in conjunction with the titles laagtei and anaktei. The name M. is more likely Old Anatolian than Phrygian. According to Assyrian sources M. conspired with the Luwian kings of Atuna (Tyana), Karkemiš, Gurgum and Malida against Sargon II, until he - snubbing Urarṭu and fearing the Cimmerians - placed hi…

Maussolus

(369 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μαύσσωλος; Maússōlos, in inscriptions also Μαύσσωλλος; Maússōllos). Satrap of Caria (377-353 BC), son of Hecatomnus. The name M. is Carian, the word formation points to Indo-European and Ancient Anatolian origins, although the etymology is not clear. M. is to be considered a preserver and supporter of ancient Anatolian and Carian culture, esp. in the area of religion (cf. [1. 57-64; 591-644); there is little evidence for affinity with Greek cults. Nevertheless he opened himself to Gree…

Adramys

(25 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἄδραμυς; Ádramys). Lydian, son of the king  Sadyattes, unequal half-brother of  Alyattes (Nic. Damas. FGrH 90 F 63). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)

Pericles

(2,303 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Περικλῆς; Periklês). [German version] [1] Athenian Politician Athenian politician. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] A. Descent and early career P. was probably born between 495 and 490 as the son of Agariste [2] (according to Hdt. 6,131, she dreamt that she would bear a lion), a member of the Alcmaeonid family, and Xanthippus. P. had two sons (Xanthippus and Paralus [1]) from his first marriage and a third son P. from his union with the Milesian Aspasia [2]. Later tradition numbered Anaxagoras [2], Zeno of …

Evagoras

(527 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Εὐαγόρας; Euagóras). [German version] [1] E. I. City king of Salamis on Cyprus since approximately 411 BC ( c. 435-374/3 BC), from c. 411 Greek king of Salamis in Cyprus. Apart from Greeks, Salamis was from the 9th/8th cents. also inhabited by Phoenicians. Other cities were even ruled by Phoenician kings, such as Citium, Amathus and Soli. However, there were no ethnic tensions. The cultural differences themselves began to blur in the early 4th cent. BC. Both Greek and Phoenician kings were equally receptive to the …

Croesus

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
(Κροῖσος; Kroîsos, Latin Croesus). [German version] A. Historic person Lydian king ( c. 560-547 BC), last of the Mermnad dynasty ( Mermnadae). The most important source remains  Herodotus' Lydian Logos (Hdt. 1,6-94), even though he preserved little that is Ancient Anatolian. C.'s mother was Carian ( Caria), that of his brother Pantaleon Ionian (Hdt. 1,92). A queen is never mentioned. As prince Croesus was the mercenary captain and governor in  Adramyttium (FGrH 90 F 65), later perhaps co-regent at the side of his father  Alyattes and finally his succes…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Labynetus

(114 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λαβύνητος; Labýnētos; Hellenized form of Akkadian Nabû-na'id/Nabonid). The Hellenized form of the name occurs only in Herodotus [1]. By L., he is probably referring to the kings of the Neo-Babylonian Dynasty (625-539 BC)in general. Two Neo-Babylonian kings play a part in Herodotus: Nebuchadnezzar [2] II (604-562), together with a Cilician ruler ( Syennesis), he negotiated the truce of 585 BC between the Lydians and the Medes (Hdt. 1,74). Nabonid (555-539), was a confederate of Croes…

Hecatomnos

(123 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἑκατόμνως; Hekatómnōs). Carian dynast from Mylasa (Syll.3 167; 168). Son of Hyssaldomos. Appointed satrap of the newly founded satrapy of Caria by Artaxerxes II in 392/1 BC (Diod. 14,98,3). H. was supposed to lead the war against the renegade  Evagoras [1] I of Salamis on Cyprus together with the satrap Autophradates of Lydia (115 Theopompus FGrH F 103). The war at sea started unsuccessfully in 391 because H. secretly supported Evagoras with money (Diod. Sic. 14,98,3 with 15,2,3). H. p…

Harpagus

(123 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ἅρπαγος; Hárpagos). [German version] [1] Marshal under Cyrus, about 550 BC Median who, from c. 550 BC, fought as a field marshal in Cyrus' service against the Lydians, Ionians, Carians and Lycians (Hdt. 1,80; 162-169; 171-176). Against the Ionian cities, he built earth walls (Hdt. 1,162) and employed the first catapults in history during their conquest; this is documented for Phocaea. Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Persian field marshal, beginning 5th cent. BC Persian field marshal who, during the  Ionian Revolt (499-497 BC), captured Histiaeus in Mi…

Damasithymus

(83 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Δαμασίθυμος; Damasíthymos). Dynast of Calynda in Caria. His father, Candaules, bore a name attested for Lydia. In 480 BC as taxiarch of a Carian fleet contingent, D. took part in Xerxes' campaign against Greece (Hdt. 7,98). He died in the sea battle of Salamis when Artemisia [1] of Halicarnassus sank his ship in order to avoid being pursued by an Athenian ship (Hdt. 8,87; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,53,2). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) Bibliography J. Melber, in: Jahrbuch für Philologische Studien 14, 1885, 480-484.

Pythius

(131 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πύθιος/ Pýthios). Rich Lydian, son of Atys, probably from an old-Lydian dynastic family. According to Herodotus' version, P. invited Xerxes [1] to be his guest in Celaenae (in Phrygia) and mentioned the sum value of his wealth with the intention of giving it to him. Xerxes refused it, increasing instead P.' wealth to a round sum. When P. asked for his eldest son to be released from military service, Xerxes had the son cut in two and the two halves laid to the left and the right of…

Jariri

(128 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] Prince regent of Karchemish, at the beginning of the 8th cent. BC, tutor of Kamani, the son of Astiruwa. Pictorial representation of J. with Kamani: CARCAMIS bk. 7. In his inscription in Luwian hieroglyphs (CARCAMIS A 6,2-3) ( Hieroglyphic scripts (Asia Minor)), he boasts of being well known in foreign countries: in Egypt, Urartu, among the Lydians, Phrygians and Phoenicians, countries in which J. probably travelled. For in his second inscription (CARCAMIS A 15b, 4), in which he maintains that he can write four scripts ( SCRIBA-lalija): hieroglyphic Luvian, Phoeni…

Spithridates

(127 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Σπιθριδάτης/ Spithridátēs, 'granted by heaven'). [German version] [1] Persian commander, 5th cent. BC Persian commander from a highly prominent family (Xen. Hell. 4,1,6 f.). In 420 BC, he fought against the rebellious Pissuthnes, and under Pharnabazus [2] against the Ten Thousand, joined Agesilaus [2] in 396 and returned to the Persians in 395/394 (Ctes. FGrH 688 F 15,53; Xen. An. 6,5,7; Xen. Hell. 3,4,10; 4,1,20 ff.; Xen. Ages. 3,3). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography Briant, Index s. v. S. [German version] [2] Satrap of Lydia, 4th cent. BC Satrap of Lydia and Ionia who …

Sadyattes

(361 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Σαδυάττης/ Sadyáttēs). Luwian name: prefix * sādu- 'efficient', final part - atta either 'father' as in Hittite, then 'stalwart father', or - more likely (- atta is a suffix) - 'a person who possesses stalwartness [1. 450]. The occurrence of the name after 1200 BC is proof of the survival of Luwian culture in West Anatolia until the Achaemenids in c. 550 BC. [German version] [1] Last king of Lydia from the house of the Heraclidae, murdered in c. 680 BC Last king of Lydia from the house of the Heraclidae, murdered by Gyges [1] in c. 680 BC. His epithet Candaules probably alludes to Hermes…

Ardys

(204 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ἄρδυς; Árdys). [German version] [1] Lydian king of the Heraclid dynasty Lydian king of the Heraclid dynasty. The Heraclid list in Herodotus (1,7) and FGrH 90 Nicolaus (of Xanthus) is a construct from the time of Croesus, when Sparta's support was sought. A. supposedly was temporarily a cartwright and head of a caravan station ( kapeleion) in Cyme (FGrH 90 F 44). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Lydian king about 645 BC Lydian king about 645 BC. Son and successor of  Gyges, the founder of the Mermnad dynasty. Cimmerian raids -- now in conjunction with …

Alyattes

(117 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀλυάττης; Alyáttēs). Lydian king ( c. 600-561 BC), son of  Sadyattes, father of  Croesus. New founder of the empire, which he led to great power (list of peoples: Hdt. 1,28): he conquered  Smyrna (Hdt. 1,16) and undertook yearly campaigns against  Miletus (Hdt. 1,18). These aimed for the collection of tribute. Miletus received a special position as a foreign trade port (cf. Hdt. 1,141). In the east A. extended the kingdom to the upper  Halys (Mazaka). There it came to battles with the…

Mermnadae

(110 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μερμνάδαι; Mermnádai). Lydian lineage, presumably originating in the Mysian-Bithynian region (see Dascyleion [2]). According to Andronius (apud Glossarium Oxy. 1802, Z. 46 [POxy book 15]), the name derives from the word for ‘buzzard’ (Indo-European root. * merh, ‘to grab, rob’). In c. 680 BC, the M. under Gyges gained power in Sardis where it is said they deposed the Heracleidae, who may have been of Luwian origin (Maeones; Maeonia [1]). The last ruler of the house of M. was Croesus (Hdt. 1,6-7; 27-92). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) Bibliography S. Mazzarino, Fra orien…

Artemisia

(350 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
(Ἀρτεμισία; Artemisía) [German version] [1] Female ruler of Halicarnassus (around 480 BC) Daughter of Lygdamis; prior to 480 BC, took over the rulership of her city of birth,  Halicarnassus, and of a few islands; in 480 joined her ships to the fleet of Xerxes (Hdt. 7.99). Herodotus was related to her. He praised her courage in the battle of Salamis and emphasized her influence on Xerxes (Hdt. 8,68-69). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Queen of Greater Caria (353-351 BC) Sister and wife of  Maussollus and after his death, queen of the satrapal kingdom of Great…

Nicocles

(477 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Νικοκλῆς; Nikoklês). [German version] [1] King of Salamis on Cyprus, from 374/373 B.C. King of Salamis on Cyprus, son and, from 374/373 BC, successor of Euagoras [1] I. (Diod. Sic. 15,47,8). N. died, probably together with Strato of Sidon, in the so-called Uprising of the Satraps, the main phase of which took place c. 362-360 B.C. Although N. continued the philhellenic policies of his father (Philhellenism), Hellenistic forms of sovereignty and way of life already announced themselves in N., since Isocrates…
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