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Community of Goods

(1,409 words)

Author(s): Marguerat, Daniel | Schöllgen, Georg | Honecker, Martin
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. History – III. Ethics I. New Testament The summary descriptions in Acts paint a picture of the first Christian community in Jerusalem in which the ¶ unanimity of the believers finds expression in the community of goods (2:44f.; 4:32–35). This community is depicted as free, not forced (5:4), and not egalitarian: The goods offered to the community were divided according to the needs of each individual (2:45; 4:35). The community of goods is only an element of the koinōnía of worship, prayer and Eucharist that charact…

Right, Autonomous

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Honecker, Martin
[German Version] I. The Term Eigengesetzlichkeit (autonomous right) is a linguistic neologism formed in German at the beginning of the 20th century. The understanding of law/right in exact scientific thinking of the 19th century, particularly in natural science, is then taken up either pol…

Euthanasia

(2,129 words)

Author(s): Honecker, Martin
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Differentiation – III. Historical Survey – IV. The Ethics of Assisted Dying – V. Current Challenges …

Suicide

(4,006 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Kuhlemann, Frank-Michael | Kuhn, Thomas K. | Aebischer-Crettol, Ebo | Honecker, Martin
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Suicide is the violent taking of one’s own life by one’s own hand; it also includes voluntary euthanasia or assisted suicide. Cultural tr…

Honor

(1,164 words)

Author(s): dos Santos-Stubbe, Chirly | Honecker, Martin
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Systematic Theology …

Three Estates Doctrine

(269 words)

Author(s): Honecker, Martin
[German Version] The three estates doctrine is a schema used by Luther in several important passages to describe the status of Christians living in the world (e.g. Vom Abendmahl Christi, Bekenntnis, 1528, WA 26, 262–509). God ordained three estates, the status oeconomicus, politicus, and ecclesiasticus

Life-Not-Worth-Living

(1,008 words)

Author(s): Honecker, Martin
[German Version] I. Concept – II. History – III. Differentiations – IV. Evaluation I. Concept The expression “life-not-worth-living” is synonymous with “mercy killing” and refers, primarily, to the programs of euthanasia carried out in the so-called Third Reich (National Socialism). In these programs of euthanasia, people capable and willing to live were killed with the justification that their lives were not worth living, not useful to society and nation. From the outset, the qualifier “worth” signifies “valued, regarded” – also in an address –, “considered valuable.” The substantive “value” originally meant the same as “price” ( pretium) or “worth,” also “esteem” ( valor). Philosophy first consciously employed the term “worth” in the 19th century, after it had previously denoted economic value. The philosophy of worth sought to fill a vacuum left behind by a mechanistic worldview (R.H. Lotze). Values were supposed to indicate an evaluation (W. Windelband, Heinrich Rickert) or to express the quality of goods (M. Scheler). In this context, the term “value of life” also first appeared. II. History In antiquity, Plato and Aristotle advocated the idea of “eliminating the weak,” a eugenic program, a…

Property

(6,503 words)

Author(s): Elwert, Georg | Frick, Frank S. | Meggitt, Justin J. | Honecker, Martin | Hezser, Catherine | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Property ownership is a social convention that allows and restricts access to physical or socially constructed objects and links that access with certain obligations. In many societies, the obligations of and restrictions on use, especially in connection with land, are managed by a separate supervisory office. Such an office can be vested in a priest, as in the Tobriand Islands or the West African institution of the “landlord.” There are many things that can be involved in tra…

Dominium terrae

(255 words)

Author(s): Honecker, Martin
[German Version] is shorthand for a human approach toward nature in which non-human nature is made over to human subjection and exploitation, and the biblical notion of creation and Christian anthropocentricity are considered causes of the ecological crisis (e.g. L. White, Jr., Medieval Religion and Technology, 1986; Amery). Gen 1:26–29 serves as prooftext. The biblical statements concerning the imago dei (Image of God) and dominion over nature should, however, be understood as a commission to care for and …