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New Thought Movements

(888 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] New Thought is a collective term for a variety of teachings whose common element is the belief that “positive thinking” can lead to mastery of life and particularly to the healing of disease (Sickness and healing). Its genesis may be traced to Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802–1866), who began to develop his so-called “argumentative method” of healing in Belfast, Maine, in 1849. His approach was to convince the patients that their illnesses were the result of erroneous beliefs, groundless fears, an…

Johnson, James

(216 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (c. 1835/1836, Freetown, Sierra Leone – May 18, 1917, Bonny, Nigeria). Johnson was educated at Fourah Bay College and became an Anglican pastor in Freetown (1861–1874) and Lagos (1874–1891). After Bishop S.A. Crowther had been deposed (1891), Johnson did not join any of the African independent churches, but founded the Anglican Niger Delta Native Pastorate, which was independent of the mission (1892). In 1900, he was named deputy to the bishop. Johnson advocated an appreciation of traditional religion ( Yoruba Heathendom, 1899; Yoruba religion) and the accomm…

Staritz, Katharina Helena Charlotte

(187 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] ( Jul 25, 1903, Breslau [Wrocław] – Apr 3, 1953, Frankfurt am Main), one of the first women ordained in the Old Prussian Union (1928). As municipal vicar of Breslau (appointed ¶ Nov 1933), she championed the cause of the city’s Jewish citizens, helping them emigrate and thus probably saving the lives of more than 100 Jews (National Socialism: I, 4). After her circular letter against the “Jewish badge” dated Sep 12, 1941, became generally known, she was relieved of her duties; expelled from Breslau, she went to …

Hocking, William Ernest

(156 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1873, Cleveland, OH – Jun 12, 1966, Madison, NH). Hocking initially studied mechanical engineering at Iowa State, then philosophy at Harvard. In The Meaning of God in Human Experience (1912), he attempted to synthesize the Idealism of J. Royce with the Pragmatism of W. James to develop a philosophy of religion on an empirical basis. As Alford Professor at Harvard from 1920 to 1943, he built on this beginning ( Living Religious and a World Faith, 1940; The Coming World Civilization, 1956; etc.), but also addressed the political problems of t…

Protten, Christian Jakobus

(168 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1715, Accra, Gold Coast [today Ghana] – Oct 23, 1769, Accra), son of a Togolese mother and a Danish father, studied theology in Copenhagen from 1727 to 1735 and then accompanied N. v. Zinzendorf to Herrnhut. He returned to Elmina in West Africa in 1737 as the first Moravian missionary (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II, 4). During a long stay in …

Graul, Karl

(154 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder

Rethinking Group

(276 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] A group of Indian theologians that attracted attention with Rethinking Christianity in India (1939), a collection of essays edited by D.M. Devasahayam and A.N. Sudarisanam in the context of the 1938 World Missionary Conference in Tambaram. G.V. Job, S. Jesudasen, D.M. Devasahayam, E. Asirvatham and A.N. Sudarisanam each contributed an essay; most of the contributions were written by the lay theologians Pandippedi Chenchiah (five) and V. Chakkarai ¶ Chetty (three), who were related by marriage. Both were converts to Christianity from the Brahmin caste and had become well known through associations they had worked together on such as the Young Liberals’ League (1904) and the Madras Christo Samāj (1913). In …

Chakkarai Chetty, Vengal

(328 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1880, Madras – Jun 14, 1958, Madras) came from a respected Chettiar family and was raised as a Hindu. He graduated from Madras Christian College in philosophy; at this time he became a Christian (baptized Feb 22, 1903). Initially, Chakkarai worked as a teacher; at the same time he studied law and was active as a lawyer from 1909 to 1912. In 1913, he joined the Danish Missions to work among educated Hindus. In the same year, together with…

Indirect Rule

(194 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder

Knak, Siegfried

(216 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (May 12, 1875, Zedlitz – May 22, 1955, Berlin), director of the Berlin Mission and vice-chairman of the …

Blyden, Edward Wilmot

(346 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 3, 1832, St. Thomas, Caribbean Islands – Feb 7, 1912, Freetown, Sierra Leone), politician and scholar in West Africa and prominent representative of African cultural nationalism. Barred from attending a theological college in the USA, Blyden emigrated to Liberia in 1851 and attended Alexander High School in Monrovia. In his publications, he supported the “return” of the Afro-Americans (

Nigeria

(1,559 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. General Nigeria’s population of some 115 to 120 million makes it the most populous …

Braide, Garrick Sokari

(347 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (between 1883 and 1887, Abonnema, Niger delta – Nov 15, 1918, Bakana) was the founder of the first great prophetic movement in Nigeria. What he accomplished was a reinterpretation of the Christian faith. His ministry led to many conversions in southeast Nigeria. Braide, a fisherman and fishmonger, began his ecclesiastical career as a catechist…

Independent Evangelical Missionary

(184 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Ger. Freimissionar), a person carrying out missionary work without ecclesial mandate. Since a comparable mission authority was lacking in German Protestantism until the founding of the Danish-Halle Mission, individually operating mission…

Kibira, Josiah Mutabuzi

(239 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1925, Kashenje, Bukoba, Tanzania – Jul 18, 1988, Rwamishenye, Tanzania) earned a diploma at the Teachers' Training College in Tabora, worked as a teacher at Kahorore High School in Bukoba from 1950 to 1957, and completed his studies in Protestan…

Burundi

(529 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (27,834 km2) is situated in what is known as the interlake area of the central African Great Rift Valley just south of the equator. The name derives from the kingdom of Urundi, whose dynasty dates back to the 17th century. 82.9% of the approx. 6.6 million inhabitants are Hutu, 14.5% Tutsi, and 1% Twa. The dynasty of the Ganwa came from the group of Banyaruguru-Tutsi. The common language is Kirundi. The traditional religion of Burundi is characterized by faith in the divine being Imana and by the summoning of the spirit Ki…

World War I

(1,771 words)

Author(s): Leonhard, Jörn | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. Church History World War I stands for a hithert…

Tanzania

(868 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder | Mungure, Elieshi
[German Version] I. General The name Tanzania is an artificial coi…

Independent Church Movements

(1,500 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. History – II. Missiology I. History Independent local forms of Christianity and the aspiration to be emancipated from the control of European missionaries appeared early on in the history of the emerging churches of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Examples include the movement initiated by the female African prophet D.B. Kimpa Vita in the Congo d…
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