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Calvinism

(2,733 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst | Pfister, Ulrich
1. Theology 1.1. Terminology and geographical spreadThe term Calvinism was originally coined in a pejorative sense by J. Westphal, a Hamburg pastor and disciple of Luther. Besides the work and impact of the Geneva Reformer John Calvin (1509-1564), he extended it to include the influence of the Zürich Reformation movement led by Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) and his followers. Thus Calvinist can be used as a synonym of Reformed, for example in the legal language of the Empire after the Peace of Westphalia (1648).Outside Switzerland, Calvinism became influential during the 16t…
Date: 2019-10-14

Agrarian constitution

(1,430 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Definition In contrast to the concept of a land use system, which refers to the technical and operational aspects of agriculture, the term “agrarian constitution” refers to the institutional conditions that constitute the basis for economic activity in rural areas. Both formal norms such as law, contracts, legislation etc., and informal, culturally specific codes of conduct related to the control of goods and transactions (Property) may be considered institutions in an economic sense.Earlier German research on the agrarian constitution grew out of the legal histo…
Date: 2019-10-14

Alpine economy

(1,169 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
The Alps are the largest and highest European mountain range, stretching in an arc about 1,200 km long by 250 km wide from the western Mediterranean to eastern Austria and as far as Slovenia. Owing to their extent and their central position in Europe, they do not represent solely a geographical challenge to the movement of people and goods (Alpine passes): they are also paradigmatic for the academic perception and cultural and political interpretation of mountains (Alpinism), and accordingly ran…
Date: 2019-10-14

Cotton

(3,530 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
Cotton is one of the most important materials for the manufacture of apparel in human history. As with silk, although silk always remained a luxury product in the west, a wide separation developed at an early date (from the 15th century) between regions that cultivated and regions that processed cotton. Industrialization of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was first and most strikingly reflected in the cotton industry. Cotton and cotton products were among the most important global commodities at this period.1. Areas of cultivation; global tradeCotton is cultivated in tr…
Date: 2019-10-14

Manufactory

(2,762 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. ConceptA manufactory was a production plant in a preindustrial trade (Industrial trades and crafts), generally belonging to proto-industrial export industries (Proto-industrialization). Members of its labor force worked outside their own household economy under the supervision and coordination of a third person – a manager, a merchant-manufacturer, or a master manufacturer. The centralization of the production process might relate to a single production step (horizontal integration), but verti…
Date: 2019-10-14

Kaufsystem

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. DefinitionThe term  Kaufsystem denotes a production regime, that is, the institutional embodiment of the organization of production and work relations in the export-oriented industrial trades and crafts in the period of proto-industrialization. A Kaufsystem involves a purely market-oriented relationship between independent commercial producers and the merchants who purchased their products and sold them on export markets [6. 202–210]. As soon as the relationship of the largely anonymous purchasing was supplemented by a production order (com…
Date: 2019-10-14

Industrial region

(2,635 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Definition and origins“Industrial region” is a geographical term that describes an area where industrial operations occupy a relatively high percentage of space and there is also a generally high level of export of manufactured industrial trades and crafts. Historically, industrial regions were generally dominated by one industry, or a few related industries. Consequently, these regions reflected the complex organizational requirements of the dominant industry, which was structured very differen…
Date: 2019-10-14

Mandatory loan

(867 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
A bond is a documented promise to pay, with a stipulated interest rate, term, and method of redemption. Unlike credit or a loan for consumption, a bond is negotiable, that is, it can be resold. In this sense, a bond is similar to a bill of exchange, but the latter usually has a term of less than a year, whereas a bond has a longer term. The distinction between the money market and the capital market is analogous. Ever since the latter was created in the 17th century, bond trading has been its primary activity. The payment promised at final maturity represents a rate of 100%. Both…
Date: 2019-10-14

Income distribution

(1,610 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Income distribution and social inequalitySocial stratification exhibits two primary phenomena. First, in most societies the opportunities and risks in life are distributed unequally among individuals and households. These opportunities and risks include such factors as opportunities for consumption, standard of housing, access to communication services and media, exposure to illnesses, death (Mortality), and insufficient earning capacity in old age. In many societies, income is a central factor on…
Date: 2019-10-14

China trade

(1,232 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. The role of silver in Chinese foreign tradeFrom the 14th to the 18th centuries, the foreign trade of China was shaped by the shortage of currency metals in the country, especially silver and copper. Among the consequences of this shortage was a diminished price ratio between silver andgold (Precious metals). Whereas in Western Europe, gold was for centuries between 12 and 15 times as valuable as silver by weight, the ratio in China in the early 14th century was 10 : 1, and it fell to 5–6 : 1 in the s…
Date: 2019-10-14

Economic growth

(3,293 words)

Author(s): Hesse, Jan-Otmar | Pfister, Ulrich
1. Concept and elementsEconomic growth is the increase of available goods and services in a national economy (Economy, political). It is often indicated as the annual rate of growth of the economy on a per capita basis. The raising of economic performance can arise by means of three processes: (1) growth achieved by a strengthening of investment of the production factors work, capital and land is called extensive economic growth; in this case, a permanent increase in economic performance per capita…
Date: 2019-10-14

Currency

(2,375 words)

Author(s): Denzel, Markus A. | Pfister, Ulrich
1. Definition The term currency (from Latin currens, “flowing”) originally meant a condition of fluidity; the figurative sense of “circulation” of money was coined in 1690 by John Locke. The German term Währung (from MHG werunge, “guarantee”) refers to a territory's legal regulation of the monetary system, and, like currency, encompasses the definition of the coinage system (coin standard, establishment of the relative values of different coins and the intrinsic precious metal content), the establishment of legal tender, and ex…
Date: 2019-10-14

Land use system

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. DefinitionThe phrase  land use system denotes the manner in which productive land is used for agriculture. It includes the way an area is used, for example for timber production (Wood), pasture, meadow, or agricultural cropland. For cropland, the land use system includes the spatial disposition of the plants and crop rotation. In combination with the agrarian constitution and agricultural technology, the land use system determines the parameters of agricultural production.Early modern land use systems are studied in the borderland between history and historic…
Date: 2019-10-14

Linen

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. ConceptThe linen industry produced textiles from flax and hemp (Fiber plants). Linen was the staple product, alongside the luxury goods damask and lace. Because flax and hemp were widely cultivated in the peasant domestic economy, the linen industry was able to develop in many areas of Europe on the basis of the subsistence economy. Quality improvements and specialization by the “commercialization of peasant technologies” [4] saw the industry readily develop into an export trade (Industrial trades and crafts). This was further encouraged by popula…
Date: 2019-10-14

Metrology

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. ConceptsMetrology is the study of weights and measures. It includes today international and national organizations devoted to standardizing and exactly determining weights and measures, guaranteeing the exact calibration of measuring equipment, and the training and further training of calibration officials. Metrology arose in the 19th century with the international establishment of the metric system (see below, 3.). Historians also use the term metrologists to refer to authors working in the 1…
Date: 2019-10-14

Church discipline

(2,666 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen | Pfister, Ulrich
1. DefinitionDown to the present day, in Protestantism  church  discipline – also  moral disciplinecongregational discipline, “brotherly/sisterly admonition” – has served as a collective term for various measures (in the setting of pastoral care and ecclesiastical oversight) intended to maintain the church’s doctrine and order, and to restore a manner of life that is not contrary to Christian norms. (On questions of discipline in the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox churches, see Ecclesiastical law.)The purpose of the church’s disciplinary measures …
Date: 2019-10-14

Mountains

(1,280 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. IntroductionThe communities that inhabit mountain ranges differ markedly from those of their lower-lying surroundings in their agricultural land use systems, their agrarian constitutions, and their social organization. Historically, the exploration and crossing of mountain ranges has often posed a technical challenge (Alpine passes). Ever since Fernand Braudel set the antithetical tone of his history of the Mediterranean by subtitling the first chapter “...tout d’abord, les montagnes!” (“First of all, the mountains!”) [1], it has been clear that the close int…
Date: 2020-04-06

Company settlement

(909 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. DevelopmentCompany settlements provided family housing for members of the workforce of an enterprise, constructed and financed by the firm itself. Usually these settlements were built on land owned by the firm and were managed by the firm. In certain early cases, the industrial plant and the residence were on the same piece of land; soon, however, separation of the workplace from the residence became the norm, although the settlement was built as close as possible to the factory. Besides this …
Date: 2019-10-14

Economic cycle (fluctuation)

(1,479 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. ConceptThe term economic cycle here relates to deviations from the long-term track of the growth (Economic growth) of a national economy. Fluctuations in economic activity, measured by the gross economic product of goods, may be seasonal in nature or extend for a period of years. Long-term variations are the so-called Kuznets-cycles, lasting approximately 25 years, observed in particular in connection with migration (Occupational migration; Emigration; Mobility) and development investments in …
Date: 2019-10-14

Industrialization

(6,945 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Concept and recent research 1.1. IndustryIn contrast to the service sector (banking, trade, insurance) and the primary sector (agriculture, mining), the industrial or secondary sector produces commercial goods. In contrast to the crafts and trades, industry is characterized by large-scale production (Factory [industrial]), which separates it especially from the household economy of the individual craftsman, as well as by the universal employment of processing machines and power machines. This disti…
Date: 2019-10-14
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