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Company settlement

(909 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. DevelopmentCompany settlements provided family housing for members of the workforce of an enterprise, constructed and financed by the firm itself. Usually these settlements were built on land owned by the firm and were managed by the firm. In certain early cases, the industrial plant and the residence were on the same piece of land; soon, however, separation of the workplace from the residence became the norm, although the settlement was built as close as possible to the factory. Besides this …
Date: 2019-10-14

Cotton

(3,530 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
Cotton is one of the most important materials for the manufacture of apparel in human history. As with silk, although silk always remained a luxury product in the west, a wide separation developed at an early date (from the 15th century) between regions that cultivated and regions that processed cotton. Industrialization of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was first and most strikingly reflected in the cotton industry. Cotton and cotton products were among the most important global commodities at this period.1. Areas of cultivation; global tradeCotton is cultivated in tr…
Date: 2019-10-14

Agrarian constitution

(1,430 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Definition In contrast to the concept of a land use system, which refers to the technical and operational aspects of agriculture, the term “agrarian constitution” refers to the institutional conditions that constitute the basis for economic activity in rural areas. Both formal norms such as law, contracts, legislation etc., and informal, culturally specific codes of conduct related to the control of goods and transactions (Property) may be considered institutions in an economic sense.Earlier German research on the agrarian constitution grew out of the legal histo…
Date: 2019-10-14

Manufactory

(2,762 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. ConceptA manufactory was a production plant in a preindustrial trade (Industrial trades and crafts), generally belonging to proto-industrial export industries (Proto-industrialization). Members of its labor force worked outside their own household economy under the supervision and coordination of a third person – a manager, a merchant-manufacturer, or a master manufacturer. The centralization of the production process might relate to a single production step (horizontal integration), but verti…
Date: 2019-10-14

Kaufsystem

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. DefinitionThe term  Kaufsystem denotes a production regime, that is, the institutional embodiment of the organization of production and work relations in the export-oriented industrial trades and crafts in the period of proto-industrialization. A Kaufsystem involves a purely market-oriented relationship between independent commercial producers and the merchants who purchased their products and sold them on export markets [6. 202–210]. As soon as the relationship of the largely anonymous purchasing was supplemented by a production order (com…
Date: 2019-10-14

Industrialization

(6,945 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Concept and recent research 1.1. IndustryIn contrast to the service sector (banking, trade, insurance) and the primary sector (agriculture, mining), the industrial or secondary sector produces commercial goods. In contrast to the crafts and trades, industry is characterized by large-scale production (Factory [industrial]), which separates it especially from the household economy of the individual craftsman, as well as by the universal employment of processing machines and power machines. This disti…
Date: 2019-10-14

Leading sector, industrial

(674 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. DefinitionIn the early phase of industrialization, the economic growth of the industrial sector was generally extremely lopsided, being concentrated in a few areas, the so-called leading sectors. In the 1950s and 1960s, this observation led to the development of the concept of leading industrial sectors in the field of political economy [4]; [3. 10–14]. Leading industrial sectors are characterized by rapid technological change, which brings strong growth in the productivity of work and capital. In the early modern period, too, high product…
Date: 2019-10-14

Alpine economy

(1,169 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
The Alps are the largest and highest European mountain range, stretching in an arc about 1,200 km long by 250 km wide from the western Mediterranean to eastern Austria and as far as Slovenia. Owing to their extent and their central position in Europe, they do not represent solely a geographical challenge to the movement of people and goods (Alpine passes): they are also paradigmatic for the academic perception and cultural and political interpretation of mountains (Alpinism), and accordingly ran…
Date: 2019-10-14

Income distribution

(1,610 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Income distribution and social inequalitySocial stratification exhibits two primary phenomena. First, in most societies the opportunities and risks in life are distributed unequally among individuals and households. These opportunities and risks include such factors as opportunities for consumption, standard of housing, access to communication services and media, exposure to illnesses, death (Mortality), and insufficient earning capacity in old age. In many societies, income is a central factor on…
Date: 2019-10-14

China trade

(1,232 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. The role of silver in Chinese foreign tradeFrom the 14th to the 18th centuries, the foreign trade of China was shaped by the shortage of currency metals in the country, especially silver and copper. Among the consequences of this shortage was a diminished price ratio between silver andgold (Precious metals). Whereas in Western Europe, gold was for centuries between 12 and 15 times as valuable as silver by weight, the ratio in China in the early 14th century was 10 : 1, and it fell to 5–6 : 1 in the s…
Date: 2019-10-14

Land use system

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. DefinitionThe phrase  land use system denotes the manner in which productive land is used for agriculture. It includes the way an area is used, for example for timber production (Wood), pasture, meadow, or agricultural cropland. For cropland, the land use system includes the spatial disposition of the plants and crop rotation. In combination with the agrarian constitution and agricultural technology, the land use system determines the parameters of agricultural production.Early modern land use systems are studied in the borderland between history and historic…
Date: 2019-10-14

Linen

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. ConceptThe linen industry produced textiles from flax and hemp (Fiber plants). Linen was the staple product, alongside the luxury goods damask and lace. Because flax and hemp were widely cultivated in the peasant domestic economy, the linen industry was able to develop in many areas of Europe on the basis of the subsistence economy. Quality improvements and specialization by the “commercialization of peasant technologies” [4] saw the industry readily develop into an export trade (Industrial trades and crafts). This was further encouraged by popula…
Date: 2019-10-14

Metrology

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. ConceptsMetrology is the study of weights and measures. It includes today international and national organizations devoted to standardizing and exactly determining weights and measures, guaranteeing the exact calibration of measuring equipment, and the training and further training of calibration officials. Metrology arose in the 19th century with the international establishment of the metric system (see below, 3.). Historians also use the term metrologists to refer to authors working in the 1…
Date: 2019-10-14

Gebirge

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. AllgemeinG. sind tektonische Erhebungen, die sich durch ihr landwirtschaftliches Nutzungssystem, ihre Agrarverfassung sowie ihre soziale Organisation deutlich von ihrem tiefer gelegenen Umland unterscheiden. Zudem stellte und stellt ihre Erschließung und Überquerung vielfach eine verkehrstechnische Herausforderung dar (Alpenübergänge). Seit F. Braudel seine Geschichte des Mittelmeers antithetisch mit dem Kapitel »Zuerst die Berge« beginnen ließ [1], wurde deutlich, dass die engen Austauschbeziehungen von Hochländern mit Tiefländern einen wichtig…
Date: 2019-11-19

Industrialisierung

(6,146 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Begriff und neuere Forschungsgeschichte 1.1. IndustrieDer Industrie- oder Sekundärsektor erstellt im Unterschied zum Dienstleistungssektor (Bank, Handel, Versicherung) und zum Primärsektor (Landwirtschaft, Montanwesen) gewerbliche Güter. Im Unterschied zum Handwerk ist die Industrie durch eine großbetriebliche Fertigung (Fabrik), die insbes. von der Hauswirtschaft des einzelnen Gewerbetreibenden abgelöst ist, sowie durch den universellen Einsatz von Arbeits- und Kraft-Maschinen gekennzeichnet. Dies unterscheidet die Industrie des späten 18. und…
Date: 2019-11-19

Economic cycle (fluctuation)

(1,479 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. ConceptThe term economic cycle here relates to deviations from the long-term track of the growth (Economic growth) of a national economy. Fluctuations in economic activity, measured by the gross economic product of goods, may be seasonal in nature or extend for a period of years. Long-term variations are the so-called Kuznets-cycles, lasting approximately 25 years, observed in particular in connection with migration (Occupational migration; Emigration; Mobility) and development investments in …
Date: 2019-10-14

Textilien

(1,470 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Begriff und VerwendungT. waren bis ins 19. Jh. Erzeugnisse aus pflanzlichen und tierischen Fasern. Meist hatten sie die Form von Geweben (Webtechnik); daneben gab es geknüpfte, geklöppelte oder gestrickte Erzeugnisse (vgl. Teppich; Spitzenherstellung; Strumpfwirker). Die Hauptverwendung von T. lag im Bereich von Kleidung und Heim-T. (u. a. Bettwäsche, Vorhängen, Tischtüchern). T. waren aber nicht nur Konsum-Güter, sondern wurden vielfach in Handel und Gewerbe eingesetzt. Hervorzuheben sind die Schifffahrt (Segel, Seile), die Nutzung …
Date: 2019-11-19

Spinnereitechnik

(1,679 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. Langfristige EntwicklungDas Spinnen leistet die Herstellung eines Garns aus endlichen Fasern, das verwoben werden kann (Webtechnik). Es umschließt mehrere Arbeitsschritte: das Aufschließen und Reinigen der Fasern aus einer Fasermasse, die parallele Ausrichtung der Fasern durch das Kämmen, das Verziehen und Verdrehen eines Faserstrangs zu einem Garn sowie schließlich dessen Aufspulen. Das Spinnen ist die Voraussetzung für die Herstellung von Textilien und damit eine Grundtechnik der Menschheit, deren Ausübung im Mittelmeerraum sowie in West- und Mittel…
Date: 2019-11-19

Konjunktur

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. BegriffK. bezeichnet die Abweichungen vom langfristigen Wachstumspfad (Wirtschaftswachstum) einer Volkswirtschaft. Fluktuationen der wirtschaftlichen (= wl.) Aktivität, gemessen am gesamtwl. Güterausstoß, können saisonaler Natur sein oder sich über mehrere Jahre erstrecken. Langfristige K.-Schwankungen sind die sog. Kuznets-Zyklen von ca. 25-jähriger Dauer, die man v. a. im Zusammenhang mit Wanderung (Arbeitsmigration; Emigration; Mobilität) und Erschließungsinvestitionen in den USA zwischen dem zweiten Viertel des 19. Jh.s und dem frühen 20. Jh.…
Date: 2019-11-19

Nutzungssystem

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Pfister, Ulrich
1. BegriffN. bezeichnet die Art und Weise der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung einer Nutzfläche. Hierzu zählt die Art der Nutzung eines Areals, z. B. für die Holz-Gewinnung, als Weide, Wiese oder Ackerfläche. Hinsichtlich der Ackerfläche bezeichnet das N. die räumliche Anordnung der Pflanzen sowie die Fruchtfolgen. Zusammen mit der Agrarverfassung und der Landtechnik setzt das N. die Rahmenbedingungen landwirtschaftlicher Produktion.Die nzl. N. werden im Grenzbereich von Geschichtswissenschaft und histor. Geographie erforscht, denn oft erfordert die A…
Date: 2019-11-19
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