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T̲h̲ulā

(468 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, an historic, walled town of about 4,000 people (al-Waysī, 65, published in 1962) situated at about 45 km/28 miles from the main town of the Yemen, Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], and placed by Werdecker (139), after Glaser, in 15° 36′ latitude and 43° 53′. The town is overlooked by an impregnable fortress perched on the mountain above which can be seen from very great distances all around. Tradition tells us that the town takes its name from a certain T̲h̲ulā b. Lubāk̲h̲a b. Aḳyān b. Ḥimyar al-Aṣg̲h̲ar. It is also the centre of a district ( ḳaḍāʾ ) of the same name. The town is undoubtedly of ancient origin. …

ʿUyūnids

(95 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, a minor dynasty of mediaeval Arabia, whose capital was al-Ḳaṭīf [ q.v.], ruling over al-Aḥsā/al-Ḥasā [ q.v.] in eastern Arabia from the 5th-7th/11th-13th centuries. They destroyed the Ḳarāmiṭa [ q.v.] there in 467/1076, though little is known of their history. They are reputed to be of Āl Ibrāhīm of Murra [ q.v.], a ḳabīla of ʿAbd al-Ḳays [ q.v.]. Their influence rapidly declined in the 7th/13th century, when about the middle of the century the ʿUṣfūrids [ q.v.] assumed control of the region. (G.R. Smith) Bibliography ʿUmar Riḍā Kaḥḥāla, Muʿd̲j̲am ḳabāʾil al-ʿArab, iii, Beirut 1982, …

Ḥaḍramawt

(3,562 words)

Author(s): Beeston, A. F. L. | Smith, G. R. | Johnstone, T. M.
The opportunity is taken of prefixing to the main body of the article, on Ḥaḍrarnawt in the Islamic period, some important recent items of information on the region in the pre-Islamic time. i. Pre-Islamic Period In 1974 a French archaeological mission under the direction of J. Pirenne began work at S̲h̲abwa, which is still continuing. The most significant result has been the tracing of a very extensive town site to the northeast of the rectangular sacral enclosure which the earliest visitors had noted; included in this are some i…

Laḥd̲j̲

(910 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
colloquially called Laḥid̲j̲, a town and area of south-western Arabia, now situated in the second governorate of the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen. The town, also known as ¶ al-Ḥawṭa, lies between the two tributaries of the Wādī Tuban, al-Wādī al-Kabīr and al-Wādī al-Ṣaghīr, about 25 miles north-west of Aden. The town is surrounded by a fertile area which is cultivated by means of an elaborate system of irrigation using the water of the wadis and also of wells. Datepalms abound, as well as cer…

al-S̲h̲arḳiyya

(292 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, a traditional name for the eastern area of the Sultanate of Oman [see ʿumān ], now the official Eastern Region of the Sultanate, which lies in the inland region of Eastern Had̲j̲ar, northwest of D̲j̲aʿlān and north of the Wahība Sands (see Wilkinson, Water , 14, Fig. 5). The main towns of the region are Ibrā, the largest, and Samad, al-Muḍaybī, Sināw and al-Ḳābil. The whole area is a sandy plain interspersed with wadis. Today, the official, extended region of al-S̲h̲arḳiyya is made up of thirteen provinces ( wilāyāt ), including Ibrā, Bid(d)iyya, al-Ḳābil and …

Taʿizz

(829 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, now the main town in the southern highlands of the Yemen, some 195 km/120 miles south, slighdy west, of Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.] and about 140 km/88 miles north-west of Aden [see ʿadan ]. It is situated at the foot of D̲j̲abal Ṣabir which rises to a height of about 3,000 m/9,600 feet. Although the town is mentioned during the Ayyūbid period of Yemeni history (569-626/1173-1228) [see ayyūbids ], its main development came under the Rasūlids (628-845/1230-1441 [ q.v.]), who made the town their capital. It seems that Taʿizz was originally a settiement in the region of al-D̲j̲anad, th…

al-Mahdī Li-Dīn Allāh Aḥmad

(1,710 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G.R. | Blackburn, J.R.
, a title and name of a number of Zaydī imāms of the Yemen. About 250 years after al-Hādī ila ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Yaḥyā, the founder of the Zaydiyya in the Yemen, his direct descendant, al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad, had, between 532/1137 and 566/1170, restored Zaydī territory to its extent in al-Hādī’s time, with Ṣaʿda, Nad̲j̲rān and, for a time, also Zabīd and Ṣanʿāʾ. A generation later (593-614/1197-1217) the mountainous region from Ṣaʿda in the north to D̲h̲amār, south of Ṣanʿāʾ, was again ruled by the Zaydī al-Manṣ…

ʿUmān

(4,126 words)

Author(s): Smith G.R. | Bosworth C.E. | Smith, G.R. | C. Holes
, conventionally Oman, a sultanate situated in the south-eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, with a second area, separated from the first by parts of the United Arab Emirates, at the tip of the Musandam peninsula. The country, with a population of some 2,000,000 inhabitants, occupies some 312,000 km2 in all, and has a coastline along the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean of about 1,700 km/1,060 miles in length. The head of state is Sultan Ḳābūs b. Saʿīd, the fourteenth ruler of the Āl Bū Saʿīd dynasty [ q.v.]. The country is divided ethnically and culturally into two: the Ibāḍī …

al-Yaman

(12,475 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Brice, W.C. | Smith, G.R. | Burrowes, R.D. | F. Mermier | Et al.
, Yemen, the southwestern part of the Arabian peninsula, now coming substantially within the unified Republic of Yemen (which also includes as its eastern region the former People’s Democratic Republic of South Yemen, the pre-1967 Aden Protectorate, essentially the historic Ḥaḍramawt [ q.v. in Vol. III and also in Suppl.; see also suḳuṭra ]). ¶ 1. Definition and general introduction. The name is variously explained in the Arabic sources; some say it was given because al-Yaman lies to the right of the Kaʿba or to the right of the sun (al-Bakrī, ii, 856), …

Tarīm

(396 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, a well-known town in Wādī Ḥaḍramawt [ q.v.], situated about 40 km/25 miles from S̲h̲ibām, east, slightly north, and about 25 km/15 miles from Sayʾūn [ q.v.] in the same direction (see ¶ H. von Wissmann, map, Southern Arabia , RGS, London 1958). The town marks where Wādī Ḥaḍramawt ends and where Wādī al-Masīla begins. In Arab tradition, the name comes from Tarīm b. al-Sukūn b. al-As̲h̲ras b. Kinda or from the name of the one who first setded there, Tarīm b. Ḥaḍramawt b. Sabaʾ al-Aṣg̲h̲ar. The name is attested in the pre-Islamic inscriptions: trm in Iryani 32 and trym in …
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