tuḳa n ,
ittiḳāʾ , “prudence, fear” (see
LʿA , s.v.
w-ḳ-y , Beirut 1956, xv, 401-4;
TʿA , x, 396-8), and also, from the root
kitmān “action of covering, dissimulation”, as opposed to
id̲h̲āʿa “revealing, spreading information”, denotes dispensing with the ordinances of religion in cases of constraint and when there is a possibility of harm. The Ḳurʾān itself avoids the question of suffering in the cause of religion in dogmatics by adopting a Docetist solution (sūra IV, 156) and in everyday life by the
hid̲j̲ra and by allowing in …