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al-Nāṣir Li-Dīn Allāh

(762 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, honorific title of several Zaydī imāms . I. Among the Caspian Zaydīs, this title was borne by 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [see Ḥasan al-uṭrūs̲h̲ ] and his great-grandson 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī . The latter gained for himself a dominion beginning in Hawsam, where he could find associations with the earlier period of Zaydī rule. He laid great emphasis on the religious character of Zaydism; he gave out of the state treasury funds to support people who learned the Ḳurʾān by he…

al-Mahdī Li-Dīn Allāh Aḥmad

(1,710 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G.R. | Blackburn, J.R.
, a title and name of a number of Zaydī imāms of the Yemen. About 250 years after al-Hādī ila ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Yaḥyā, the founder of the Zaydiyya in the Yemen, his direct descendant, al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad, had, between 532/1137 and 566/1170, restored Zaydī territory to its extent in al-Hādī’s time, with Ṣaʿda, Nad̲j̲rān and, for a time, also Zabīd and Ṣanʿāʾ. A generation later (593-614/1197-1217) the mountainous region from Ṣaʿda in the north to D̲h̲amār, south of Ṣanʿāʾ, was again ruled by the Zaydī al-Manṣ…

Nad̲j̲āḥids

(1,191 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G.R.
, a dynasty of Abyssinian slaves with their capital in Zabīd [ q.v.], reigned 412-553/1022-1158. ¶ The best historical source for an understanding of the dynasty is ʿUmāra (see Kay, in Bibl .), but it should be stressed that ʿUmāra’s account is sometimes confused, frequently anecdotal with interruptions of little or no relevance and lacking in dates. Other published sources which can be used as a control on ʿUmāra’s text are listed below, though many depend ultimately on him, being transmitted in the main through other writers. When the last Ziyādid [ q.v.] had been put to death during…

Taḳiyya

(1,799 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Djebli, Moktar
(a.), also tuḳa n , tuḳāt , taḳwā and ittiḳāʾ , “prudence, fear” (see LʿA , s.v. w-ḳ-y , Beirut 1956, xv, 401-4; TʿA , x, 396-8), and also, from the root k-t-m, kitmān “action of covering, dissimulation”, as opposed to id̲h̲āʿa “revealing, spreading information”, denotes dispensing with the ordinances of religion in cases of constraint and when there is a possibility of harm. The Ḳurʾān itself avoids the question of suffering in the cause of religion in dogmatics by adopting a Docetist solution (sūra IV, 156) and in everyday life by the hid̲j̲ra and by allowing in …

Taʿziya

(2,178 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(a.), a. expression of sympathy in general, b. the passion play of the S̲h̲īʿīs. The word, a verbal noun from ʿaziya II, is not found in the Ḳurʾān (but cf. ʿizīn in lxx. 37), but occurs in all schools of fiḳh at the end of the book on public worship in the section, or in the separate book, al-d̲j̲anāʾiz = burial, where sympathy is requested for the relatives. Among the S̲h̲īʿīs it means in the first place the lamentation for the martyred imāms, which is held at their graves and aiso at home. In particular, however, it is mourning for Ḥusain. The tābūt, a copy of the tomb at Kerbelāʾ, in popular…

al-Muḥammadīya

(547 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a name of several heretical schools, notably the ultra-S̲h̲īʿī Muḥammadīya. As the example of the Kaisānīya [q. v.] shows, at an early date some S̲h̲īʿīs transferred the imāmate to ʿAlids who were not descendants of the Prophet’s daughter Fāṭima and then to those who were not ʿAlids at all. The Manṣūrīya revered such an one in Abū Manṣūr al-ʿId̲j̲lī, whom Yūsuf b. ʿOmar al-T̲h̲aḳafī, governor of the ʿIrāḳ, executed in the reign of the Caliph His̲h̲ām, i. e. before 125 (743). Abū Manṣūr, rejected by the I…

al-Manṣūr

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
bi ’llāh al-Ḳāsim, the name of two Zaidī imāms of the Yemen. I. al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī al-ʿAiyānī (? according to others al-IIyānī). His genealogy goes back through a certain ʿAbd Allāh and a Muḥammad to al-Ḳāsim b. Ibrāhīm Ṭabāṭabā (d. 246 = 860), the spiritual founder of Zaidism in the Yemen; he is however not a descendant of the latter’s grandson, al-Hādī Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusain, the creator of the secular power of the Zaidīs in the Yemen. The latter was succeeded in the imāmate by his two sons: the weak Muḥammad al-Mu…

Nafīsa

(484 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, al-Sayyida , a mausoleum situated to the south of the Fāṭimid city of al-Ḳāhira in the northern part of the cemetery area of the City of the Dead (al-Ḳarāfa), to the south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [see walī ] in Cairo next to Sayyida Zaynab bint Muḥammad [ q.v.] and “Sitt Sekīna” (Sukayna) “Sitt Nefīsa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Sayyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, imme…

al-Tanāwutī

(665 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.] referring to the Tanāwut, a Berber tribe of the Nafzāwa country in southern Tunisia and Wargla (Wārd̲j̲alān). To the 5th/11th century belongs: 1). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī, who often appears in later tradition. His son 2). Ismāʿīl, but still more his grandson 3). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl, had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: 4). Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Y…

Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, Abū muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿalī zayn al-ʿĀbidīn [see zayn al-ʿābidīn ], born about 230/844 at Medīna of a K̲h̲urāsān slave girl, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 304/beginning of 917 at Āmul as ruler in Ṭabaristān, is still recognized under the official name of al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr as Imām by the Zaydiyya [ q.v.] in the Yemen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ came to Ṭabaristān in the reign of the ʿAlid al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [see al-Ḥasan b. Ẓayd b. muḥammad ];¶ his brother and successor al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zayd distrusting him, he endeavoured …

al-Mufīd

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. al-Nuʿmān al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī, also called Ibn al-Muʿallim, a distinguished Twelver scholar of Bag̲h̲dād under the Būyids, was born at the end of 333 or 338 (945 or 950), and came of an old Ḳurais̲h̲ family which, as his second epithet shows, had a reputation for scholarship; he himself became, as his epithet shows, the teacher from whom all “later students have derived advantage”. While he took little active part in politics, he was a very prolific author. His correspondence, usually replies to queries, came from Mawṣil, Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān, Dīnawar, Raḳḳa, Ḵh̲wār…

al-Tanāwutī

(687 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the Abāḍīs [q.v.]. To the fifth (eleventh) century belongs: Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī who often appears in later tradition. His son Ismāʿīl but still more his grandson Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Wārd̲j̲alānī. He came of a wealthy family and had an allowance of 1,000 d…

al-Saiyida Nafīsa

(435 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a mausoleum outside Cairo, south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [cf. walī] in Cairo next to Saiyida Zainab bint Muḥammad [q. v.] and “Sitt Sekina” (Sukaina) “Sitt Nefisa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Saiyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, immediately after Imām al-S̲h̲āfiʿī and Imām al-Ḥusainī (see Bergsträsser, in Isl., xxi. [1933], 110 sq.). The sanctuary is visited by both men and women, especiall…

Zaid b. ʿAlī

(988 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [q. v.] gave his name to the Zaidīya [q. v.] who revere him as a political and religious martyr; he was the first ʿAlid after the catastrophe which overwhelmed his grandfather al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī ¶ [q. v.] at Kerbelāʾ to endeavour to deprive the Umaiyads of the caliphate by armed rebellion when he placed himself at the disposal of the Kūfans as Imām. Except for an interval of two months when he was secretly seeking adherents in Baṣra, he spent a year in preparation in Kūfa, hidden in constantly changing hiding-places…

Mūsā al-Kāẓim

(970 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
the seventh Imām of the Twelfer S̲h̲īʿa, son of Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad al-Ṣādiḳ [q. v.], was born about 128 (745) at al-Abwāʾ [q. v.], the traditional burial-place of Āmina, mother of the Prophet. He grew to manhood in his father’s house in Medīna and remained there as Imām after the latter’s death in 148 (765) without playing any part in politics. In particular he took no share in the great rising of the Ḥasanid ʿAlids which collapsed at Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ in 169 (786). Nevertheless the caliph was suspi…

Yaʿfur

(372 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (also al-Raḥīm) b. Kuraib al-Ḥiwālī (on the disputed vocalisation cf. the poem in van Arendonk [see Bibl.], p. 232, note 3), founder of the dynasty of Yaʿfurids or Ḥiwālids who claimed to be descended from the Tubbaʿs, the ancient Ḥimyarite kings. Their ancestral home S̲h̲ibām, called S̲h̲ibām Aḳyān or S̲h̲ibām Kawkabān to distinguish it from other places of the same name, is described by geographers as a well cultivated hilly country. In the caliphate of al-Muʿtaṣim, i. e. before 227 (842), Yaʿf…

T̲h̲anawīya

(1,798 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Dualism, means the doctrine that light and darkness are the two equal eternal creative principles. There is not a regular T̲h̲anawīya sect or school in Islām. The term, as the characteristic name of a school of thought, is limited to three non-Muslims and their adherents: Ibn Daiṣān, Mānī and Mazdak [see these three articles]. A danger arose to Islām through the tendency to dualism within its ranks from the mass conversions of Persians, as was seen for example at the beginning of the ʿAbbāsid period in the disturbing figure of Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ. He w…

Banū Nad̲j̲āḥ

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
a dynasty of Abyssinian Mamlūks at Zabīd [q. v.] from 412 to 553 (1022—1158). When the last Ziyadī [q. v.] had been put to death in the vizierate of the Abyssinian Mard̲j̲ān by one of his Mamlūk governors Nafīs, the other Nad̲j̲āḥ came forward to avenge him. After desperate fighting, Nafīs was slain and Nad̲j̲āḥ in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 412 (Feb. 1022) entered Zabīd where he had the vizier built alive into a wall in exact revenge for the Ziyādī. As his rival Nafīs had already done, Nad̲j̲āḥ assumed the insignia of royalty, struck his own coins and inserted his own name in the k̲h̲uṭba after that of the ʿ…

S̲h̲īʿa

(9,188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the general name for a large group of very different Muslim sects, the starting point of all of which is the recognition of ʿAlī as the legitimate caliph after the death of the Prophet. The Motives of the S̲h̲īʿa and the Earlier Period Islām is a religious and a political phenomenon as its founder was a prophet and statesman. The development of the community of Islām into separate sectional groups was therefore a natural result of the different possible relations which the political constitution and religious belief might bear to one an…

Ziyādī

(645 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a Yaman dynasty of 204 to 371 (819—981) or 409 (1018) with capital in Zabīd [q.v.]. They were regarded as descendants of Ziyād b. Abīhi [q. v.]. But as the latter’s genealogy is uncertain, so not even the name of the father of the founder of the dynasty, Muḥammad, has been handed down with certainty. The caliph Maʾmūn was harassed by his uncle Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī; at the same time tribes in the Yaman became rebellious. The fact that there were ʿAlid schemes afoot there and indeed shortly before Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲azzār, a brother of ʿAlī al-Riḍā [q. v.], had been plundering in Ṣanʿāʾ, may ¶ have decid…
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