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Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,640 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿAlī Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn [voir Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn], né vers 230/844 à Médine d’une esclave du Ḵh̲urāsān, mort dans le mois de s̲h̲aʿbān 304/début de 917 à Āmul comme souverain du Ṭabaristān, est encore reconnu comme imām sous le nom d’al-Nāṣir al-Kabïr par les Zaydiyya [ q.v.] au Yémen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ vint au Ṭabaristān dès le règne du ʿAlide al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [voir al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Muḥammad]; comme il paraissait suspect à al-Ḳāʾim bi-l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zayd, frère et successeur d’al-Ḥasan …

Nad̲j̲āḥides

(1,125 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G.R.
, dynastie d’esclaves abyssins qui régna à Zabīd [ q.v.] de 412 à 553/1022-1158. La meilleure source historique pour comprendre la dynastie est ʿUmāra (voir Kay, dans la Bibl.), mais on doit souligner que son récit est parfois confus, souvent anecdotique, avec des interruptions plus ou moins justifiées, et pauvre en dates. Lorsque le dernier Ziyādide [ q.v.] eut été mis à mort sous la domination du wazīr abyssin Mard̲j̲ān, par un de ses gouverneurs esclaves, Nafīs, l’autre, Nad̲j̲āḥ, s’avança pour le venger. Après le combat, Nafīs fut tué, et, en d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda …

al-Mahdī Li-dīn Allāh Aḥmad

(1,692 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G. R. | Blackburn, J. R.
, titre et nom d’un certain nombre d’ imāms zaydites du Yémen. Environ 250 ans après al-Hādī ilā l-Ḥaḳḳ Yaḥyā, fondateur de l’imamat zaydite au Yémen, son descendant, al-Mutawakkil ʿalā Llāh, rendit au territoire zaydite, entre 532 et 566/1137-70, l’étendue qu’il avait à l’époque d’al-Hādī, avec Saʿda, Nad̲j̲rān et, pour un temps, Zabīd et Ṣanʿāʾ. Une génération plus tard (593-614/1197-1217), la région montagneuse de Ṣaʿda au Nord à Ḏh̲amār au Sud de Sanʿāʾ, était à nouveau gouvernée par le Zaydite al-Manṣū…

al-Nāṣir

(805 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
li-dīn Allāh, titre honorifique de plusieurs Imāms zaydites. — I. Chez les Zaydites de la Caspienne ont porté ce titre, outre 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [voir Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲], son arrière-petit-fils; — 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī. Celui-ci se créa une principanté en partant de Hawsam, où il pouvait s’appuyer sur les souvenirs de l’ancien gouvernement zaydite. Il insista fortement sur le caractère religieux du Zaydisme, préleva sur le trésor de l’État de l’argent pour l’entretien des gens …

al-Sayyida Nafīsa

(496 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, mausolée situé aux portes de la ville fàtimide d’al-Ḳāhira, dans la Cité des Morts (al-Ḳarāfa), au Sud de la mosquée d’Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn dans la direction de la mosquée-tombeau d’al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Parmi les saintes [voir Walī] du Caire, tout de suite après Sayyida Zaynab bint Muḥammad [ q.v.], à côté de la «Sitt Sekina» (Sukayna), la «Sitt Nefisa» occupe une place particulièrement importante. Dans les récitations officielles du Ḳurʾān, le mausolée d’al-Sayyida Nafīsa, où l’on fait la lecture le dimanche, occupe même le troisième rang dans le clas…

al-Tanāwutī

(643 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, nisba de plusieurs s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s ibāḍites [ q.v.]. Au Ve/XIe siècle, nous avons: (1) Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī, que l’on rencontre souvent dans les traditions anciennes. Son fils (2) Ismāʿīl et plus encore son petit-fils (3) Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl ont un renom d’hommes pieux favorisés par des miracles. Le plus important parmi ceux qui portèrent le nom est le fils du dernier nommé: (4) Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, condisciple et ami d’Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲alānī. Sa famille étant riche, il disposait à Tunis …

Nad̲j̲āḥids

(1,191 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G.R.
, a dynasty of Abyssinian slaves with their capital in Zabīd [ q.v.], reigned 412-553/1022-1158. ¶ The best historical source for an understanding of the dynasty is ʿUmāra (see Kay, in Bibl .), but it should be stressed that ʿUmāra’s account is sometimes confused, frequently anecdotal with interruptions of little or no relevance and lacking in dates. Other published sources which can be used as a control on ʿUmāra’s text are listed below, though many depend ultimately on him, being transmitted in the main through other writers. When the last Ziyādid [ q.v.] had been put to death during…

Taḳiyya

(1,799 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Djebli, Moktar
(a.), also tuḳa n , tuḳāt , taḳwā and ittiḳāʾ , “prudence, fear” (see LʿA , s.v. w-ḳ-y , Beirut 1956, xv, 401-4; TʿA , x, 396-8), and also, from the root k-t-m, kitmān “action of covering, dissimulation”, as opposed to id̲h̲āʿa “revealing, spreading information”, denotes dispensing with the ordinances of religion in cases of constraint and when there is a possibility of harm. The Ḳurʾān itself avoids the question of suffering in the cause of religion in dogmatics by adopting a Docetist solution (sūra IV, 156) and in everyday life by the hid̲j̲ra and by allowing in …

al-Manṣūr

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
bi ’llāh al-Ḳāsim, the name of two Zaidī imāms of the Yemen. I. al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī al-ʿAiyānī (? according to others al-IIyānī). His genealogy goes back through a certain ʿAbd Allāh and a Muḥammad to al-Ḳāsim b. Ibrāhīm Ṭabāṭabā (d. 246 = 860), the spiritual founder of Zaidism in the Yemen; he is however not a descendant of the latter’s grandson, al-Hādī Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusain, the creator of the secular power of the Zaidīs in the Yemen. The latter was succeeded in the imāmate by his two sons: the weak Muḥammad al-Mu…

Nafīsa

(484 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, al-Sayyida , a mausoleum situated to the south of the Fāṭimid city of al-Ḳāhira in the northern part of the cemetery area of the City of the Dead (al-Ḳarāfa), to the south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [see walī ] in Cairo next to Sayyida Zaynab bint Muḥammad [ q.v.] and “Sitt Sekīna” (Sukayna) “Sitt Nefīsa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Sayyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, imme…

al-Tanāwutī

(665 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.] referring to the Tanāwut, a Berber tribe of the Nafzāwa country in southern Tunisia and Wargla (Wārd̲j̲alān). To the 5th/11th century belongs: 1). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī, who often appears in later tradition. His son 2). Ismāʿīl, but still more his grandson 3). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl, had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: 4). Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Y…

Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, Abū muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿalī zayn al-ʿĀbidīn [see zayn al-ʿābidīn ], born about 230/844 at Medīna of a K̲h̲urāsān slave girl, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 304/beginning of 917 at Āmul as ruler in Ṭabaristān, is still recognized under the official name of al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr as Imām by the Zaydiyya [ q.v.] in the Yemen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ came to Ṭabaristān in the reign of the ʿAlid al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [see al-Ḥasan b. Ẓayd b. muḥammad ];¶ his brother and successor al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zayd distrusting him, he endeavoured …

al-Tanāwutī

(687 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the Abāḍīs [q.v.]. To the fifth (eleventh) century belongs: Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī who often appears in later tradition. His son Ismāʿīl but still more his grandson Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Wārd̲j̲alānī. He came of a wealthy family and had an allowance of 1,000 d…

al-Saiyida Nafīsa

(435 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a mausoleum outside Cairo, south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [cf. walī] in Cairo next to Saiyida Zainab bint Muḥammad [q. v.] and “Sitt Sekina” (Sukaina) “Sitt Nefisa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Saiyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, immediately after Imām al-S̲h̲āfiʿī and Imām al-Ḥusainī (see Bergsträsser, in Isl., xxi. [1933], 110 sq.). The sanctuary is visited by both men and women, especiall…

Zaid b. ʿAlī

(988 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [q. v.] gave his name to the Zaidīya [q. v.] who revere him as a political and religious martyr; he was the first ʿAlid after the catastrophe which overwhelmed his grandfather al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī ¶ [q. v.] at Kerbelāʾ to endeavour to deprive the Umaiyads of the caliphate by armed rebellion when he placed himself at the disposal of the Kūfans as Imām. Except for an interval of two months when he was secretly seeking adherents in Baṣra, he spent a year in preparation in Kūfa, hidden in constantly changing hiding-places…

Mūsā al-Kāẓim

(970 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
the seventh Imām of the Twelfer S̲h̲īʿa, son of Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad al-Ṣādiḳ [q. v.], was born about 128 (745) at al-Abwāʾ [q. v.], the traditional burial-place of Āmina, mother of the Prophet. He grew to manhood in his father’s house in Medīna and remained there as Imām after the latter’s death in 148 (765) without playing any part in politics. In particular he took no share in the great rising of the Ḥasanid ʿAlids which collapsed at Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ in 169 (786). Nevertheless the caliph was suspi…

Yaʿfur

(372 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (also al-Raḥīm) b. Kuraib al-Ḥiwālī (on the disputed vocalisation cf. the poem in van Arendonk [see Bibl.], p. 232, note 3), founder of the dynasty of Yaʿfurids or Ḥiwālids who claimed to be descended from the Tubbaʿs, the ancient Ḥimyarite kings. Their ancestral home S̲h̲ibām, called S̲h̲ibām Aḳyān or S̲h̲ibām Kawkabān to distinguish it from other places of the same name, is described by geographers as a well cultivated hilly country. In the caliphate of al-Muʿtaṣim, i. e. before 227 (842), Yaʿf…

T̲h̲anawīya

(1,798 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Dualism, means the doctrine that light and darkness are the two equal eternal creative principles. There is not a regular T̲h̲anawīya sect or school in Islām. The term, as the characteristic name of a school of thought, is limited to three non-Muslims and their adherents: Ibn Daiṣān, Mānī and Mazdak [see these three articles]. A danger arose to Islām through the tendency to dualism within its ranks from the mass conversions of Persians, as was seen for example at the beginning of the ʿAbbāsid period in the disturbing figure of Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ. He w…

Banū Nad̲j̲āḥ

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
a dynasty of Abyssinian Mamlūks at Zabīd [q. v.] from 412 to 553 (1022—1158). When the last Ziyadī [q. v.] had been put to death in the vizierate of the Abyssinian Mard̲j̲ān by one of his Mamlūk governors Nafīs, the other Nad̲j̲āḥ came forward to avenge him. After desperate fighting, Nafīs was slain and Nad̲j̲āḥ in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 412 (Feb. 1022) entered Zabīd where he had the vizier built alive into a wall in exact revenge for the Ziyādī. As his rival Nafīs had already done, Nad̲j̲āḥ assumed the insignia of royalty, struck his own coins and inserted his own name in the k̲h̲uṭba after that of the ʿ…

S̲h̲īʿa

(9,188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the general name for a large group of very different Muslim sects, the starting point of all of which is the recognition of ʿAlī as the legitimate caliph after the death of the Prophet. The Motives of the S̲h̲īʿa and the Earlier Period Islām is a religious and a political phenomenon as its founder was a prophet and statesman. The development of the community of Islām into separate sectional groups was therefore a natural result of the different possible relations which the political constitution and religious belief might bear to one an…
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