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Therimenes

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Θηριμένης; Thēriménēs). Spartiate, in the late summer of 412 BC led a fleet taking help to the naúarchos Astyochus in Asia Minor; at Miletus he forced Athenian forces into retreat (Thuc. 8,26,1-29,2) and in the autumn negotiated for Sparta a second subsidy treaty with Persia. During his return in 411 he was killed in a shipwreck (Thuc. 8,36,2-38,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Clearidas

(81 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεαρίδας; Klearídas). Spartan, son of Cleonymus. Appointed by  Brasidas in 423 BC as commander at Amphipolis, C. proved himself after Brasidas' death in 422. After the peace of  Nicias he did not surrender the polis…

Apoikia

(992 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀποικία; apoikía). Settlement of a group of colonists or their descendants outside the territory of a particular mother city ( Metropolis); the latter having sent out a proportion of its citizens as ‘emigrants’ (ἄποικοι, ápoikoi) to found a ‘colony’, or even encouraged the citizens of other poleis to take part in a new foundation. The leader of the undertaking was usually an oikist nominated by the mother city. Especially during the great period of ‘Greek colonization’ of c. 750-550/500 BC, many new communities arose, often being autonomous

Brasidas

(584 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρασίδας; Brasídas). Son of the respected Spartiate Tellis, who was one of those who took the oath sealing the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC (Thuc. 2,25; 5,19; 24).B. distinguished himself right at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War when he freed the Messenian coastal city of Methone which was surrounded by Athenians. That was probably the reason for his appointment in 431/30 as eponymous ephor (Diod. Sic. 12,43,2) and military ‘adviser’ at a relatively young age. In 429 he was adviser to admiral  Cnemus in the so-called second sea battle of Naupactus and in an assault on Salamis (Thuc. 2,85-94), and to admiral  Alcidas in 427 during the unsuccessful intervention on Cercyra (Thuc. 3,69; 76-81). As trierarch, B. excelled in the battle against the new Athenian strong point at Pylos in 425 (Thuc. 4,11f.; Diod. Sic. 12,62). When the Chalcidians and the Macedonian  Perdiccas II sought Spartan assistance in 424, he argued in favour of extensive …

Astyochus

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀστύοχος; Astýochos). Spartan nauarch in 412/11 BC. In the summer of 412 his attempt to gain Lesbos failed (Thuc. 8,22f.); his operations between Lesbos, Chios, Erythrae and Clazomenae were luckless (8,31-33). Dissatisfied with his administration, Sparta sent ‘advisors’ with extraordinary powers to his headquarters in Milet in the winter of 412/11 (Thuc. 8,39,1f.). After advances as far as Cnidus and Rhodes he signed the third Spartan-Persian contract in the spring of 411, in whic…

Eleutherolakones

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐλευθερολάκωνες; Eleutherolákōnes). League of Laconian coastal settlements; as former perioikoi settlements, they were placed under the protection of the Achaean Confederacy following the defeat of Nabis by the Romans in 195 BC. After the failure of the Achaean uprising in 146 BC, they were permitted to unite in the

Sacred wars

(585 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἱεροὶ πόλεμοι/ hieroì pólemoi). As a concept hieròs pólemos is first encountered in the late 5th cent. BC and according to Aristophanes (Av. 554ff., particularly 556 with schol. = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 34 b) means 'war against divinity', whereas Thucydides (1,112,5; with the addition of καλούμενος/ kaloúmenos, 'so-called') uses it to describe the Spartans' intervention in Delphi in 448 on the pretext of protecting the sanctuary of Apollo [1. 1-14]. Accordingly there was no idea of a religious campaign for a deity [2. 67-87].…

Cinadon

(106 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κινάδων; Kinádōn). In 398 BC, C. a hypomeion (‘Inferior’), thus presumably the son of Spartan parents but without full citizens' rights, sought widespread support for a revolt to overthrow the ruling class of the Spartiatae, by approaching  Helots, Neodamodes, hypomeiones and  Perioikoi. No details about his planned reforms are known. C. was betrayed, lured into a trap and killed after naming his fellow conspirators under torture. In Xenophon's version (Hell. 3,3,…

Mastigophoroi

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (μαστιγοφόροι; mastigophóroi, ‘whip-carriers’). In Sparta, young men (ἡβῶντες/ hēbṓntes), who assisted the paidonómoi in the agōgḗ of boys (Xen. Lac. 2,2). In Athens in 404 BC they were the infamous 300 policemen under the Thirty ( triákonta ; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 35,1). In Corcyra they were 425 guards in charge of prisoners (Thuc. 4,47,3). In Hellenistic Egypt th…

Stasippus

(114 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Στάσιππος/ Stásippos). Leader of the pro-Spartan 'oligarchs' in Tegea (Xen. Hell. 6,4,18) who in the summer of 370 BC opposed annexation, instigated by anti-Spartan forces in Tegea, to a pan-Arcadian state, planned by 'democrats' in Mantinea. Initially successful in the disturbances unleashed by this [1. 505-507; 2. 105; 3. 74 f.], S. did not, however, have his defeated opponents prosecuted and, after the Mantineans intervened, he and hi…

Phrourarchos

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (φρούραρχος/ phroúrarchos). 'Commander' ( archós) of a 'guard' ( phrourá), commander of a garrison or fortress. In the Delian League the office involved performing both military and political functions. For example, after their intervention in Erythrae [2] in about 453/2 BC, the Athenians commissioned their phrourarchos and their epískopos [1] there to supervise the appointment of a new council. The phrourarchos was to perform this duty every year from then…

Agiads

(245 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγιάδαι; Agiádai). Royal dynasty in Sparta, which, according to Herodotus (6,51), held a higher rank than the second Spartan royal dynasty, the ( Eurypontids). However, the authority of individual kings was based on their deeds and the quality of their leadership. As the founding father of the A. stands the mythic figure of the Heraclid  Eurysthenes, whose son Agis [1] I became the eponymous hero of the house. In the early construct devised to explain the Spartan double kingdom appear Eurysthenes and Procles, t…

Eurypontids

(124 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐρυπωντίδαι;

Tellis

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τέλλις; Téllis). Spartiate, father of Brasidas, married to Argileonis, who commented on the death of her son (in 422 BC) with the words that he had been brave but Sparta had better men (Plut. Lycurgus 25,8-9; Plut. Mor. 190b; 219d; 240c; Diod. Sic. 12,74,3). T. swore to the Peace of Nicias (Nicias [1]) in 421 BC (Thuc. 5,19,2; 5,24,1) and was then doubtless a champion of Spartan peace policy. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Struthas

(89 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Στρούθας/ Stroúthas; Tod, Nr. 113: Στρούσης/ Stroúsēs). Persian satrap in Ionia [1.216], i…

Peraia

(736 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἡ περαία; hē peraía). Description of a community's territory lying 'opposite', predominantly (but not exclusively) a mainland possession of an island state. The development of regions near coasts was primarily for the purpose of gaining resources, but for island poleis also represented a protection zone [1. 466f.]. Examples of peraíai of mainland states are Myus, disputed between Miletus [2] and Magnesia [2] on the Maeander (Syll.3 588), and the peninsula of Perachora to the north of Corinth, which originally belonged to Megara [2] (Xen. Hell…

Xenodikai

(295 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(ξενοδίκαι/ xenodíkai). [German version] [1] In Athens: 'judges of foreigners' First mentioned in Athens as 'judges of foreigners' (IG I3 439,75 and IG I3 440,126) for the years 444-442 BC in which the xenodikai had to provide quite large sums for the construction of the Parthenon . It cannot be deduced from this evidence [3. 661 f.] that they operated only for a relatively short period after Pericles' [1] statute of civic rights as an authority for lawsuits relating to illegal arrogation of Athenian civil rights (Xenias graphe) [1; 2. 1475]. They are recorded in treaties of legal assistance between Athens and Troizen (IG II…

Naucleidas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ναυκλείδας/ Naukleídas). Spartiate, son of Polybiades; as an ephor, he accompanied king Pausanias to Athens in 403 BC, and supported his policy of reconciling the hostile sides in the civil war, in defiance of the intent of Lysander [1], who in revenge later accused him of debauchery (Xen. Hell. 2,4,35-36; Agatharchidas FGrH 86 F 11 = Athen. 12,550 d-e). …

Epaminondas

(1,037 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπαμεινώνδας; Epameinṓndas). Most important Theban commander of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC. His year of birth has not been recorded. After instruction by the Pythagorean Lysis of Tarentum who lived in his father Polymis' house (Diod. Sic. 15,39,2; Plut. Mor. 583c; 585e; Paus. 9,13,1; Nep. Epaminondas 2,2), he was considered incorruptible and frugal as well as a great orator (Plut. Mor. 808e, 809a)…

Proegoros

(169 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προήγορος/ proḗgoros, Doric προάγορος/ proágoros, 'spokesman'; from pro-agoreúein, 'speak publicly for somebody'). Spokesman of a group or legation (Xen. Hell. 1,1,27; 2,2,22; Xen. An. 5,5,7). In the Sicilian poleis of Acragas (IG XIV 952: 2nd cent. BC), Tyndaris (Cic. Verr. 2,4,85) and possibly also Tauromenium (IG XIV 423) the term for an official. In Catane even, according to Cicero (Verr. 2,4,50), the proḗgoros was the highest magistrate, though this may be exaggerated. In Sardeis , stratēgoí and proḗgoroi feature (as leading officials) in the prescri…
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