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Jordan (River)

(353 words)

Author(s): Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] The Jordan (Heb.הַיַּרְדֵּן/ hayyarden, Gk ὁ ἰορδάνης/ ho iordánēs, Arab. al-urdunn; etymology disputed), divided into the upper and lower Jordan Valley, flows through the central Palestinian section of the Syro-African rift. With its four sources springing from the Hermon massif, with Lake Huleh, the Sea of Galilee (Galilee, Sea of), and especially the tributaries from the east, Yarmuk and Jabbok, and the Dead Sea (with the Arnon and the Zered) at its end, it is the largest inland water sy…

Controversial Waters: Exploitation of the Jordan River, 1950-1980

(147 words)

Author(s): Reguer, Sara
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 22: The U…

Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin

(125 words)

Author(s): Lowi, Miriam R.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 22: The U…


(3,221 words)

Author(s): Fouad B. Atalla
Volume I: National Reports 1973 Fouad B. Atalla1 Jordan, officially known as Al Mamlaka Al Our- donnia Al Hashemiya (Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan), did not acquire its present territorial demarcation until 1950. Earlier, the region east of River Jordan had formed part of the district of Damascus, then under Ottoman rule. In 1921 the country came under Prince Abdalla, grandfather of King Hussein I of Jordan. 1946 saw Prince Abdalla proclaimed King of the land under the title of King Abdalla I of Transjordan. When, on 29 Nov. 1947, the United Nations adopted a resolution partitio…


(5,264 words)

Author(s): Mohammed Sawaie
1. Historical introduction This entry refers to modern-day Jordan, as established in 1921 by the British. Initially it was a princedom designated to Emir (‘prince’), later King, Abdullah. During that stage, between 1921 and 1946, it was known as Trans-Jordan. It was also called ‘the East Bank’, referring to the River Jordan. The second stage began after the annexation of the Palestinian territories, or ‘the West Bank’, that were left unoccupied by the State of Israel in 1948. In 1950, the name changed to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. In the wake of the 194…
Date: 2018-04-01

River נהר

(1,288 words)

Author(s): F. Stolz
I. Name Rivers, as sources of water, are of great importance for agricultural life: especially in regions with large streams and irrigation culture. In such areas, rivers provide the possibility of shipping, but they can become threatening when there is serious flooding. They are a means of economical and cultural exchange. At the same time, however, rivers demarcate frontiers whose crossing is dangerous. Water currents in the desert are especially unpredictable. As a rule, wadis are dry; but, if …

Jordan Ἰορδάνης

(996 words)

Author(s): B. Becking
I. Name The name of the river of Jordan, ( hay) yardēn, occurs 177 times in the OT. In the NT Ἰορδάνης is attested 15 times. The etymology of the name is debated. A derivation from the root yrd, ‘to descend’, implying an interpretation ‘the river that comes down’ (e.g. Philo, Leg. All. II:89; b Bech 55a; BDB 432–434) probably rests on popular etymology. Generally, the name is interpreted as non-Semitic in origin. One proposal connects the element dan with Indo-Iranian don, ‘river’ (cf. e.g. Danube; Djnepr) and interprets yar- as related to Indo-european ‘year’. The name then woul…

Jordan - Introduction

(292 words)

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is at the center of an ancient region that, since the end of Roman d…


(968 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Writer of the Justinian period (6th cent. AD) Writer of the Justinian period (6th cent. AD), a German, probably of Gothic descent, grandson of Paria (secretary to the Prince of the Alani Candac), son of Alanoviamuth. Probably born in the late 5th cent. AD, I. also served as secretary to Cantac's nephew Gunthigis (Iord. Get. 265). Following his conversio (from Arianism to Orthodoxy?, from a secular to a clerical position?), in Constantinople in 551 (Iord. Rom. 4. 363; cf. Iord. Get. 104) he was asked by a friend named Vigilius (unlik…

River Pollution In International Law

(18,553 words)

Author(s): Gaja, G.
Chapter sections I. Introduction pp. 354-358 II. General International Law pp. 358-379 III. Definition Of Water Quality Standards By Treaty And By Decisions Of International Commissions pp. 379-391 IV. International Co-Operation pp. 391-396 This chapter is part of: Colloques | Workshop Series > The Protection of the Environment and International Law Chapter information DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789028604940.25-650.22 Pages in print edition: 353-396 Colloques | Workshop Series Publication Editor: Académie de droit international de La Haye Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston , 1975 e-ISBN…


(309 words)

Author(s): Kutsch, Ernst (Vienna)
(Γαλαάδ; Galaád, LXX, Eus.), Gilead (Hebrew gilad). [German version] [1] Town in eastern Jordan Town in eastern Jordan (Judg. 10:17; Hos. 6:8; 12:12), the modern Ḫirbat Ǧalad south of the Jabboq 10 km north-northeast of as-Salṭ, on the homonymous mountain range (Gen. 31:21, et al.: hăr [hăg]gilad, modern Ǧabal Ǧalad) (cf. Euseb. On. 62,1f.). Kutsch, Ernst (Vienna) [German version] [2] Area east of the Jordan Region east of the Jordan (LXX alongside Γ. also Γαλαδ[ε]ῖτις; Galad[e]ītis; Jos. Ant. Iud. 1,324 et al. Γαλαδηνή; Galadēnē; 5,164 et al., Γαλα[α]δῖτις; Gala[a]dītis; 12,3…

Development: Non-Governmental Organizations: Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria

(1,633 words)

Author(s): Shawa, Salma Aown
Women in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine have formed non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and worked in them since the beginning of the twentieth century. At the beginning of the twentieth century, these women were generally urban-based upper- and middle-class educated women who aimed to contribute to solving social, economic, and political problems present in their societies. Some of the organizations that they formed started out as charitable in nature. Supporting poorer segments of the population, some aimed to r…

Jordan, Israel, and Palestine: Early 20th Century to Present

(3,664 words)

Author(s): Moors, Annelies
The post-Second World War states of Jordan, Israel, and the emergent Palestine are products of colonial history, although in different ways.1 After the First World War Britain obtained a mandate (a form of quasi-colonial authority) over the former parts of the Ottoman Empire that are now referred to as Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and Jordan. In 1921 this area was divided into two. The parts east of the Jordan River became the Emirate of Transjordan, recognized by Britain as an independent state (Jordan) …

T (Tabrīzī, Mīrzā Jaʿfar - teaching of Arabic in Jordan)

(1,620 words)

Tabrīzī, Mīrzā Jaʿfar Nastaʿlīq tabsīṭ ʿArabiyya, Culture and Language Tābūk Northwest Arabian Arabic, Northwest Arabian Arabic tabyīn Tamyīz Tachelhit → Berber, Tachelhit taḍāfur al-qarāʾin Qurʾān taḍāmm Qurʾān, Qurʾān taḍammun Majāz tadāwul Coherence tadāxul al-luġāt Muštarak, Semantic Extension taḍʿīf Causative, Pausal Forms, Verb taʿḏ̣īm Ḍamīr, Speech Acts taʿdiya Causative, Taʿaddin, Verb Tadjoura Djibouti/Eritrea taḏkīr Luġa, 651, Tanwīn taḍmīn Ḍidd, Poetic Koine Taeschner, Traute Child Bilingualism Taez → Taʿizz tafaʿʿala Middle Verbs tafāʿul Ḍidd tafḍīl ʿAma…
Date: 2018-04-01

SEG 51-2012. Palaestina. Bishops and inscriptions.

(156 words)

Author(s): Chaniotis, A. | Corsten, T. | Stroud, R.S. | Tybout, R.A.
⇐ Previous Browse ⇑ Next ⇒ Entry A.Michel, Les églises d’époque Byzantine et Umayyade de Jordanie. Étude de typologie et inventaire (Turnhout 2001) 426-433, presents a tabular survey of all bishops on record in literary …

SEG 55-1751. Bethany-beyond-the-Jordan (area of Wadi al-Kharrar). Mosaic inscription: foundation of the Monastery of Rhetorius, 5th cent. A.D.

(361 words)

Author(s): Chaniotis, A. | Corsten, T. | Stroud, R.S. | Tybout, R.A.
⇐ Previous Browse ⇑ Next ⇒ Entry Rectangular mosaic panel; inscription in a frame; found in the apse of the northern church of the Rhetorius monastery (‘located on a little hill about 5 miles north of the De…

SEG 48-1902. Tiberias. Epitaph of Iulianus, 2nd/3rd cent. A.D.

(293 words)

Author(s): Chaniotis, A. | Pleket, H.W. | Stroud, R.S. | Strubbe, J.H.M.
⇐ Previous Browse ⇑ Next ⇒ Entry Narrow side of a limestone sarcophagus; inscription (with traces of red paint) on the outside; found near the Jordan River Hotel. E.Damati, Ἁtiqot 35 (1998) 152/153 no. 2 (ph.). Inscription Ἰουλιανὸ…

German Asia Corps

(568 words)

Author(s): Neulen, Hans Werner
German Asia Corps German Expeditionary Corps established for the purpose of recovering Baghdad. – After the capture of Baghdad by the British on March 11, 1917, the German and Turkish High Commands decided to set up the Army Group F (Yilderim) in order to recapture the capital city of the ancient caliphate. The German core unit was to be the Asia Corps (Pasha II), raised in Neuhammer/Silesia (modern Świętoszów). Initially commanded by Colonel Werner von Frankenberg und Proschlitz, the well-equipped…

Manuscript Illumination

(1,034 words)

Author(s): Kathryn M. Rudy
After 1345, the Franciscan friars, who were Keepers of the Latin Quarter of Jerusalem, supervised and organized the pilgrimages and led the travelers through Holy Sites. Franciscans also listed the plenary and partial indulgences available at each site. In the late fifteenth century the preset pilgrim's tour included visits to the Via Dolorosa, the Valley of Josaphat, the Mount of Olives with the Garden of Gethsemane, the place of the Ascension, and the town of Galilee, the Valley of Siloe, the …
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