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(617 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika
[German Version] Nineveh lies on the east bank of the Tigris at the mouth of the Ḫoṣr, opposite and partly within modern Mosul, Iraq. Archaeological exploration of the extensive city area (4.2 km × 1.2 km) began in 1820. The site includes two tells: Nebi Yunus to the south (15 ha) and Kuyunjick (45 ha to the north). The latter contains finds dating from prehistoric times to the Islamic period, of which the Neo-Assyrian finds are the most famous: the temple É.MAŠ.MAŠ (and the ziggurat) of Ishtar, …


(328 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika
[German Version] is the modern name of the acropolis of the ancient Assyrian city of Calah on the middle Tigris, at the mouth of the Great Zab. According to Gen 10:11f., it was built by Nimrod, its legendary king and founder. The excavations begun in 1845 focused primarily on the citadel (= [Tell] Nimrud) at the southwest corner of the city and the arsenal of Shalmaneser III (= Tell ʿAzar; so-called Fort Shalmaneser) in the southeast. Settlement on the acropolis goes back to prehistoric times. The…


(1,337 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika | Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament A symbol of lordship (of humans or gods [Insignia] found in pictorial art and literary sources of the Ancient Near East and Egypt (less often as an archeological discovery). Portable thrones enable mobility. The earliest evidence of a throne from Çatal Hüyük shows the neolithic mother-god on a Felide throne. Egyptian throne-forms from the Old Kingdom to the New include the cube-shaped block with a short back (from the 1st dynasty) and the lion thron…

Clothing and Vestments

(3,745 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika | Köpf, Ulrich | Allen Jr., Horrace T. | Schneider, Johann | Miletto, Gianfranco
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism I. Religious Studies 1. General Clothing fulfills the need for ornamentation and presentation, protection against the weather, and, in certain cases, magic. Appearance and materials follow climatic conditions, economic and technical capabilities (sewing, weaving, etc.), social or fashion conventions, and can be specified according to function (professional attire) or situation (festal attire). Clothing increases the complexity of the optical appearance of its ¶ wearer. It visualizes and makes m…


(303 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika
[German Version] A stela is a hewn, finished stone, left in its natural state or decorated with inscriptions or iconographic elements (painted, incised, sculpted, carved in relief ) set up to serve as a marker of the presence (or at times the dwelling) of a deity or a deified ancestor for cultic purposes, sometimes with juridical potential (cultic stela, betyl; at Mari, Ugarit, Emar: sikkanu), a votive offering to a deity (votive stela), a memorial to a deceased person (sepulchral stela; Arab., Aram. npš), a witness to a legal transaction such as a treaty, or a marker of a ki…


(9,630 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard | Berlejung, Angelika | Steimle, Christopher | Bieberstein, Klaus | Zellentin, Holger | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The English word temple derives from Latin templum. In the technical vocabulary of religious studies, it is more specialized than sanctuary, shrine, cult site, or place of worship. The usage of the originally Latin term beyond the sphere of classical antiquity is well established, particularly for structures that appear comparable in regard to their architectural form (monumentality, stone construction) or religious function (dwelling place of a god or goddess). But this usage does not reflect a precise defi-¶ nition it is based primarily …