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Israel and Egypt

(646 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] According to the biblical account, the history of the relations between Israel and Egypt begins with the ascent of Jacob's son Joseph in Egypt and the subsequent immigration of the whole clan of Jacob, whose enslavement was ended with an Exodus under the leadership of Moses as a fundamental act of deliverance. This recollection of a process no longer reconstructable historically in detail nonetheless has support from extra-biblical information concerning the expulsion from Egypt o…

Urim and Thummim

(319 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] (םימִּתֻּ/םירִוּא), a pair of Hebrew words still without etymological or semasiological explanation, denoting objects usually appearing in passages bearing on the paraphernalia and function of the Levitical priests. According to Exod 28:30 (cf. Lev 8:8), the Urim and Thummim were to be kept in a repository forming part of vestments of the high priest Aaron (probably a kind of pectoral or breastpiece) and worn “on his heart.” P (Pentateuch) may have understood them as symbolic objects (gems?) used by the high priest (I), especially since Urim may be an allusion to …

Bread of the Presence,

(210 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים/ leḍem happānîm, “Bread of the Presence (of God)” or “showbread” (Luther: Schaubrot) a term for a kind of sacrificial bread that was presented on a table in the sanctuary as in the “ tabernacle” (Sinai/Sinai traditions; Wilderness wanderings/Wilderness traditions); Exod 24:23–30 [P]; cf. also Heb 9:2) and in the visionary temple of Ezekiel (Ezek 41:22). The Bread of t…


(1,593 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] I. The Term – II. Tradition History – III. Historical Background – IV. Liturgical Application I. The Term Exodus is the Latinized form of the Greek term ἔξοδος/ éxodos (“departure”) for the second book of Moses, which is essentially devoted to a spectrum of traditions concerning Israel's stay in Egypt, its departure under the leadership of Moses, and its sojourn in the wilderness (Wilderness wa…


(182 words)

Author(s): Görg, Manfred
[German Version] (פּוּט), according to Gen 10:6 (P; cf. 1 Chr 18), one of the four sons of Ham, the ancestral father of the Hamite peoples, in what appears to be a traditional order: Cush (Ethiopia), Egypt, Put (without further genealogy), and Canaan (Nah 3:9 substitutes Libya). The groupings with Libya (Nah 3:9), with Cush and Lud (Jer 46:9; Ezek 30:5), with Persia and Cush (Ezek 38:5) or Persia and Lud (Ezek 27:10) all clearly suggest a military role for the people of Put (e.g. as mercenaries empl…


(2,357 words)

Author(s): Lorenz, Günther | Görg, Manfred | Avemarie, Friedrich | Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona | Bader, Günter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Voluntary promises to do something, either materially or ideally, in order to obtain the support of a divinity or ¶ some other metaphysical effects, are known as vows. Intended as an agreement in partnership with the gods ( do ut das, not always strictly), they are found worldwide as prominent forms of expressing partnership with the divine. They are to be distinguished from texts accompanying thankofferings for earlier gifts (notably in the Lat. ex voto or V[otum] S[olvit] L[ibens] M[erito]). They are made at times of personal or coll…

Community and the Individual

(5,279 words)

Author(s): Williame, Jean-Paul | Görg, Manfred | Popkes, Wiard | Zenkert, Georg | Thomas, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy – V. Dogmatics – VI. Sociology, Ethics – VII. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies In the context of their understanding of God and related obligations, human beings make connections of solidarity and feel, with more or less intensity, that they are members of the same community. Religion brings people closer together and creates social ties: the umma of the Muslims, Christian brotherhood and ecumeni…


(5,988 words)

Author(s): Woschitz, Karl M. | Görg, Manfred | Wischmeyer, Oda | Sparn, Walter | Lohberg, Gabriele | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament– IV. Church History – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Art History – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies Religious conceptions include numinous intermediary beings of the most varied types and origins that mediate between the divine sphere and humanity and also serve higher powers. These are sometimes …

History/Concepts of History

(12,750 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Görg, Manfred | Schlüter, Margarete | Römer, Nils | Cancik, Hubert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Ancient Near East and Israel – III. Judaism – IV. Greece and Rome – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Philosophy I. Religious Studies History is a major aspect of the study of religion. Apart from its roots in the Enlightenment idea of tolerance, it owes its scholarly development to the historicism of the 19th century. As a result, the expression history of religions ( Religionsgeschichte, histoire des religions, storia delle religioni) has remained dominant in continental Europe, in con…

Demons and Spirits

(6,288 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Görg, Manfred | Kollmann, Bernd | Haustein, Jörg | Koch, Guntram | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion (Ancient Near East and Antiquity) – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Iconography – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion (Ancient Near East and Antiquity) The term “demon” as used in European language groups derives from the Greek (δαίμων/ daímōn), where it initially also referred simply to gods (ϑεοί/ theoí; cf. Homer Iliad 1.122) without either positive or negative connotations. The exclusively “negative” charge associate…