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(197 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Caiphas; Aram. Qayafa on an ossuary), in the New Testament always Καϊάφας or …


(199 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 16, 42 bce, Rome – Mar 16, 37 ce, Misenum [modern Miseno]). Initially the son-in-law of Augustus, then his adopted son, after a constant series of military and political victories he finally succeeded Augustus as emperor and reigned from 14 to 37 ce. He ¶ is mentioned by name and title only once in the New Testament, in Luke 3:1; in his function as Caesar, he is referred to in Mark 12:16f. par. (paying taxes: silver denarius with the head of Tiberius); Luke 23:2; John 19:12, 15. Luke 3:1 dates the appearance of John the …


(208 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The speech of the high priest Gamaliel in Acts 5:35–39 recalls the uprisings of Theudas (with some 400 supporters) and of Judas the Galilean at the time of the census (probably 6 ce), both unsuccessful. The placement of Theudas before Judas cannot be reconciled with the statement of Josephus ( Ant. XX 97) that Theudas appeared during the time of the Roman procurator Cuspius Fadus (44–46 ce). According to Ant. XX 97–99, Theudas, believing himself a prophet, collected a thr…


(190 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm

Festus, Porcius

(183 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] was Roman procurator in Judea from 60 to 62 ce. The beginning of his time in office, as well as the end of that of his predecessor Felix, is dated to the year 54 or 56, on the basis of the Armenian version of a Chronicle of Eusebius (GCS 20, 215) or on the version of Jerome (GCS 24, 182). A natural death ended his time in office. In contrast to his predecessor Felix and his successors Albinus and Gessius Florus, Festus seems to have been concerned, according to Flavius Josephus, who welcomed Festus's fight against the

Claudius, Emperor

(161 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 1, 10 bce, Lyon – Oct 13, 54 ce, Rome). Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus was proclaimed …

Hananias (Ananias)

(223 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Hananias (Ananias), the son of Nedebaeus, was appointed high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis, in 47 ce (Agrippa I and II; Jos. Ant. XX 5.2) and replaced by Ishmael under King Agrippa II in 59 ce ( Ant. XX 8.8). Following an altercation between Jews and Samaritans, Ananias was put in chains and sent with a delegation to the Roman emperor Claudius to give an account of himself (Jos.

Tax Collectors (New Testament)

(339 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Tax collectors (τελώνης/ telṓnēs) appear only in the Synoptic Gospels: in the context of Jesus’ table fellowship (Mark 2:15f. par.; Luke 15:1f.; 19:5f.), in the calling of disciples (Mark 2:14 par.), and in passages that make a special point of Jesus’ friendship with them (Matt 11:19 par.; also Luke 19:1–10). Although tax collectors are mentioned alongside sinners (Mark 2:15f. par.; Matt 11:19 par.; Luke 15:1), prostitutes (Matt 21:31f.), and Gentiles (Matt 18:17), despite their bein…


(18,301 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Antes, Peter | Otto, Eckart | Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm | Leicht, Reimund | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept and Scope – II. Religious Studies – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. As a Theological Discipline – VI. As a Philosophical Discipline (Business Ethics, Discourse Ethics, Economic Ethics, Ethics, Bio-Medical Issues, Ethics Commissions, Ethics Education, Ethics of Conviction, Ethics of Duty, Ethics of Goods, Ethics of Responsibility, Evolutionary Ethics, Fraternal Ethics, Individual Ethics, Interim E…