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(612 words)

Author(s): Leicht, Reimund | Necker, Gerold | Kunzler, Michael
[German Version] I. Judaism 1. Antiquity. The Trisagion from Isa 6:3 (Heb. Qedusha, Q ) appears in three places in the synagogal liturgy (VII; see also Worship: II, 3), sometimes in combination with Ezek 3:12 and Ps 146:10: (1) as an interpolation in the third benediction of the ʿAmida ( Q. ha-ʿAmida), (2) in the first benediction of the Shemaʿ ( Q. ha-Yotser), and (3) after the weekly portion ( Q. de-Sidra). The origin and relative age of the individual forms of the Qedusha are disputed; its absence in the liturgical texts from Qumran is noteworthy (esp. the Sabbath Songs). A dating of the e…

Trinity Sunday

(331 words)

Author(s): Kunzler, Michael
[German Version] Devotion to the Trinity (Trinity/Doctrine of the Trinity) is rooted in anti-Arian polemic. The beginnings go back to the 10th century, but the observance was not introduced throughout the Western church until 1334. Liturgical reform retained the traditional date, the first Sunday after Pentecost. In the Byzantine liturgical year, Pentecost itself is the actual Trinity Sunday; the Monday following is dedicated to the Holy Spirit. Trinity Sunday came to dominate the church year thro…

Transfiguration of Christ

(2,102 words)

Author(s): Frenschkowski, Marco | Oberdorfer, Bernd | Kunzler, Michael | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. New Testament The legend in Mark 9:2–13 proclaims Jesus as Son of God in the presence of his innermost circle of disciples. This is clearly an important compositional element for Mark: the beginning (1:1, 11), middle (9:7), and end (15:39) of the Gospel bear witness to Jesus as God’s Son. The combination with 8:27–33 breaks through Jesus’ incognito and defines his mission – passion (Passion/Passion traditions) and resurrection (II). For a moment, the disciples receive an insight i…


(441 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel | Kunzler, Michael
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Liturgy I. Religious Studies The custom of making olfactory sacrifices to the gods as heavenly beings dates from at least the 4th millennium bce (Egypt. śnčr = “to smoke; to perfume,” lit. “to deify”). However, frankincense, of which there is no evidence in the Mediterranean area before the 8th century bce, should be distinguished from all other types of incense. There was a growing demand for frankincense until the first century ce. This subsequently dropped, and in the 4th century collapsed almost completely. Along with this…

Transfiguration, Feast of the

(226 words)

Author(s): Kunzler, Michael
[German Version] The Roman Catholic Church, the churches of the Byzantine Rite, and the Anglican Communion celebrate the Feast of the Transfiguration (Mark 9:2–9 par.) on Aug 6. It originated in the East in the 5th or 6th century. Observed in the Frankish liturgy since the 10th century, it was introduced generally into the Catholic Church by Pope Callistus III in 1457. In the Byzantine Rite, it is one of the Twelve Great Feasts. In the 1970 Roman Missal, it is classified as a festum; the Gloria is sung at mass and the Te Deum is assigned to the Office of Readings. In the Latin …