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Abia

(122 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ἀβία; Abía). Coastal town in eastern  Messenia (Plin. HN 4,22; Ptol. 3,14,31), the modern Palaiochora, 6 km south of Kalamata. Its equation with Ἱρή (Hire), one of the seven towns mentioned in Hom. Il. 9,150, is questionable.  Perioikoi-polis of Sparta, from 338 BC controlled by  Messene, with the exception of 183-146 BC, when A. was an independent member of the  Achaean Confederacy (Pol. 23,17); sanctuaries of  Heracles and  Asc…

Mandubii

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gaulish people who are only mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 7,68,1 and Str. 4,2,3. Capital Alesia ( oppidum Mandubiorum). Their territory is probably identical to the modern region of Auxois ( pagus Alisiensis in the Middle Ages). In Roman times the M. appear to have merged with the Haedui people. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P.-M. Duval, Chronique gallo-romaine, in: REA 61, 1959, 368-370.

Arelate

(390 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Colonization | Pilgrimage Town in Gallia Narbonensis, the modern Arles. Originally called Theline by the Greeks (Avien. 689ff. – Phocian foundation?), the town had a Celto-Ligurian name (It. Ant. 299,4; Plin. HN 3,36). Settled from the 6th cent. BC; A’s shipping trade was severely hampered by the silting-up of the Rhône delta, but enjoyed a marked resurgence thanks to the canals built by→ Marius …

Garumna

(92 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Garunna, Γαρούνας / Garoúnas). One of the main rivers of Gaul (Tib. 1,7,11), the modern Garonne and Gironde, the boundary between the Gauls and the Aquitanians (Caes. Gall. 1,1,1; 5; 7; Str. 4,1,1; 2,1f.; 3,3; 5,2; Mela 3,20f.; Plin. HN 4,105; Amm. Marc. 15,11,2). According to Str. 4,2,1 navigable over more than 370 km. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Boudet (ed.), Les Celtes, la Garonne et les Pays aquitains, 1992 Y. Roman, Les Celtes, les sources antiques et la Garonne, in: Aquitania 12, 1994, 213-219 H. Sion, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 33/1 (Gi…

Macistum, -us

(267 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάκιστον, -ος; Mákiston, - os). Settlement in Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the southern foot of Mount Kaiapha, on whose territory was the sanctuary of ‘Samian’ Poseidon [1. 37-42] on the western tip of the mountain range as well as other sanctuaries along the Minthe range (modern Alvena) and in the coastal plain south of Mount Kaiapha. In around 400 BC, Xenophon still refers to M. as an existing city (Xen. An. 7,4,16; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30); later, all knowledge of it is lost, …

Crommyon

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρομμυών or Κρεμμυών). Fortified port in the East of Corinthian territory on the Saronian Gulf south of the  Gerania mountains, 120 stadia ( c. 21 km) from  Corinth (Thuc. 4,45,1), probably near modern Hagios Theodori. According to legend Theseus killed the Crommyonian sow there. In the Classical period Crommyon was fortified. Evidence: Scyl. 55; Str. 8,6,22; Paus. 2,1,3; Xen. Hell. 4,4,13; 5,19; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κrommyon; Hierocles, Synekdemos 645,14. Epigraphy: IG IV 195f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Meclodunum

(76 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Town of the Senones on an island in the Sequana river (Seine). Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 7,58,2; 6; 60,1; 61,5) uses two forms: Meclodunum (‘fortress of Metlos’) and Metlosedum (‘residence of Metlos’ = ‘reaper’); modern Melun. Metlosedum is probably the Celtic form and Meclodunum the Latin form. At M. a bridge crossed the Sequana (Caes. B Gall. 7,58,5). Sources: It. Ant. 383; Tab. Peut. 2,4. Inscriptions: CIL XIII 3010. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Cenabum

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Capital of the  Carnutes on the Loire, more likely Orléans than Gien (Caes. B Gall. 7; 8), derived from Genabum/C.; Celtic root gen, ‘mouth’, ‘river mouth’. C. was the starting point of the uprising of 52 BC under the command of  Vercingetorix; subsequently, Caesar ordered C. to be laid waste. Having suffered badly in the crises of the 3rd cent. AD, C. lost its name. From then on, it became capital of the civitas Aurelianorum. In AD 451, it was besieged by Attila. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Debal, Les Gaulois en…

Herculis portus

(121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Ports of this name existed 1. on the Ligurian coast (in Ptol. 3,1,2 different from Monaco, maybe the bay of Villafranca east of Nice), 2. at Monte Argentario west of  Cosa (Str. 5,2,8; Rut. Namat. 1,293; Tab. Peut. 4,4; modern Port'Ercole), 3. on the west Bruttian coast near Cape Vaticano (Str. 6,1,5; Plin. HN 3,73), and 4. on the south coast of Sardinia (Ptol. 3,3,3). The best-known is 5. Herculis Monoeci portus, already mentioned in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 57 (Str. 4,5,6; Plin. HN 3,47;…

Letrini

(97 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λετρῖνοι; Letrînoi). Village on the road from Elis to Olympia with a sanctuary of Artemis Alpheiaia, to the north of Alpheius [1], localized near modern Pirgos or further west, near the village of Agios Ioannis. In Pausanias' time it only consisted of few remaining houses. References: Paus. 6,22,8-11; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30; 4,2,16; Lycophr. Alexandra 54. The local form of the name is found on inscriptions and in Xen. Hell. 4,2,16 in MSS Λεδρῖνοι ( Ledrínoi). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide 1, EAA2, 447f. E. Meyer, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 11, 876.

Augustodunum

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce Augustan foundation at the junction of the basins of the Loire, the Saône and the Rhône, modern Autun. Built as a replacement for  Bibracte as the capital of the Haedui, A. became a lively centre of Romanization. Marked by insurgencies in the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 3,43), A. was distinguished by its great prosperity up to the end of the 3rd cent (cf. archaeological finds). Despite its decline after the capitulation…

Lechaeum

(172 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λέχαιον; Léchaion). Harbour of Corinth [1] on the Corinthian Gulf, 3 km north of the city, connected with it by a double wall in the classical period ( c. 450 BC) [1]. The inner harbour basin, which is silted up today to a large extent, is still recognizable, also an outer harbour, few other remains, e.g. a large early Christian basilica [2]. Xen. Hell. 4,4,12 mentions ship sheds, and sanctuaries of Poseidon (Paus. 2,2,3; Callim. H. 4,271) and of Aphro…

Gabali

(85 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gallic tribe in Aquitania, south of the Arverni, north of the Ruteni, on the north-western foot of the Cevennes. Source references: Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 64,6; 75,2; Γαβαλεῖς ( Gabaleîs): Str. 4,2,2; Gabales: Plin. HN 4,109; civitas Gabalum of Aquitania I: notitia Galliarum 12,8, modern Gévaudan, Lozère. The Gabali were miners (silver mines) and bred cattle (cheese: Plin. HN 11,240). Main town: Anderitum (Ptol. 2,7,11; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,2; 7,6,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography D. Fabrié, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 48 (Lozère), 1989.

Liger

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] River in Gaul, modern Loire; rises on the Cebenna mons . Strabo (4,1,1; 14; 4,2,1-3; 3,4; 4,3; 5,2) erroneously assumes its course as parallel to that of the Garumna, Ptolemy (2,2) describes it more correctly. Authors of antiquity assert that the river is open to shipping for about 2,000 stadia (about 370 km, more today) and that it served as a trade route between Britannia, Massilia and Italy. Further sources: Caes. B Gall. 3,9; 7,5; 55; 59; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,1; 6; 11f; 14; Cass. Dio 39,40; 44,42 (Λίγρος; Lígros); Auson. Mos. 461. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Ca…

Gortys

(239 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Γόρτυς; Górtys). Settlement in Arcadia near the modern Atsicholo between Dimitsana and Karytaina, where the valley widens on the right bank of the Gortynius, a tributary of the  Alpheius [1]. G. comprised a fortified acropolis which controlled the northern access to the plain of Megalopolis, and north-east of the acropolis a terrace towering over the gorge of the Gortynius. According to Paus. 8,27,4, it was one of a number of settlements whose inhabitants came from  Cynuria. G. became part of the territory of Megalopolis, but retained its status as a kómē [1]. In the …

Lasion

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λασιών; Lasiṓn). City at the edge of the Pholoe tableland in the Elian mountainous country, in the upper valley of the Ladon [3], remains near modern Kumani. L. was disputed between Elis and Arcadia. Evidence: Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; 4,2,16; 7,4,12f.; Diod. Sic. 14,17,8; 15,77,1-4; Str. 8,3,5; 7,5. Inscription: SEG 11, 1172f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 1989.

Ratomagus

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce Capital of the Veliocasses, present-day Rouen, linked by the Sequana (Seine) and Autura (Eure) to the Liger (Loire) and inner Gaul (Gallia/Gaul), an important harbour for exports to Britannia in the 2nd cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 15,11,12; It. Ant. 382,3; 384,1; Ptol. 2,8,8: Ῥατόμαγος; Tab. Peut. 2,2 f.; CIL XIII 3475: Ratumagus vicus; Notitia Galliarum 2,2: civitas Rotomagensium; Not. Dign. Occ. 37,10; 37,21: Rotomagus). Originally, the Veliocasses fell within the area of Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2…

Corone

(262 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κορώνη; Korone). City on the west coast of the Messenian Gulf, modern Petalidi, c. 30 km south west of Kalamata, at the foot of Mount Mathia (modern Lykodimo) with numerous ancient remains, including parts of the city wall. After Messenia had been freed from Spartan rule by the Boeotians under Epaminondas, a new Boeotian city was allegedly founded (it is impossible to decide conclusively whether there was an older C. [1]); after 184 BC member of the …

Croceae

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Marble (Κροκέαι). Place in South Laconia (modern Κροκεές, Krokeés), famous because of the green porphyry ( lapis Lacedaemonius) quarried about 3 km to the south-east and highly prized in the Roman Imperial period. Attestation: Paus. 3,21,4; Str. 8,5,7; Plin. HN. 36,55; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κrokea. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 203-207 M. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 54f. C. Le Roy, Lakonika, in: BCH 85, 1961, 206-215 G. A. Pik…

Glanum

(333 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul Town in Gallia Narbonensis (modern Saint-Rémy-de-Provence) in the region of the  Salluvii. Located on the great trade route running east-west that connected Italy with Spain (later the via Domitia), G.'s importance was also due to its location at the end of the north-south road which provided G. control over the direct access to the Crau plain. A Celtic-Ligurian sanctuary that was dedicated to the god Glan and the   Matres [1] was located in the vicinity of a mineral spring. The res…

Coccygium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοκκύγιον ὄρος; Kokkýgion ŕos). ‘Cuckoo mountain’, another name for the mountain Thornax, west of  Hermion(e) on the Argolid headland, with sanctuaries of Zeus and Apollo; today's Hagios Elias. References: Paus. 2,36,1f.; schol. Theoc. 15,64. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Foley, The Argolid 800-600 B.C., 1988, 184.

Divio

(84 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Dibio). An important centre where trade routes crossed at the confluence of the Saône and the Ouche, on the boundary between the civitates of the Lingones and the Aedui, now Dijon. The castrum Divionense described by Gregory of Tours in his History of the Franks 3,19 was built in the 3rd cent. near the road from Lyons to the Rhine frontier. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Frézouls, Les villes antiques de la France II, 1, 1988, 179-274 C. Rolley, s.v. D., PE, 278.

Phaesana

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαισάνα; Phaisána). Town on the river Alpheus (Pind. Ol. 6,34f.) in the district of Pisatis (Istrus FGrH 334 F 41; Didymus, schol. Pind. Ol. 6, 55a); Phaesana is possibly identifiable as Phrixa. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide, EAA 2. Suppl. 2, 1994, 450.

Pitana

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Πιτάνα/ Pitána, Πιτάνη/ Pitánē). District of Sparta (Pind. Ol. 6,28; Hdt. 3,55; Paus. 3,16,9; Plut. Mor. 601b) west and southwest of the acropolis, preferred as a residential area: even Menelaus [1] is supposed to have lived there (Eur. Tro. 112ff.; Paus. 3,14,6). The grave monument of the royal family of the Agiads (Paus. 3,14,2ff.) also lay there. With Mesoa, Cynosura, Limnae and Amyclae, P. was one of the five villages to form the foundling polis Sparta. P. formed one of the divisions (ὠβά/ ōbá) of the Spartan cit…

Antipolis

(112 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Batavian Revolt (Ἀντίπολις; Antípolis). Harbour town in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Antibes, inhabited from the 10th cent. BC, a colony of  Massalia in the territory of the Deciates, opposite of Nicaea (thus its name: Str. 4,1,5; 9. Plin. HN 3,5,34). In 154 BC, A. was harried by the  Ligures, and called for Rome to help: Pol. 33,7,2. Greek and Latin inscriptions: IG XIV, 2424-30; CIL XII 165-246 [1]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Chastagnol, Inscr. lat. de Narbonnaise 2, 1992. J. Clergues, A…

Gates

(22 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People in Aquitaine between the Elusates and the Ausci (only in Caes. B Gall. 3,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Ensérune

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Fortified high-altitude settlement ( oppidum?) between Béziers and Narbonne on a hill c. 120 m high, well protected by steep slopes to the north and to the east; it ruled a plain surrounded by ponds and crossed by an important traffic route between the Iberian and Italian peoples. Three settlement phases are documented by ceramic finds (end of 6th cent. BC ─ end of 1st cent. AD). The second phase ( c. 425-220 BC) includes the building of a city wall (4th cent.), and of the necropolis with its numerous Celtic finds; there is evidence of trading relati…

Lusi

(304 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λουσοί/ Lousoí; ethnicon inscription Λουσιάτας/ Lousiátas; literary also Λουσιεύς, Λουσεύς probably after the Attic demoticon). Town in northern Arcadia between Cynaetha and Cleitor near modern Chamakou (at a height of about 1,000 m), sanctuary of Artemis Hemera, Hemerasia games. The sanctuary lies in the foothills of Chelmos southwest of modern Ano-L. and Kato-L. above a small plain in the south. Building remains only from the 4th-3rd cents. BC (propylaea, bouleuterion, Doric temple)…

Gallia/Gaul

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A. Land and population in pre-Roman times G. comprises the most western part of the European rump, between the Rhine, the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees and the Atlantic. Five large river-systems supply the land with water: the Garumna (Garonne) in the south-west, the Liger (Loire) in the centre and the west, the Sequana (Seine) in the north, the Mosa (Maas) with a tributary of the Rhine, the Mosella (Mosel), in the north-east, and the most important water vein, the Rhodanus (Rhôn…

Myrsinus

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μύρσινος; Mýrsinos). Town of the Epeii tribe in Elis (Hom. Il. 2,616). According to Str. 8,3,10, Myrtoúntion it was 70 stades to the north of the town of Elis on the coast (cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). There is a debate surrounding its identification with a fortress on Cape Araxus in the northwest of the Peloponnese [1. 17-19]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. Sergent, Sur les frontières de l'Élide aux hautes époques, in: REA 80, 1978, 16-35.

Santoni

(210 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in southwestern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,1; 11,6; 3,11,5; Mela 3,23; It. Ant. 459,3; Str. 4,2,1; 6,11: Σάντονοι/ Sántonoi; Ptol. 2,7,7: Σάντονες/ Sántones), in the modern Saintonge (Dépt. Charente-Maritime, partially Dépt. Charente [1]). The S. participated in the rebellion of Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3). Under Roman rule, they formed a civitas of the province of Aquitania (Plin. HN 4,108: S. liberi) with their capital at Mediolan(i)um [4] Santonum (Gallia, with map). Under Diocletianus, this was added to the provi…

Narbonensis

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The name N. was given in 27 BC to the Roman provincia Transalpina, which was formed from Gaulish areas either side of the Rhodanus (moder Rhone). It had been occupied by the Romans between 125 and 118 BC after a call for help from Massalia in the dispute with the Salluvii tribe. The boundaries of the province were the Mediterranean coast from the Varus (Var) as far as the Pyrenees, the Alps, Lacus Lemanus (Lake Geneva), the upper reaches of the Rhodanus (excluding Lugdunum), the foothills of …

Pallantium

(168 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Παλλάντειον/ Pallánteion, lit. Παλλάντιον/ Pallántion). City on the western edge of the eastern Arcadian plain, 7 km south of Tripoli, with a few remains on a hill that juts out from the Kravari mountain range (earlier Boreion), today P. again (formerly Berbati). Remains of the acropolis wall and of four temples from the Archaic and Classical periods [1] are preserved. P. was an independent city in the 4th and 2nd cents. BC despite its incorporation in the synoikismós of Megalopol…

Melaeneae

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελαινεαί/ Melaineaí, Latin Melaenae). Town in western Arcadia, north of the river Alpheius, 40 stadia ( c. 7 km) west of Buphagium, abandoned by Pausanias's time (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,3,3; 26,8), perhaps near modern Kokkora, south of Kakouraeika (Kakouraei). There are some remains of an estate from the Roman period. Evidence: Plin. HN 4,20; Tab. Peut. 7,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελαιναί. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Jost, 74-77 E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 101-106.

Methydrium

(221 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεθύδριον/ Methýdrion, locally Μετίδριον/ Metídrion). City in northern Arcadia with a small number of ruins near the modern M. (formerly Nemnitsa), south of Vytina (at a height of approximately 1000 m). Originally independent, M. belonged to Orchomenus, probably from 400/368 BC, and to Megale Polis from 369/360 BC (?). Border inscription: [5. 664; 1; 2]. Remains of a circular wall dating from the 4th cent. BC. [3]. M. was several times temporarily independent (Syll.3 490,18ff., c. 234/3 BC; Syll.3 559,61; coins). The place is mentioned in Theoph. FGrH 115 …

Apta Iulia

(96 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity City of the  Vulgientes;   colonia (CIL XII 1005; 1116; 1118; It. Ant. 343,3 cf. 388,4; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 9,9,1); civitas Aptensium (Pol. Silv. 16,3); possessed the   ius Latii (Plin. HN 3,36), situated on the road from  Mediolanum to  Arelate. Today Apt (Vaucluse) on the Coulon, which joins the Durance from the north (near to its confluence with the  Rhodanus). In the 6th cent. AD most of the inhabitants left the city to seek refuge on the nearby heights. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Entremont

(90 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian oppidum, main location of the Salluvii, 3 km north of Aix-en-Provence. In c. 2nd cent. BC two residential estates, the second of which surrounds the first without having destroyed it, proves the development of the town formation, which was stopped by the Romans between 124 and 90 BC. Ancient remains: town wall, roads, sanctuary (heroon?), sculptures, coins from Massalia, numerous crafts products. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Arcelin et al., Voyage en Massalie, 1990, 101-106 F. Benoît, Entremont, capitale celto-ligure des Salyens…

Epidaurus

(910 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athletes | Education / Culture (Ἐπίδαυρος; Epídauros). [German version] A. Location City in the Argolic Acte on the southern coast of the Saronic Gulf. The city's large territory extended to the Argolic Gulf, with a good land-connection to the Argolic plain. The ancient city was located on a bay with a shallow beach and a small coastal plain, situated on a rocky hill …

Maritima

(114 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( M. Avaticorum, Mela 2,78; oppidum M., Plin. HN 3,34; Μαρίτιμα κολωνία, Ptol. 2,10,5; colonia M., Geogr. Rav. 5,3; 4,28). Capital of the Avatici (Gallia Narbonensis). It was preceded as a settlement by a pre-Roman oppidum, whose name is unknown. It is possible that M. was a colonia founded under Caesar or Augustus. The site is not precisely known: on the Étang de la Valduc or the Étang de Berre near Miramas, or, more probably, near Martigues. Important staging-post on the trade route from Massalia to Arelate via Saint-Blaise and La Crau. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G…

Meldi

(141 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People of Gallia Lugdunensis on the lower Matrona (Strab. 4,3,5; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,11). The capital was Iatinon (Ἰάτινον, Ptol. 2,8,15; = Fixtinnum, Tab. Peut. 2,4), later called civitas Meldorum (Not. Galliarum 4,7) or Meldis (Ven. Fort. 3,27), modern Meaux. In 55/4 BC, Caesar had the M. build him ships for the expedition to Britain (Caes. BG 5,5,2); however, there was possibly another people by this name on the sea coast. Archaeological finds: coins.; water pipe. Inscriptions: CIL XIII 3023f.; a thea…

Troezen

(689 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Τροιζήν/ Troizḗn only since the 2nd cent. BC and literary; originally Τροζάν/ Trozán, Ionic Τροζήν/ Trozḗn; Lat. Troezen, Troezene, Troezena). [German version] I. Location and history Town on the north coast of the Argolid near present-day T. (formerly Damala) on the northern slope of the Anderes mountain range (present-day Phorbantion). The region of T. encompassed the entire eas…

Decetia

(39 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] City of the Haedui (Caes. B Gall. 7,33) in Gallia Lugdunensis, road junction (It. Ant. 367: Decetia; 460: Deccidae; Tab. Peut.: Degetia; Geogr. Rav. 4,26: Dizezeia); today's Decize (Nièvre). CIL 13, 2814-2816. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Autessiodurum

(46 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Town of the  Senones in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis (modern Auxerre). A. was located on the left bank of the Yonne (CIL XIII 2920-2939). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Kapps, s.v. A., PE, 128.

Cyphanta

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κύφαντα or Κύφας; Kýphanta or Kýphas). Spartan perioikic polis (  períoikoi ) on the east coast of the  Parnon peninsula with an Asclepius sanctuary, already in ruins at the time of Pausanias, located in the bay with the mod. name of Kyparissi. Documentary evidence: Pol. 4,36,5; Paus. 3,24,2; Ptol. 3,16,10; 22; Plin. HN 4,17. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 146-149 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, East-Central Laconia, in: ABSA 15, 1908/9, 173.

Caphyae

(209 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Arcadians, Arcadia (Καφυαί; Kaphyaí). Town in north-eastern Arcadia, north of the northern plain of Orchomenus, 1 km south-east of the modern Chotusa, with only sparse ancient remains. Votive from the war booty in Delphi of the 5th cent. BC (Syll.3 48). In the Chremonidean War (267-261 BC), C. fought against  Antigonus [2] (Syll.3 434f.,25); afterwards, it belonged to the Achaean League, apart from a short interlude following its capture by Cleomenes III (Plut. Agis and Cleomenes 25,4; Pol. 2,5…

Cleitor

(246 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Κλείτωρ, Arcad. Κλήτωρ). North Arcadian town in a small plain surrounded by mountains near modern Carnesi with a river of the same name, c. 3 km west of Kato-Klitoria, 11 km from the sources of the Ladon ( Ladon [2]), with few remains (IG V 2, 367). An important transit area between the eastern plateau and the western mountain regions. C. had no acropolis, the settlement was located in a flat area with only two slightly higher areas.…

Allobroges

(303 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The territory of the A. (‘foreigners’: Schol. Juv. 8,234), in  Gallia Narbonensis, extended in the north up to the Cavares and the  Vocontii, between  Isara,  Rhodanus, lacus Lemannus and  Alpes. The A. are Celts who came late to Gaul; their first appearance is with Pol. 3,49,13 and Liv. 21,31,5 in connection with Hannibal's crossing of the Alps. During the intervention of the Romans requested by Massalia, the A. came, allied with the  Arverni , down the Rhodanus to the Vindelicis amnis (today Sorgue), wher…

Anthea

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἄνθεια; Ántheia). One of the seven towns, belonging to the kingdom of  Pylos on the Messenian Gulf, which, in Hom. Il. 9,151; 293,  Agamemnon offered to  Achilles. Its identification with  Thuria (Str. 8,4,5; Paus. 4,31,1) is supported by many finds there dating from the Mycenaean age. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Hope Simpson, Identifying a Mycenean State, in: ABSA 52, 1957, 231-259 Id., The Seven Cities Offered by Agamemnon to Achilles, in: ABSA 61, 1966, 121-124.

Mesoa

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεσόα; Mesóa). Ōbá or kṓmē (‘village’) of Sparta [1. 119]; specifically the urban region south west of the theatre (Str. 8,5,3; Paus. 3,16,9; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μεσσόα). The inscription IG V 1, 515 is a forgery [2]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. F. Jones, Public Organization in Ancient Greece, 1987 2 A. J. S. Spawforth, Fourmontiana. IG V 1, 515: Another Forgery ‘from Amyklai’, in: ABSA 71, 1976, 139-145.

Las

(139 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (ἡ Λᾶς; hē Lâs). Spartan town of períoikoi on the west coast of the Laconian Gulf. Remains of the ancient city (ancient and classical acropolis?) near modern Passava, covered by the Hellenistic and Roman towns. The harbour of L. (Thuc. 8,91; Str. 8,5,4) lay c. 3 km away (modern Bay of Vathy). Indefinite Mycenaean remains. Evidence: Hom. Il. 2,585 (Λάας; Láas); Scyl. 46; Paus. 3,21,7; 24,6f.; Str. 8,5,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λᾶ/ . Inscriptions: IG V 1,1214-1217. Coins: HN, 436. Lafond, …

Aphrodisia

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀφροδισία; Aphrodisía). City on the plain between  Cotyrta and  Boiae, south-east of  Laconice (Ἀφροδιτία; Aphroditía in Thuc. 4,56,1; Ἀφροδισιά; Aphrodisiás in Steph. Byz. s. v.; Paus. 3,22,11; 8,12,8), described itself as having been founded by  Aeneas. Site unknown. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Christien, Promenades en Laconie, in: DHA 15,1, 1989, 89-93 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907/1908, 166.

Matisco

(137 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Town in the Provincia Lugdunensis on the Arar River (Saône) in the territory of the Haedui, 70 km north of Lugudunum, modern Mâcon (Saône-et-Loire). There are Celtic remains in the environs as well, e.g. in Varennes-lès-Mâcon. In 52 BC M. was a staging station (Caes. Gall. 7,90,7; 8,4), in the Roman Imperial period it was the starting-point of the road to Augustodunum. A castrum was built in the 4th century AD. Necropolis. Sources: Itin. Anton. 359; Tab. Peut. 2,5 ( Matiscone); Notitia Galliarum 1,5; Geogr. Rav…

Mases

(110 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάσης; Másēs). Location and harbour on the southwestern coast of the Argolid peninsula on the eastern shore of the bay of Koilada, north west of the modern village of Kampo, with few ancient remains. Mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,562; in the historical period it was the port of Hermion(e). References: Str. 8,6,17; Paus. 2,35,11; 36,1f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Eust. in Hom. Il. 288,11. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 240f. M. Jameson, Inscriptions of the Peloponnesos, in: Hesperia 22, 1953, 167f. C. N. Runnels, T. H. van Andel, The …

Chrysorrhoas

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Χρυσορρόας; Chrysorrhóas). River near Troezen that did not dry up even during protracted drought (Paus. 2,31,10). Identical with the modern Gephyraion to the west of the town. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G. Welter, Troizen und Kalaureia, 1941, 15.

Lycone

(47 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λυκώνη; Lykṓnē). Mountain range east of Argus with the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia (temple 12.30 × 9.80 m) with a marble statue that is said to be by Polyclitus (Paus. 2,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Kophiniotis, Ἀνασκαφαὶ ἐν Ἀργολίδι, in: AD 1888, 205.

Pheneus

(368 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (ὁ/ἡ Φενεός; ho/hē Pheneós, ethnikon Φενεάτης/ Pheneátēs or Φενικός/ Phenikós). City in Azania in northern Arcadia (Str. 8,8,2; 4; Paus. 8,13,6-22,1; Plin. HN. 4,20f.; 31,54; Diod. Sic. 15,49,5) in the north of a karst basin with no overground outlet drained by swallow-holes into the Ladon [1. 94, 99] where a shallow lake only periodically formed but with at times a catastrophically high water level (cf. Theophr. Hist. p…

Phlius

(569 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia (Φλειοῦς/ Phleioûs, more rarely Φλιοῦς/ Phlioûs, ethnicon Φλειάσιος/ Phleiásios or Φλιάσιος/ Phliásios; Lat. Phleius). Town in northeastern Peloponnese, south west of Corinth (Str. 8,6,24; Paus. 2,13,3-8; Plin. HN 4,13; Ptol. 3,16,16). Today it is still called P., lying c. 2 km to the west of present-day Nemea in the foothills of the Tricaranon (present-day Koutsi) which juts out from the northeast into the alluvia…

Glympeis

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Γλυμπεῖς; Glympeîs; by Paus. 3,22,8 Γλυππία; Glyppía). Cynurian settlement on the boundary of the Argolis with Laconia (Pol. 5,20) in the Parnon mountains, the ruins of Palaeochora near modern Hagios Vasilios. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Christien, De Sparte à la côte orientale du Péloponnèse, in: M. Piérart (ed.), Polydipsion Argos, 1992, 157-170.

Aegira

(364 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Αἴγειρα; Aígeira). Town in  Achaea, c. 1.3 km from the coast (Pol. 4,57,5) and c. 2.2 km from the port of the same name (Paus. 7,26,1), west of the modern village of Derveni. Protected on three sides by steep hills and on the fourth approachable only via a narrow ridge, A. was easy to defend and, at the same time, controlled the coastal road. The hilltop settlement ( c. 416 m), inhabited since the late Mycenaean period (12th cent. BC), was originally called Hyperesia …

Calamae

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλάμαι; Kalámai). Settlement in south-east Messenia (κώμη, Paus. 4,31,3; χωρίον, Pol. 5,92,4 for 217 BC). Small hillock with remains of walls, 1 km south of the modern Jannitsa. C. probably extended to a further hillside nearby, where today a chapel of Hagios Vasilios is found. The modern Kalamata (officially Kalamai) corresponds with the ancient Pharae. Inscriptions: IG V 1, 1369f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messenien, RE Suppl. 15, 180f.

Agatha

(101 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Punic Wars Town in  Gallia Narbonensis, colony of  Massalia, within the territory of the  Volcae Arecomici, modern Agde (Str. 4,1,5 f.; Plin. HN 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2: Ἀγάθη; Agáthē, ‘good’), located on the edge of the Hérault-delta on a hillside which has been continually inhabited since ancient times. Because of its location, this seaport was an important safeguard of the trade between the Mediterranean countries and Gallia. In the 5th cent. AD bishop's seat. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography…

Nestane

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νεστάνη/ Nestánē). Fortified village (κώμη/ kṓmē) in the Mantinea region in Arcadia (Theop. FGrH 115 F 175; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 234) on the eastern edge of the plateau on the road to Argos [II 1] by way of the Prinos pass. At the time of Pausanias (8,7,4; 8,1) N. was in ruins; near what is now Nestane (formerly Tsipiana). Remains of the castle wall have been preserved. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography S. and H. Hodkinson, Mantineia and the Mantinike, in: ABSA 76, 1981, 267-269  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11, 1986 (1990), 156f.  Jost, 140.

Os(s)ismi(i)

(127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe (Str. 4,4,1; Plin. HN 4,107; Mela 3,23; Ptol. 2,8,5; Tab. Peut 2,2) in Aremorica (in present-day Brittany; cf. Caes. B Gall. 7,75,4: O. amongst the civitates quae ... Aremoricae appellantur), to the west of the Veneti and Coriosolites, the main town being Vorgium (present-day Carhaix, dépt. Finistère). Subjugated in 58 BC by Caesar's praefectus equitum Licinius [I 16] Crassus (Caes. B. Gall. 2,34,1), they took part in 56 BC in an insurrection of Gallic tribes against Rome (Caes. B. Gall. 3,9,10). After Diocletian's reorgan…

Andematu(n)num

(153 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Batavian Revolt Located on a plateau with steep slopes to all sides, A., the modern Langres (Haute-Marne; traces of neolithic and Bronze Age settlements), was the main town of the  Lingones (Ptol. 2,9,9). Because of this and its location at the junction of the road from the Atlantic to northern Italy with that from the Mediterranean to the  Rhenus, it soon developed into a flourishing town. Harried by the  Alamanni in AD 298, A.- known as   civitas Lingonum in late antiquity -- was destroy…

Heraea

(305 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Ἡραία; Hēraía). Western Arcadian city on the right bank of the central course of the Alpheius, shortly before the mouth of the Ladon, with extensive territory, comprising a number of fortified settlements. H. was of strategic importance because of its location on a major road, linking Elis, Arcadia, and the Argolid. According to Paus. 8,26,1, the city was located on a plateau, rising gently from the banks of the…

Cromnus

(80 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρῶμνος, Κρῶμνα, Κρῶμναι, Κρῶμοι). Place in the Arcadian region of Cromnitis on the road from Megalopolis to Messene, 11 km south of Megalopolis, possibly on a hill c. 2 km north-east of modern Paradisia (Παραδείσια). Incorporated into the foundation of Megalopolis. Attested in Paus. 8,3,4; 27,4; 34,5f.; Xen. Hell. 7,4,20-28; Callisthenes, FGrH 124 F 13; Steph. Byz., s.v. Κρῶμνα. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Roy et al., Two Sites in the Megalopolis Basin, in: J. M. Sanders (ed.), ΦΙΛΟΛΑΚΩΝ, 1992, 190-194.

Laconica

(993 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A. Name Lakōnikḕ gê (Λακωνικὴ γῆ) or L. chṓra (Λ. χώρα) is the customary appellation in prose literature for the national territory of Sparta, especially in Thucydides, always in Polybius, also Herodotus (1,69; 6,58,1), Xenophon (Hell. 4,7,6; 4,8,8; 6,2,31; 6,5,21), Aristophanes (Vesp. 1162; Pax 245), Strabo (8,2,2; 4,9; 5,4ff.), Pausanias (3,1,1; 21,6; 4,1,1; 16,8; 17,1) and Ptolemy (3,16,9), in Latin Laconica (Plin. HN 2,243; 4,1; 5,32; 6,214; 25,94). Epigraphically, this appellation appears only in one proxeny list from Ceos in the 4th …

Agedincum

(47 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar Main town of the  Senones in  Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, modern Sens. Several inscriptions and reliefs. CIL XIII 2941-3009, 11271. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Grenier 4, 1960, 171-180 C. Rolley, s. v. A., PE 17.

Dea Augusta Vocontiorum

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | City of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, one of the two religious centres with lucus Augusti (Luc-en-Diois), today called Die. Ruins: Water pipes/channels, necropoleis (NE and NW), baths, bridges, villae inside and outside the walls. Inscriptions (CIL 12, 1556-1560; 1563) attest to the existence of temples (Jupiter, Cybele and Attis, Dea Augusta Andarta). Inscr.: CIL 12, 1554-1696. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Grenier, 1, 1931, 557-560; 4, 1960, 106-111 M. Leglay, s.v. D.A.V., PE, 259f.

Cynaetha

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Κύναιθα; Kýnaitha). Town in northern Arcadia near modern Kalavryta, the exact location is unknown. The high valley of C. (800 m) is bordered in the north and south by low hills, in the west and south-east by the mountain ranges Erymanthus and Chelmos. In Hellenistic times it was supposedly the scene of especially brutal wars between various parties. Evidence: Pol. 4,16,11-21,9; Str. 8,8,2; Paus. 8,19,1-3; Ath. 14,626e; Steph. Byz., s.v. Κ. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinc…

Ambivareti

(32 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe in  Gallia Celtica,   clientes of the  Haedui (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,2). Some editors have corrected ‘Ambluareti’ (as it stands in all MSS) to A. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lycuria

(33 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λυκουρία; Lykouría). City in the plain of Pheneus on the road to Cleitor in Arcadia, on the border between the two cities; cf. Paus. 8,19,4; 20,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Phara

(180 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαρά/ Phará, Φαραί/ Pharaí, ethnicon Φαραιεύς/ Pharaieús). City in western Achaea on the left bank of the Peirus (Str. 8,7,4f.; Paus. 7,22,1-5 [2. 186-188]; Ptol. 3,16,15: Φέραι or Φάραι; Plin. HN 4,13: Pherae; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαραί, also Φηραί) near the modern villages of Pharai and Prevedos. With a commanding position on the road between western Achaea (with Patrae) and Arcadia. Significant in the Mycenaean period [1. 230-232, 240f.]. P. was one of the 12 ancient cities of Achaea (Hdt. 1,145: Φαρέες; Pol. 2…

Lycosura

(505 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Oracles (Λυκόσουρα; Lykósoura). [German version] A. Location and history City of Arcadian Parrhasia, 7 km west of Megale Polis with a sanctuary of Despoina (Persephone/Kore), today called Siderokastro of Stala or Palaiokrambavos. L. is situated in the forested mountain country on the southern bank of the Plataniston, and the sanctuary is located on a terrace of a range of hills on whose peak L. lay; with the exception of parts of the wall of the acro…

Hecatombaeum

(55 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἑκατόμβαιον; Hekatómbaion). Sanctuary near  Dyme [1], where Cleomenes III gained a victory over the Achaeans in 226 BC (Pol. 2,51,3; Plut. Cleomenes 14,2, Aratus 39,1). The exact location is unknown; the location is dependent on the interpretation of Cleomenes' campaign route. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Osanna, Santuari e culti dell'Acaia antica, 1996, 42f.

Hermion(e)

(315 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (epigraphically and literarily Ἑρμιών; Hermiṓn and Ἑρμιόνη; Hermiónē, ethnikon Ἑρμιονεῖς; Hermioneîs). Town in the eastern area of the Argolid, modern Ermioni, whose territory comprised the south-east of the area of Cape Thermisi 6 km east of H. to Cape Iri south of the Bedeni stream. H. owed its importance to the two well-protected harbours, separated by narrow, elong…

Hydrea

(55 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὑδρέα; Hydréa). Island on the eastern coast of the Argolian Acte, rocky, not very fertile, settled already in the Mycenaean period, modern Hydra; belonged first to  Hermione, then to Troezen. References: Hdt. 3,59; Paus. 2,34,9; Steph. Byz. s.v. H.; Inscriptions: SEG 1, 79f.; 17, 172-177. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography N. Pharaklas, Ἑρμιονίς, 1972.

Cotyrta

(57 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κοτύρτα; Kotýrta). Spartan   períoikoi town on the west coast of the Parnon penninsula ( Parnon), maybe modern Daimonía, where Mycenaean finds have been recorded in quantity. References: Thuc. 4,56,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ. Epigraphy: IG V 1,961-967; 1013; SEG 2,173-175; 11,899. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Coryphasium

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κορυφάσιον, Koryphásion). Rocky cape at the north end of the Bay of Navarino in Messenia; in the Classical period this was the site of the city of  Pylos with a sanctuary of Athena Coryphasia (Paus. 4,36,1f.). The port of Pylos is not identical to the Osman-Aga lagoon (Divari), but can be found in the Bay of Navarino. Evidence: Thuc. 4,3,2; 118,4; 5,18,7; Diod. Sic. 15,77,4; Str. 8,3,7; 21; 23; 27; 4,1f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messenien, Re Suppl. 15. 201f. Pritchett 1, 1965, 6-29.

Aegium

(380 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Hellenistic states | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes (Αἴγιον; Aígion). Town in  Achaea on the Corinthian Gulf (Hom. Il. 2,574; Hdt. 1,145; Ps.-Scyl. 42; Str. 8,7,5, and also Ptol. 3,16,5; Hierocles 647; Geogr. Rav. 5,13). A. rose in three terraces above sea level, at the edge of a plateau with a slight drop to the west, which extended to the mountains in the south, at a safe anchorage between the mouths of two rivers…

Parparus

(143 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Πάρπαρος; Párparos). Site of the legendary battle of the mid-6th cent. BC between the Spartans and Argives over Thyreatis, in the Cynuria [1] to the south of the spur of what is now the Zavitsa [1; 2. 183-185; 6. vol. 3, 111-114; 6. vol. 7, 171]. The feast of the Parparonia was celebrated at Sparta in commemoration of this battle [3; 4. 194-199; 5. 260-262]. Evidence: Anecd. Bekk. 1408; Hsch. s.v. Π.; Ath. 15,678bc; Plin. HN 4,17. Inscriptions: IG V 1, 213; SEG 35, 302; 38, 333. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 L. Moretti, Sparta alla metà del VI secolo. II. La…

Tritaea

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Τριταία/ Tritaía,  in literature also Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). City in western Achaea (Achaei, with map; Paus. 6,12,8 f.; 7,22,6-9; Plin. HN 4,22; Cic. Att. 6,2,3) opposite the northwestern slopes of the Erymanthus [1] mountains on the Vunduchla plain,  which is bounded in the east and west by two tributaries of the Peirus [1. 9 f.], near modern Agia Marina, with numerous  ancient remains (Str. 8,3,10; 8,7,4). T. was one of the twelve ancie…

Lepreum

(308 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λέπρεον; Lépreon). The most significant, southerly city of Triphylia. Preserved remains of the acropolis in the north of modern L. (formerly Strovitsi) with parts of a ring wall and other building remains: a small Doric temple (Demeter? [1]) of the 4th cent. BC and an altar; in the territory of L. on the road from Perivolia to Bassae a Doric temple of the 4th/3rd cents. BC [2]; in the southwest, near modern Prasidaki, a Doric temple of the Hellenic period. Minyan foundation after…

Psophis

(154 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ψωφίς/ Psōphís). City in northwest Arcadia where the Aroanius (modern Nousaitiko) flows into the Erymanthus [2] (Pol. 4,70,3 ff.; Paus. 8,24,1-14; Ptol. 3,16,19; Mela 2,43; Plin. HN 4,20; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ψωφίς), near modern P. The farmer Aglaus, famous for his simplicity, was from P. at the time of Gyges [1] (Paus. 8,24,13 f.; Plin. HN 7,151; Val. Max. 7,1,2). In 219 BC the city was conquered by Philip [7] V and handed over to t…

Ambarri

(62 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People in  Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, on both sides of the  Arar (thus the name), related to the  Haedui (Caes. B Gall. 1,11,4. 14,3). In the 6th cent. BC they took part in the Celtic invasion of Italy (Liv. 5,34). CIL XIII 2446-2580; 11215-11222. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Wuilleumier, Inscriptions latines des trois Gaules, Gallia Suppl. 17, 1963, 303-310bis.

Cynuria

(460 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυνουρία; Kynouría, Κυνοσουρία; Kynossouría). [German version] [1] Landscape on the Gulf of Argolis Landscape on the Gulf of Argolis on the north-eastern coast of the Parnon mountains. As a border region between Laconia and Argolis, C. was often the cause of disputes between Sparta and Argos (cf. Str. 1,4,7). The northern part, the Thyreatis, one of the most fertile plains of the Peloponnese, consisted of the valleys of Tanos and Vrasiotis. According to Herodotus (8,73,1; 3), C. was originally Ionian and wa…

Sythas

(35 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Σύθας/ Sýthas). River forming the border between Sicyon and Pellene in Achaea, probably the modern Trikaliotiko ([1. 252]; Paus. 2,7,8; 12,2; 7,27,12; Ptol. 3,16,4 (Σ. or Σῦς). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Griffin, Sikyon, 1982.

Haedui

(314 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Powerful, rich people of the Gallia Celtica (later Lugdunensis;  Gallia). In the west the region of the H. was essentially bounded by the rivers Doubs and Saône; in the north their neighbours were the  Senones, the  Mandubii, and the  Lingones. Alliances with the  Bituriges in the west and the Senones,  Parisii, and  Bellovaci in the north made it possible for the H. to control trade from the Mediterranean to the English Channel; close relations with the  Boii gave them access to the ri…

Bracata

(46 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] South-eastern Gaul, later ‘Togata’ or ‘Narbonensis’, named after the trousers worn by the barbarians (Mela 2,74; Plin. HN 3,31). By contrast, the rest of Gaul was called comata (‘hairy’, cf. Cic. Phil. 8,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Py, Les Gaulois du midi, 1993.

Alba

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Main city of the  Helvii in  Gallia Narbonensis, called Aps in the Middle Ages, since 1903 once again carrying the ancient name that is mentioned only in texts from the 1st cent. AD on (Plin. HN 3,36; 14,43). A. was built in the course of the first two cents. AD, but the settlement of the area is documented since prehistory. Secured knowledge about the history of A. does not exist. The city's wealth was based on viticulture, crafts and commerce (four   collegia ). Destruction of A. by barbarians in the 3rd cent. AD is no longer accepted today.…

Parisii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A tribe of Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, on the middle Sequana (the modern Seine); their main town was Lutecia Parisiorum (the modern Paris). P. lived in Britannia in the mid-3rd cent. BC. On the Sequana, the P. were neighbours of the Senones, to whom they were first allied around the turn of the 2nd/1st cents. BC, then tributary. They minted gold coins [1]. In 53 BC Caesar moved the concilium Galliae to Lutecia (Caes. B Gall. 6,3,4). In 52, the P. sided with Vercingetorix (Caes. B Gall. 7,4,6; 34,2; 57,1; 75,3). A collegium of the nautae Parisiaci is attested from the …

Phere

(57 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φηρή/ Phērḗ, Φηραί/ Phēraí). Town in West Arcadia on the river Alpheus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,541ff.; Hom. Od. 3,488ff.; 15,186ff.). Home of Orsilochus [1], the son of the river god Alpheus [2], and his descendants. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88.

Lingones

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic people on the border between Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica, between the Senones and the Sequani (Str. 4,1,11; 3,4; 6,11: Λίγγονες/ Língones; Ptol. 2,9,9: Λόγγονες/ Lóngones). The L. did not participate in the battles of the Gauls against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,26,5; 40,11; 7,9,4; 63,7; Plut. Caesar 26,6; Cass. Dio 40,38; 66,3). Already foederati at the time (Plin. HN 4,31), they gained Roman citizenship at the end of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Hist. 1,78,1). After AD 250, they belonged to the provincia Lugdunensis. Their capital was Andematu(n)num (mod…

Gergovia

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Celts | Oppidum City of Gallia Celtica in the region of the  Arverni, later in Aquitania, west of the Elaver, 6 km south of  Augustonemetum on a high plateau that is hard to reach, today Gergovie. Besieged unsuccessfully by Caesar in 52 BC (Vercingetorix: Caes. B Gall. 7,34; Liv. Per. 107; Str. 4,2,3; Suet. Iul. 25; Polyaenus 8,23,9; Cass. Dio 40,35; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,152). Excavations of the large and the small camp and the connec…

Lugdunensis

(223 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Roman province, result of the partitioning of Gallia Comata into three provinces ( Tres Galliae: Belgica, L., Aquitania) by Augustus between 27 and 13 BC. Gallia L. comprised the tribes of Armorica, the Veliocasses and the Caletes. Several Celtic tribes of the southern Loire region belonged to Aquitania. Through the incorporation of the Lingones, Sequani, Raurici and Helvetii in the province of Belgica (in 10 or 8 BC), the L. no longer had access to the Rhine (Str. 4,3,1; Plin. HN 4,106). Gallia…

Paeum

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Παῖον; Paîon). Small town with well-preserved acropolis wall in western Arcadia in the spring- and vegetation-rich dale lying across the Ladon and Erymanthus valleys, modern Paleokastro, 400 m to the east of modern Neon Paos. In the early period P. was an independent polis (Hdt. 6,127), later it belonged to Cleitor and in the time of Pausanias (2nd century AD) it was desolate (8,23,9). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Arcadia, EAA 2. Suppl. vol. 1, 1994, 332  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11 (1986), 1990, 148f.  Jost, 45  Pritchet…

Mesatis

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεσάτις; Mesátis). One of three communities or regions from which the city of Patrae in Achaea was founded. M. had a cult of Dionysus. It was possibly the hilly country to the east and north of Patrae, at the modern Ano Sychaina-Voundeni (Paus. 7,18,4-6; 19,1; 21,14). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. D. Rizakis, Achaïe 1. Sources textuelles et histoire régionale (Meletemata 20), 1995, 164.

Carnutes

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe living in Gallia Lugdunensis between the Seine and the Loire, neighbours of the Senones (Str. 4,2,3; 4,3,4; Tib. 1,7,12; Ptol. 2,8,10). After fierce resistance, they were conquered by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 2-8 passim; Plin. HN 4,107; Carnuti foederati). Their most important towns were Cenabum and Autricum. It was a Carnutan tradition for their  druids to annually hold court in a sacred location. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.

Aremorica

(43 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Caesar (B. Gall. 5,53,6; 7,75,4; 8,31,4) means by A. (from the Celtic are-mori, along the sea) the coastal territories of the tribes between  Liger and  Sequana. According to Plin. HN 4,105,  Aquitania was formerly called A. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lutecia Parisiorum

(272 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Oppidum (Caes. B Gall. 6,3,4; 7,57f.; Λουκοτοκία; Loukotokía, Str. 4,3,5; Παρισίων Λουκοτεκία; Parisíōn Loukotekía, Ptol. 2,8,13; Luticia, It. Ant. 366,5f.; Luteci, Tab. Peut. 2,4). Settlement founded in c. 250-200 BC on an island in the Sequana (Seine), where a north-south trading route crosses the river, modern Paris. The river afforded natural protection while the nearby hill of Sainte-Geneviève enabled direct sur…
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