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Crisis Cults

(350 words)

Author(s): Laubscher, Matthias Samuel
[German Version] Students of religion have accepted the ethnological term crisis cult, introduced by La Barre in 1971, as a systematic hypernym for movements in non-Western societies which earlier 20th-century ethnology treated under such headings as apocalypticism, cargo cults, millenarianism/chiliasm, deliverance movements, revival movements (Revival/Revival movements), ghost dance, collective hysteria, nativism, peyote cult, prophetic revival movements, …

Cultural Anthropology/Social Anthropology

(811 words)

Author(s): Laubscher, Matthias Samuel | Meisinger, Hubert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Natural Sciences I. Religious Studies Ethnology in the German-speaking realm corresponds roughly to cultural anthropology in the USA and social anthropology in the British realm of influence. Different disciplinary classification in the three scientific regions has led to specific configurations. Common to all is the object of investigation: human culture and comparison of (as an ideal, all) individual cultures. The American tradition initially drew its models of interpretation, questions, and theories from closely related biology, later increasingly from psychology. Thus, it understood culture in the final analysis as a product of the socially formed psyche. In contrast, British social anthropology saw social order as the most important phenomenon of human life and regarded culture predominantly as a social product. In the German-speaking realm, a comparative-historical …