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(7,841 words)

Author(s): Asch, Ronald G. | Leonhard, Jörn
1. Types of monarchical ruleMonarchy, as in government by a king or other sovereign ruler with kinglike powers and dignities (Sovereignty), whether as the hereditary representative of a dynasty or wearer of a crown bestowed for life by election, was the normal mode of authority in early modern Europe, at least for larger polities and territorial states of all kinds. With some justification, it has been asserted that “in Europe at least, the way to the modern state holding a monopoly of violence passed through monarchy.” [74. 36]. Principalities, which in the Middle Ages origin…
Date: 2020-04-06


(2,776 words)

Author(s): Leonhard, Jörn
1. Concept and theoryThe term non-simultaneity and the formula of the “simultaneity of the non-simultaneous” are based on a historical assumption that is also of key importance to the analysis of European history from the late 18th century on [19]; [23]; [18]. Non-simultaneity describes the fact that structures and processes taking place at the same time may depend on quite different strata of experience and may reveal historical sediments that cannot readily be reduced to a single, unified concept of Europe. Taken in a diachronous se…
Date: 2020-04-06