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Graul, Karl

(154 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Feb 6, 1814, Wörlitz – Nov 10, 1864, Erlangen). Graul studied in Leipzig (1834–1838), then taught in Italy and Dessau, before he assumed the leadership of the Evangelical-Lutheran Missionary Society in Saxony (after 1847, the Leipzig Mission). Graul journeyed to India (1849–1853, Reise nach Ostindien, 5 vols., 1854–1856). He learned Tamil and became a recognized Dravidologist ( Bibliotheca Tamulica, 4 vols., 1854–1865). Graul demanded the academic-theological training of missionaries and the establishment of indigenous people's churches…

Rethinking Group

(276 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] A group of Indian theologians that attracted attention with Rethinking Christianity in India (1939), a collection of essays edited by D.M. Devasahayam and A.N. Sudarisanam in the context of the 1938 World Missionary Conference in Tambaram. G.V. Job, S. Jesudasen, D.M. Devasahayam, E. Asirvatham and A.N. Sudarisanam each contributed an essay; most of the contributions were written by the lay theologians Pandippedi Chenchiah (five) and V. Chakkarai ¶ Chetty (three), who were related by marriage. Both were converts to Christianity from the Brahmin ca…

Chakkarai Chetty, Vengal

(328 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1880, Madras – Jun 14, 1958, Madras) came from a respected Chettiar family and was raised as a Hindu. He graduated from Madras Christian College in philosophy; at this time he became a Christian (baptized Feb 22, 1903). Initially, Chakkarai worked as a teacher; at the same time he studied law and was active as a lawyer from 1909 to 1912. In 1913, he joined the Danish Missions to work among educated Hindus. In the same year, together with…

Independent Evangelical Missionary

(184 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Ger. Freimissionar), a person carrying out missionary work without ecclesial mandate. Since a comparable mission authority was lacking in German Protestantism until the founding of the Danish-Halle Mission, individually operating missionaries played an important role, as for instance J. v. Welz, who, after an unsuccessful call for mission, traveled to Surinam, and P. Heyling, who was active in Ethiopia. During the 19th century, independent Evangelical missionaries such as K.A.F. G…

Kibira, Josiah Mutabuzi

(239 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1925, Kashenje, Bukoba, Tanzania – Jul 18, 1988, Rwamishenye, Tanzania) earned a diploma at the Teachers' Training College in Tabora, worked as a teacher at Kahorore High School in Bukoba from 1950 to 1957, and completed his studies in Protestant theology in Hamburg, Germany, in 1961. In the same year, Kibira became a member of the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches (WCC). After his M.A. examination at the School of Theology of the University of B…


(529 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (27,834 km2) is situated in what is known as the interlake area of the central African Great Rift Valley just south of the equator. The name derives from the kingdom of Urundi, whose dynasty dates back to the 17th century. 82.9% of the approx. 6.6 million inhabitants are Hutu, 14.5% Tutsi, and 1% Twa. The dynasty of the Ganwa came from the group of Banyaruguru-Tutsi. The common language is Kirundi. The traditional religion of Burundi is characterized by faith in the divine being Imana and by the summoning of the spirit Ki…

Braide, Garrick Sokari

(347 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (between 1883 and 1887, Abonnema, Niger delta – Nov 15, 1918, Bakana) was the founder of the first great prophetic movement in Nigeria. What he accomplished was a reinterpretation of the Christian faith. His ministry led to many conversions in southeast Nigeria. Braide, a fisherman and fishmonger, began his ecclesiastical career as a catechist…


(868 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder | Mungure, Elieshi
[German Version] I. General The name Tanzania is an artificial coinage introduced in 1964 with the formation of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The republic has an area of 942,000 km2, including the islands of Pemba, Zanzibar, and Mafia, with some 2,000 km2. The most important vegetation zones are savannahs, veldt, semidesert, and the fertile coastal plain on the Indian Ocean. The continental area includes 54,000 km2 of inland lakes, primarily along the Great African Rift Valley. With an altitude of 5,895 m, Kilimanjaro reaches the highest elevat…

Indirect Rule

(194 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] After early beginnings in India (the “princely states”), the British developed the classic model of indirect rule in northern Nigeria. Frederick Lugard ( The Dual Mandate, 1922) sought to use the existing emirate structures for administering the territory (co-opting local legislation, administration of justice, and collection of taxes). Dependence on the British weakened the emirs but enabled them to extend their influence to ethnic groups over which they had previously had no control, leading to conflict…

Knak, Siegfried

(216 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (May 12, 1875, Zedlitz – May 22, 1955, Berlin), director of the Berlin Mission and vice-chairman of the Deutscher Evangelischer Missionsrat (DEMR). Like B. Gutmann and C. Keyßer, Knak supported a conception of mission that sought to base congregational life on the people's own customs and traditions ( Zwischen Nil und Tafelbai, 1931; Erfahrungen und Grundgedanken der deutschen evangelischen Mission, 1938). In 1933 Knak called on the church to support Hitler ( NAMZ, 1933, 401–421) and integrate missions into the Reichskirche; later, however, he opposed the “Ar…

Blyden, Edward Wilmot

(346 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 3, 1832, St. Thomas, Caribbean Islands – Feb 7, 1912, Freetown, Sierra Leone), politician and scholar in West Africa and prominent representative of African cultural nationalism. Barred from attending a theological college in the USA, Blyden emigrated to Liberia in 1851 and attended Alexander High School in Monrovia. In his publications, he supported the “return” of the Afro-Americans ( A Voice from Bleeding Africa on Behalf of Her Exiled Children, 1857) to Liberia (independence in 1847). In 1858, Blyden was ordained…


(1,559 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. General Nigeria’s population of some 115 to 120 million makes it the most populous country in Africa. Its present boundaries date from 1914, when the two protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were united under Governor Frederick Lugard. The name Nigeria is a foreign name, first suggested in 1898 by Flora Shaw (later Flora Lugard), an expert on West Africa for The Times, for what were then several British protectorates along the Niger. The Niger, which enters Nigeria from the northwest, and it largest tributary, the Benue, which co…


(4,377 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Kessler, Rainer | Harrill, J. Albert | Luker, Ralph E. | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. General The word slavery denotes a social structure (including its normative legal and ethical standards) in which certain individuals are considered and treated as objects. A slave owner has the right to decide what the slaves do, as well as where and how they live; the owner also has an absolute right of disposition over their bodies and lives and the right to sell them like any other property. The far-reaching implications of this definition distinguish slavery from other forms of unfreedom such as debt servitude, serfdom, and bondage. Slavery was widespread in a…

Church of South India

(511 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] Founded in the year in which India gained political independence (1947), the Church of South India (CSI) attracted considerable international attention as the first worldwide union of episcopal and non-episcopal churches. The preliminary steps were initiated in May 1919 at an Indian pastors' conference chaired by Bishop V.S. Azariah in Tranquebar, during which representatives of the Anglican Church and of the South Indian United Church (a union o…

New Thought Movements

(888 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] New Thought is a collective term for a variety of teachings whose common element is the belief that “positive thinking” can lead to mastery of life and particularly to the healing of disease (Sickness and healing). Its genesis may be traced to Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802–1866), who began to develop his so-called “argumentative method” of healing in Belfast, Maine, in 1849. His approach was to convince the patients that their illnesses were the result of erroneous beliefs, groun…

Johnson, James

(216 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (c. 1835/1836, Freetown, Sierra Leone – May 18, 1917, Bonny, Nigeria). Johnson was educated at Fourah Bay College and became an Anglican pastor in Freetown (1861–1874) and Lagos (1874–1891). After Bishop S.A. Crowther had been deposed (1891), Johnson did not join any of the African independent churches, but founded the Anglican Niger Delta Native Pastorate, which was independent of the mission (1892). In 1900, he was named deputy to the bishop. Johnson advocated an appreciation of traditional religion ( Yoruba Heathendom, 1899; Yoruba religion) and the accomm…

World War I

(1,771 words)

Author(s): Leonhard, Jörn | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. Church History World War I stands for a hitherto unknown escalation in the intensity and violence of warfare in the name of the nation and the national state. As the first fully-fledged technological and industrial mass conflict – or in the words of M. Weber: as the Maschinenkrieg (“war of machines”) of the “modern military state” –, World War I revealed the extent to which the expectations of national integration had changed and gave rise to a new form of wartime reality: as a “total war,” it confronted all the warring stat…


(3,401 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef | Ludwig, Frieder | Münch, Richard | Gräb, Wilhelm | Hock, Klaus
[German Version] I. Study of Religion – II. History – III. Sociology – IV. Practical Theology – V. Missiology I. Study of Religion The term modernization usually refers to mutually reinforcing structural changes in various social sectors: nation building and democratization in the political sector; industrialization and tertiarization (i.e. the development of services) in the economic sector; urbanization, educational expansion, and mobilization in the social sector; diversification and individualization in the c…

Staritz, Katharina Helena Charlotte

(187 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] ( Jul 25, 1903, Breslau [Wrocław] – Apr 3, 1953, Frankfurt am Main), one of the first women ordained in the Old Prussian Union (1928). As municipal vicar of Breslau (appointed ¶ Nov 1933), she championed the cause of the city’s Jewish citizens, helping them emigrate and thus probably saving the lives of more than 100 Jews (National Socialism: I, 4). After her circular letter against the “Jewish badge” dated Sep 12, 1941, became generally known, she was relieved of her duties; expelled from Breslau, she went to …

Hocking, William Ernest

(156 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1873, Cleveland, OH – Jun 12, 1966, Madison, NH). Hocking initially studied mechanical engineering at Iowa State, then philosophy at Harvard. In The Meaning of God in Human Experience (1912), he attempted to synthesize the Idealism of J. Royce with the Pragmatism of W. James to develop a philosophy of religion on an empirical basis. As Alford Professor at Harvard from 1920 to 1943, he built on this beginning ( Living Religious and a World Faith, 1940; The Coming World Civilization, 1956; etc.), but also addressed the political problems of the Middle Ea…

Protten, Christian Jakobus

(168 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1715, Accra, Gold Coast [today Ghana] – Oct 23, 1769, Accra), son of a Togolese mother and a Danish father, studied theology in Copenhagen from 1727 to 1735 and then accompanied N. v. Zinzendorf to Herrnhut. He returned to Elmina in West Africa in 1737 as the first Moravian missionary (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II, 4). During a long stay in Germany (1740–1756), in 1746 he married Rebecca Freundlich (1718–1780), a former slave from the Caribbean. From 1756 to 1761 he…


(2,439 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker | Weigelt, Horst | Ludwig, Frieder | Sparn, Walter
[German Version] I. Definition The use of spiritualism as a precise technical term was shaped by the Soziallehren of E. Troeltsch, who used it to distinguish between two groups Luther had lumped together as Schwärmer (“Enthusiasts”): spiritualists and Anabaptists. The common characteristic shared by the groups called spiritualists is their belief in the direct effect of the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit) within each individual, in contrast to the outward working of the Spirit through the words of Scripture. As a rule, this belief i…

Independent Church Movements

(1,500 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. History – II. Missiology I. History Independent local forms of Christianity and the aspiration to be emancipated from the control of European missionaries appeared early on in the history of the emerging churches of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Examples include the movement initiated by the female African prophet D.B. Kimpa Vita in the Congo during the early 18th century, which temporarily threatened Portuguese rule in the region. Independent church movements became a widespread…


(3,061 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Astrid | Brechtken, Magnus | Ludwig, Frieder | Dallmann, Hans-Ulrich
[German Version] I. Social Sciences – II. History – III. Migration and Christianization – IV. Practical Theology I. Social Sciences The term migration refers to the movements of individuals and groups. It is a universal phenomenon, historically and geographically. International migration increased substantially during the 19th and 20th centuries, thanks to the worldwide expansion of colonialism as well as improved transportation systems and information technologies, but also as a result of war and persecution (se…

Prophets and Prophecy

(8,753 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The term. In the significance ascribed to religious phenomena, prophecy surpasses individual experiences of mysticism, ecstasy, and inspiration, as well as the situational activities of established functionaries such as priests (Priesthood), shamans (Shamanism), or diviners (Divination). Revelations ascribed by prophets to the deity they serve give ethical guidance to a community. The term προφήτης/ prophḗ tēs derives from ancient Greek religion, where it referred initially to local specialists, who are hard to …


(2,031 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Lohmann, Friedrich | Micksch , Jürgen | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Racism is a political ideology that traces cultural and social differences back to racial causes, thus making them seem natural and unchangeable. In racism’s hierarchical ordering, racists always occupy the highest rank. Everything they declare to be of lesser value is subjected to their rightful rule. Since racism has no scientific basis, it has recourse principally to conventional patterns of prejudice that yield its preconditions and its most important support…


(7,901 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich 1.Der BegriffProphetie übersteigt in der den Ereignissen zugewiesenen Bedeutung Individualerfahrungen in Mystik, Ekstase oder bei Inspiration sowie situationsbezogene Aktivitäten etablierter Funktionsträger, etwa von Priestern (Priestertum), Schamanen oder Wahrsagern (Divination/Mantik). Von Propheten (P.) auf die jeweilige Gottheit zurückgeführte Offenbarungen haben wegweisenden ethischen Charakter für eine Gemeinschaft.Der Begriff προϕη´της/prophē´tēs entstammt der griech. Religionsgesch., wo…

Südindische Kirchenunion

(468 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] . Die im Jahr der polit. Unabhängigkeit Indiens 1947 gegründete S.K. (Church of South India, CSI) fand als weltweit erste Vereinigung episkopaler und nicht-episkopaler Kirchen international starke Beachtung. Die ersten Schritte wurden durch eine indische Pfarrerkonferenz unter Bf. V.S. Azariah im Mai 1919 in Tranquebar eingeleitet, bei der Vertreter der anglik. Kirche und der South Indian United Church (einer Vereinigung presbyterianischer und kongregationalistischer Kirchen) das…


(161 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] Staritz, Katharina Helena Charlotte (25.7.1903 Breslau – 3.4.1953 Frankfurt/M.), war als eine der ersten Theologinnen 1928 in der Altpreußischen Union ordiniert worden und setzte sich als Stadtvikarin von Breslau (ab November 1933) für jüd. Mitbürger ein, half diesen bei der Ausreise und rettete damit wohl über 100 Juden das Leben (Nationalsozialismus: I., 4.). Nach einem bekannt gewordenen Rundschreiben gegen den »Judenstern« vom 12.9.1941 wurde sie vom Dienst entbunden und ging …


(1,857 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Lohmann, Friedrich | Micksch, Jürgen | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der R. ist eine polit. Ideologie, die kulturelle und soziale Unterschiede auf rassische Ursachen zurückführt und auf diese Weise als naturgegeben und unveränderlich erscheinen läßt. In der hierarchischen Ordnung des R. nimmt der Rassist stets den obersten Rang ein. Alles von ihm zum Minderwertigen Erklärte unterliegt seinem Herrschaftsanspruch. Da der R. einer wiss. Grundlage entbehrt, bedient er sich vorzugsweise konventioneller Vorurteilsmuster, die …


(153 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] Protten, Christian Jakobus Africanus (15.9.1715 Accra, Goldküste, Ghana – 23.10.1769 ebd.), Sohn einer Togolesin und eines Dänen, studierte von 1727–1735 in Kopenhagen Theol. 1735 begleitete er N.v. Zinzendorf nach Herrnhut und kehrte als erster Missionar der Brüdergemeine ( Brüder-Unität: II.,4.) in Westafrika 1737 nach Elmina zurück. Während eines langen Deutschlandaufenthaltes (1740–1756) heiratete er 1746 Rebecca Freundlich (1718–1780), eine ehem. Sklavin aus der Karibik. Von …


(1,410 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. Allgemeines N. ist mit ca.115 bis 120 Mio. Einwohnern der bevölkerungsreichste Staat Afrikas. Es entstand in seiner gegenwärtigen Form i.J. 1914, als die beiden Protektorate Nord- und Südnigeria unter Gouverneur Frederick vereinigt wurden. Der Name N. ist eine Fremdbez., die 1898 erstmals von der Westafrika-Expertin der Times, Flora Shaw (später: Flora Lugard), für die damals verschiedenen brit. Protektorate am Niger vorgeschlagen wurde. Der von Nordwesten einströmende Niger un…


(852 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] (New Thought Movement) ist der Sammelname für einen Strom verschiedener Lehren, denen die Bewältigung des Lebens und insbes. die Heilung von Krankheiten durch »positives Denken« gemeinsam ist (Krankheit und Heilung). Als Begründer der N. kann Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802–1866) gelten, der in Belfast, ME, USA, ab 1849 die sog. »Beweis-Methode« zur Krankenheilung entwickelte. Darin ging es ihm darum, den Patienten zu überzeugen, daß seine Krankheit als Folge eines Irrglaubens, gr…

Rethinking Group

(266 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] . Gruppe indischer Theologen, die durch den im Zusammenhang mit der Weltmissionskonferenz von Tambaram 1938 von D.M. Devasahayam und A.N. Sudarisanam herausgegebenen Sammelband »Rethinking Christianity in India« (1939) bekannt wurde. G.V. Job, S. Jesudasen, D.M. Devasahayam, E. Asirvatham und A.N. Sudarisanam vf. jeweils einen Art.; die meisten Beiträge schrieben die beiden miteinander verschwägerten Laientheologen Pandippedi Chenchiah (fünf) und V. Chakkarai Chetty (drei). Beide…


(780 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder | Mungure, Elieshi
[English Version] I. Allgemein Der Name T. ist ein Kunstwort, das erst 1964 nach der Bildung der Vereinigten Republik von Tanganyika und Sansibar eingeführt wurde. Die Republik umfaßt eine Fläche von 942 000 km 2, von denen gut 2000 km 2 auf die Inseln Pemba, Sansibar und Mafia entfallen. Wichtigste Vegetationszonen sind Savannen, Buschland, Halbwüsten und die fruchtbare Küstenebene am Indischen Ozean. 54 000 km 2 des Festlands sind Binnenseen, insbes. am Ostafrikanischen Grabenbruch. Der Kilimanjaro ist mit 5895 m die höchste Bodenerhebung Afrikas (…

Unabhängigkeitsbewegungen, kirchliche

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. Historisch Eigenständige lokale Ausprägungen des Christentums und das Streben nach Emanzipation von eur.-missionarischer Kontrolle hat es in der Gesch. der entstehenden Kirchen Asiens, Afrikas und Lateinamerikas schon frühzeitig gegeben. Verwiesen sei etwa auf die von der afrikanischen Prophetin D.B. Kimpa Vita ausgelöste Bewegung im Kongo des frühen 18.Jh., die zeitweilig die port. Vorherrschaft in der Region bedrohte. Zu einem verbreiteten Phänomen wurden U. seit Ende des 19.…


(2,229 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker | Weigelt, Horst | Ludwig, Frieder | Sparn, Walter
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Als präziser Fachterminus ist der Begriff S. durch die »Soziallehren« von E. Troeltsch geprägt. Er dient der Differenzierung der von Luther zusammenfassend als »Schwärmer« (Schwärmertum) charakterisierten Gruppen, innerhalb derer sich jedenfalls Spiritualisten und Täufer idealtypisch unterscheiden lassen. Gemeinsam ist den unter S. zusammengefaßten Vertretern die Orientierung an einer Unmittelbarkeit des Geistwirkens (Geist/Heiliger Geist) im Innern des Menschen, in Abgrenzung von der äußeren Wirkung du…


(4,188 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Kessler, Rainer | Harrill, J. Albert | Luker, Ralph E. | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. AllgemeinUnter S. wird eine soziale Struktur (einschließlich deren rechtlichen und ethischen Normvorgaben) verstanden, in deren Rahmen (bestimmte) Menschen als Sachen verstanden und behandelt werden. Das beinhaltet außer dem Bestimmungsrecht über Tätigkeit, Aufenthalt, persönliche Verhältnisse etc. des Sklaven insbes. auch die absolute Verfügungsgewalt des Eigentümers über Leib und Leben des Sklaven sowie das Recht, diesen wie eine Sache zu veräußern. Diese implikationsreiche …

Weltkrieg, Erster

(1,475 words)

Author(s): Leonhard, Jörn | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich Der 1. W. markierte eine bisher unbekannte Steigerung der Macht- und Gewaltmittel des Krieges im Namen von Nation und Nationalstaat. Als erster umfassender technisch-industrieller Massenkrieg, als »Maschinenkrieg« des »modernen Militärstaates« (Max Weber) offenbarte der W. eine veränderte Qualität von nationaler Integrationserwartung und neuartiger Kriegsrealität: Als »totaler Krieg« forderte er alle beteiligten Staaten und Gesellschaften stärker als jemals…
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