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China, People's Republic of

(8,374 words)

Author(s): Schmidt-Glintzer, Helwig | Seiwert, Hubert | Chi Chung Lee, Archie | Tze Ming Ng, Peter
[German Version] I. General – II. History and Civilization – III. History of Religion – IV. Chinese Religions and Missiology – V. Christianity I. General 1. Geography, climate, population. Over the centuries, China has integrated a wide variety of cultures, including influences from far distant lands. It has not always included all the territory it does today. With a current area of approx. 9.6 million km2, China is broken up by long, high mountain ranges (Altai, Tien Shan, Kunluns, Himalayas) and great river systems, essentially flowin…

Mo Tzu

(477 words)

Author(s): Schmidt-Glintzer, Helwig
[German Version] (Me Ti, Mo Zi; c. 470 – c. 395 bce). The teachings of Mo Tzu and his school mark the beginning of a rational debate in China. In addition to political-moral and philosophical argumentation, the texts handed down in the work “Mo Zi” (Master Mo) in 71 chapters contain writings about logic and epistemology, about optics as well as about problems of war and defense techniques. The separate parts of the work date from various time periods; presumably the teachings, which came from different sch…

Tun Huang (Dunhuang)

(166 words)

Author(s): Schmidt-Glintzer, Helwig
[German Version] The oasis of Tun Huang at the eastern end of the Silk Road (in what is today the province of Gansu in the People’s Republic of China) is famous for the murals in the temple caves (Mogaogu) used over the centuries by both Buddhists and Taoists, but also on account of the extensive manuscripts collections dating from the 8th to the 11th centuries found in a cave in the early 20th century. They are of great importance for our knowledge of the religious and intellectual history (Buddh…