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(1,114 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus | Deuser, Hermann
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion and Dogmatics I. Philosophy The philosophical expression, “existence” (Lat. “existential”), first coined in Late Antiquity by Marius Victorinus as a translation of the Greek, ὕπαρξις ( hýparxis, …


(429 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus
[German Version] An antinomy is a contradiction between two equally justified statements. This meaning of “antimony” in present-day philosophy and logic goes back to I. Kant; originally …

Carnap, Rudolf

(169 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus
[German Version] (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf – Sep 14, 1970, Santa Monica, CA), a major proponent of the philosophy of logical positivism or empiricism. After studying physics, mathematics, and philosophy (1910–1914), he earned his doctorate from Jena in 1921 with a philosophical dissertation on space. In 1926 he joined the Vienna Circle, a group seeking to use the tools of modern logic to formulate a “scientific world view” ba…

A priori/a posteriori

(572 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus
[German Version] I. The distinction between a priori ("from the former") and a posteriori ("from the latter") is used by philosophy on various levels. 1. Fundamental is the epistemological distinction between two kinds of epistemic (i.e. cognitive) justifications (e.g. grounds or proofs). A justification is a priori if it is not based on experience; otherwise it is a posteriori. The result is an important distinction between two kinds of knowledge: a true conviction involves a priori knowledge when it can be justified a priori (i.e., independent of experience), otherwise a posterior…


(1,081 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus
[German Version] I. Forms Past and Present – II. Argume…


(3,622 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus | Stock, Konrad | Köpf, Ulrich | Loder, James E.
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Church History – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. Dogmatics – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology I. Philosophy In a broad sense shaped by daily life in the world, “experience” has been understood since Aristotle ( Metaph. 980b28–982a3) as a kind of knowledge of reality that rests on practical contact and is related to paradigmatic individual cases (Gk ἐμπειρία/ empeiría; Lat. experientia). It does not, therefore, lead to systematic knowledge but remains “knowledge of the particular.” In addition, since the 17th century two narrower uses of “experience” have developed. Experience is, namely, a way of acquiring knowledge that rests (1) on sense perception (“sense experience”) or (2) on methodically controlled observation and scientific experiments. (Frequently knowledge gained through experience is itself also called “experience.”)…