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(15,718 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Zenkert, Georg | Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette | Fox, Michael V. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Philosophy – III. Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Bible – V. Church History – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology and Pedagogy – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Concept Traditionally, “education” has denoted the intentional interaction of adults with the younger generation in order-usually-to influence them positively; whether it makes sense to speak of education when negative goals are deliberately pursued is …


(349 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette
[German Version] (314, Antioch – c. 393, Antioch) was the most significant orator and teacher of rhetoric (I) of the late imperial period. Working in Antioch, he had Julian the Apostate as well as famous Christian preachers such as John Chrysostom among his students. Libanius advocated a form of Hellenism in which language, style, and content, including the basic religious outlook, would be inseparably interwoven. Christian education was not to be granted access to the Greek paideia (Education, Theory of: II), and especially not to rhetoric. The conceptual proximity of Libanius to Julian's School Edict of 362 is quite evident. Although Libanius remained committed to Atticism, his language does show contact with Christian doctrine in his occasional adaptation of Christian terminology. He showed no inclination, however, to engage in an in-depth confrontation with the Christian religion. Libanius's extensive literary oeuvre is divided into orationes, declamationes, progymnasmata


(787 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette | Houtman, Cornelis
[German Version] I. Greco-Roman – II. Old Testament I. Greco-Roman The word is formed from the Greek αἴτιον/ aition (reason, ground) and λόγος/ lógos (doctrine). Aristotle ( Metaph. 982b–983a) sees the first steps toward a “scientific” explanation of the world in the curious astonishment to which one feels compelled in the face of the phenomenal world before one's eyes. The question concerning the why, the aetion, that gives rise to the aetiology encompasses all aspects of life, from the appearance of the plants to the search for the cause (or causal principle) of the cosmos. The need for explanation produced the effort, in mythology, to interpret the origin of the world surrounding humanity “rationalistically.” Aetiology may be regarded as an instrument for justifying the development of a social order. Preferably, gods are linked with the origin of


(6,235 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette | Ries, Julien | Podella, Thomas | Niederwimmer, Kurt | Köpf, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Ethics – VI. Judaism – VII. Indian Religions I. Religious Studies 1. Greece and Rome. The term “asceticism,” the Western meaning of which was shaped by Christianity, derives from Gk ἄσκησις/ áskēsis, a noun denoting activity; …

Cornutus, Lucius Annaeus

(172 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette
[German Version] (born in Leptis, North Africa) was active as a Stoic philosopher in Rome and was exiled under Nero between 63 and 65 ce. In addition to diverse scholarly commentaries, Cornutus authored an Overview of the Greek Doctrine of the gods (᾽Επιδρομὴ τῶν κατὰ τὴν ῾Ελληνικὴν ϑεολογίαν παραδεδομἑνων/ epidromḗ t#o->;n katà tḗn Hellēnikn theologían paradedoménôn). As ¶ an aid to elementary instruction in philosophy, the Overview offers a selection of the doctrines of the early philosophers. Cosmogony, important gods, their attributes and epithets, as well as cultic practices are subjected to an allegorical interpretation that is Stoic in character. First and foremost, it constructs etymologies, often offering several variants; for the most part, there is no evaluation. Cornutus affirms in the résumé of the work that his aim was to promote proper piety, but also to achieve an imp…

Nature Mythology

(403 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette
[German Version] For Greco-Roman antiquity, we need a more extended concept of nature mythology than the understanding that took shape in the 19th century. As the sum of all nature myths (Myth: II, 2), nature mythology covers a broad spectrum of popular narrative from the past that represented the interaction of gods and nature as well as the mutual interaction of various realms of nature (Nature deities). Nature mythology documents the need to explain how nature functions, but also attests to the existence of c…


(370 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette
[English Version] . Im Unterschied zu dem im 19.Jh. geprägten Verständnis von N. ist für die griech.-röm. Antike ein erweiterter Begriff von N. anzusetzen. Als Summe von Naturmythen (Mythos/Mythologie: II.,2.) bez. N. ein weites Spektrum populärer Erzählungen der Vergangenheit, durch die die Interaktion von Göttern und Natur wie auch die einzelner Bereiche der Natur untereinander dargestellt wird (Naturgottheit). N. dokumentiert das Bedürfnis…