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(1,163 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha
, Āg̲h̲ā Buzurg , Twelver S̲h̲rʿī scholar and bibliographer (born Tehran 11 Rabīʿ I 1293/6 April 1876, died Nad̲j̲af 13 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1389/20 February 1970. He stemmed from a merchant family. From 1315/1898 onwards he studied at Nad̲j̲af. After the death in 1329/1911 of his teacher S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥammad Kāẓim K̲h̲urāsānī [ q.v.], Āg̲h̲ā Buzurg went to Kāẓimayn and shortly afterwards to Sāmarrāʾ in order to study under Muḥammad Taḳī ¶ al-S̲h̲īrāzī [ q.v.]. Only in 1354/1936 did he return to Nad̲j̲af, where he remained until his death. Āg̲h̲a Buzurg’s renown as a…


(2,783 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha | Lewis, B.
(a., verbal noun of form I), basically meaning, according to the authoritative lexicologists, “putting a thing in a place not its own” (Lane, LA, TA), i.e. displacement. In the moral sphere, it denotes acting in such a way as to transgress the proper limit and encroach upon the right of some other person. In common usage, ẓulm has come to signify wrongdoing, evil, injustice, oppression and tyranny, particularly by persons who have power and authority. Frequently it is therefore used as the antonym to ʿadl [ q.v.], inṣāf [ q.v.] and ḳisṭ and (sometimes by expressi…


(1,585 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha
, the nisba of a family of prominent S̲h̲īʿī ʿulamaʾ active in Persia and Irak over the last century and a half. 1. Mīrzā Muḥammad Ḥasan b. Maḥmūd, called Mīrzā-yi S̲h̲īrāzī-yi buzurg and al-Mud̲j̲addid (1230-1312/1815-95). Born in S̲h̲īrāz, he studied in Iṣfahān and Nad̲j̲af, and after Murtaḍā Anṣārī’s [ q.v. in Suppl.] death in 1281/1864, became the leading S̲h̲īʿī scholar and sole mard̲j̲aʿ al-taḳlīd [ q.v.]. He is best known for his opposition to the Tobacco Régie in Persia (1891) [see nāṣir al-dīn s̲h̲āh ], and it seems that his famous fatwā was in part prov…

Tawāzun al-Suluṭāt, Faṣl al-Suluṭāt

(3,224 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha
(a.), two terms of modern Arabic political terminology meaning respectively “the balance of powers” and “the separation of powers”. For concepts of authority or government in the premodern Islamic world, see salṭana and sulṭan . Amongst many other terms with the connotations of power and authority, the word s̲h̲awka has the particular one of physical, coercive power, irrespective of any legitimacy. The ideas of the Enlightenment and the main principles of modern democracy were transmitted to the ¶ Middle East mainly by the translations and accounts …

Tanẓīm al-Nasl, Tanẓīm al-Usra

(3,909 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha
(a.), family planning, denotes the conscious planning of the occurrence of a pregnancy, including decisions on the interval between pregnancies. Social and legal aspects. Family planning has become a major issue of religiopolitical controversy over the last decades, particularly since the late 1950s and early 1960s, when several Islamic countries (first Egypt, Pakistan and Tunisia) began to respond to the dangers of rapid population growth. Governments gradually realised that growing population pressure impedes their economic development. ¶ (Egyptian economists and stud…


(858 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha
(or Ṭāliḳānī ), Āyatullāh Sayyid Maḥmūd (1911-79), prominent Iranian cleric and political activist, one of the outstanding representatives of S̲h̲īʿī modernism in Iran and a key figure in the Islamic Revolution in Iran of 1978-9. He was born in a village of the Ṭālaḳān valley [see ṭālaḳān. 2] to the northwest of Tehran, to a father who was himself an ʿālim and political activist. After studying in Ḳum and Nad̲j̲af, including under such noted teachers as the Āyatullāh Ḥāʾirī Yazdī [see Ḥāʾirī, in Suppl.], he settled at Tehran in 1939, teaching at the Sipahsālār Seminary. He s…


(8,556 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha
, postage stamps. Postage stamps (Ar. ṭābiʿ [ barīdī ]; Pers. tambr ; Tk. pul ) are a Western innovation. The world’s first postage stamp—the “penny black” bearing the portrait of young Queen Victoria—was issued by Great Britain in 1840. There exists an evident connection between the spread of the “postage stamp revolution” and European overseas expansion. Besides Great Britian, other European countries, above all France, but also Austria, Germany, Italy and Spain were responsible for the…


(1,570 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha
(a., verbal noun of form V of ṭ-r-f ), at present the usual Arabic word for extremism, radicalism. Metaphorically, the term is understood as the opposite of “moderate”. The latter meaning is connected with the topos of the “the golden mean” between two extremes, which has been current since Antiquity and has served as a definition for the concept of moderation (A. tawassuṭ , iʿtidāl ). After World War II the concept of extremism found its way into academic literature, and since the 1970s has been specifically used in Islamic and Oriental…