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Drobeta

(215 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Garrison and civilian settlement on the Danube east of the ‘Iron Gate’ in Dacia inferior or Dacia maluensis, modern Turnu Severin (Oltenia, Romania). Near it was Pontes, where Apollodorus of Damascus erected the famous Danube bridge for Trajan. In the 2nd Dacian War D. was used as a military base by the Romans. In Trajan's time the cohors Cretum sagittariorum built a large garrison here, in which various auxiliary troops were later stationed ( cohors III campestris: CIL III 14216,8,10; co…

Cotini

(114 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic people that settled in the 1st cent. AD with other small tribes to the north of the  Marcomanni and  Quadi. Renowned as miners, they apparently owed the Quadi tribute. Apart from mining iron ore, it may be assumed that they manufactured weapons. Their location is disputed but it was probably in central Slovakia near the Slovakian Ore Mountains. In the Marcomanni Wars the C. sided with the Romans (Cass. Dio 72,12) and were later settled between the Danube and the Drava (Tac. Germ. 43,1; Ptol. 2,11,11). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Cz…

Montana

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Camp and civilian settlement in Moesia inferior, later Dacia ripensis (ILS 9275), formerly Mihajlovgrad, now M. (NW Bulgaria). An important military base from the 1st/2nd cents. AD, raised to a municipium around AD 161-163. Fortifications were built in the 3rd cent. against Gothic assaults. Evidence of continuity of settlement even into late antiquity. Inscriptions, coin finds. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR K 34 Sofia, 1976, 88  V. Velkov, G. Alexandrov, Epigraphische Denkmäler aus M. (Monta…

Napoca

(369 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Municipium and colony in Dacia Porolissensis (Νάπουκα/ Nápouka: Ptol. 3.8.4; cf. Napu[ce]nses CIL III 7996; N. in Lat. sources), the modern Cluj (Klausenburg/Kolozsvár, Romania), on the site of a prehistoric (Dacian) settlement (the place-name is evidently of Daco-Getic origin). The sources do not supply us with any information about the history of N. prior to Trajan's conquest of Dacia (AD 101/2 and 105/6). N.'s significanc…

Moge(n)tiana

(163 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement in Pannonia superior on the Savaria-Aquincum road, to the north of the southwestern part of Lake Pelso ( Mogetiana: Itin. Anton. 233; Mogentinais: ibid. 263); probably modern Tüskevár (in the Veszprém-Devecser district of Hungary). From M. there was a branch road to Limusa and Sopianae. The Roman settlement grew up on the site of a Celtic one, but the indigenous element continued to play a role in the Roman period. Under Hadrian, M. became a municipium. There are records of a decurio, IIII viri and a flamen (CIL III 151881), a scriba (CIL III 4137 = 109…

Isthmus

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Ἰσθμός; Isthmós, ὁ ( ho) or ἡ ( )) means primarily any connecting link between two things (e.g. the neck, Pl. Ti. 69e); in a narrower sense, any strip of land between two seas, as i.e. the Thracian Chersonesus [1] (Hdt. 6,36), but especially the I. of Corinth (e.g. Hdt. 8,40; Thuc. 1,13,5; 108,2; 2,9,2; 10,3). This I. corresponds to the fundamental definition in two respects - it links, on the one hand, the Corinthian Gulf with the Saronic Gulf, on the other hand, central Greece with the Peloponnese. The…

Periplous

(737 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (περίπλους, 'circumnavigation', plural περίπλοι/ períploi), Greek description of a sea voyage and coast. In addition to explicit logbooks, many periploi were written as handbooks: these were limited to purely nautical issues, and recorded such features as harbour sites and points of anchorage, distances covered, climatic factors, and local peculiarities. The development of periplous-style literature reflects the significance of ancient voyages of discovery. Such voyages could be of political, economical, and military use, and were …

Tibiscum

(216 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia (Τιβίσκον/ Tibískon). Roman base in Dacia superior (Daci with map) on the upper Tibiscus (or Tibisia, modern Timiş), a left tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]; cf. Ptol. 3,8,10; 3,8,1; Iord. Get. 24,178; Geogr. Rav 4,14; 4,18; Tab. Peut. 7,4), modern Jupa (county of Caraş-Severin, Romania); on road from Viminacium via Lederata to Sarmizegetusa, where a road branched off to Dierna. In the camp of T., (320 m × 170 m) auxiliary units were stationed ( Cohors I Vindelicorum, Cohors I Sagittariorum, Num…

Bessapara

(91 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement on the road from Serdica to Philippopolis (It. Ant. 136; Procop. Aed. 4,11 Βεσούπαρον; Besoúparon), modern Sinitovo/Pazardžik, southern Bulgaria. Flourished in the imperial age. Thanks to its location, it retained its supraregional importance throughout late antique and the early Byzantine period. Its fortifications date from the time of Justinian I. Greek inscriptions and votive reliefs. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. Velkov, Gradât v Trakija i Dakija prez kâsnata antičnost, 1959, 109 (Bulgarian with German resumé: …

Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), and in Latin as M. or Moesae. Other tribes settled there as well, such as the Dardani, Triballi, Timachi and Skythae, who were later counted among the Moesicae gentes as inhabitants of the province of Moesia (Plin. HN 3,149; 4,3). After the territory of the Getae was incorporated into the province of Moesia inferior, its inhabitants as well were referred t…

Dinogetia

(177 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δινογέτεια; Dinogéteia). Roman fortification in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor) on the right bank of the lower Danube in a strategically important location north of Troesmis near the delta, modern Garvăn, Tulcea in Romania. A pre-Roman Geto-Dacian settlement is attested. In the Roman period the town (πόλις in Ptol. 3,8,2; 10,1) represented a significant starting-point for travel along the Pyretus into the Scythian hinterland. In the…

Ulmetum

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman vicus and fort, node of important roads in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Pantelimon de Sus (district of Constanţa in Romania; Dobrugea). The vicus presumably came into being under Traianus [1] (there is evidence of magistri and principes loci). The population was ethnically mixed (Bessi, Romans and a number of Greeks). Destroyed by the Slavs, U. was rebuilt by Iustinianus [1] I (Procop. Aed. 4,7,17). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography E. Popescu, Inscriptiones intra fines Dacoromaniae repertae, 1976, 213 ff. A. G. Poulter, Rural Communi…

Daci, Dacia

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Kramer, Johannes (Trier)
(Roman province of Dacia). [German version] A. Origins The Dacian group of tribes originally settled an extensive territory north of the lower Danube; in the west it reached to the Pathisus (Theiss), in the east possibly to the Hierasus (Sireth) or the Pyretus (Pruth); it was bordered to the north by the crescent of the Carpathians. The D. were a Thracian people. The location of their settlements enabled them to enter into various kinds of relations with neighbouring peoples, e.g. the Scythians and Gepi…

Marcianopolis

(322 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Rome City founded by Trajan and named after his sister Marcia (cf. Zos.1,42,1; 4,10,3; Greek authors call it Μαρκιανούπολις; Markianoúpolis. M., modern Reka Devnia in north east Bulgaria, about 20 km west of Odessos, today's Warna, was the administrative centre of Moesia inferior. M. was a junction of strategically important roads: from Constantinople to Durostorum, from Odessus to Nicopolis (modern Nikiup) and from M. to Noviodunum (Amm. Marc. 27,5,6, modern Babadag). Under Commodus M. w…

Bononia

(430 words)

Author(s): Susini, Giancarlo (Bologna) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Now Bologna This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Villanova Culture | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt Now Bologna. Villanova Culture settlement on the Reno, above an earlier Late Bronze Age settlement, then an Etruscan city (mythological founder Ocnus: Serv. Aen. 10,198; Sil. Pun. 8,600), called Felsina (Plin. HN 3,115); necropolises, abundant production of steles. Important Celtic centre,…

Aravisci, Eravisci

(111 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the north of  Pannonia inferior (Plin. HN 3,148; Tac. Germ. 28); today the communities of Pest, Fejér and Tolna. Under Roman rule a   civitas (CIL III 10418; AE 1951, 15) governed by native principes (CIL III 3546). Used as auxiliary troops (AE 1944, 102; CIL XVI 112; 123); scarcely romanized. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der ant. Geogr. von Pannonien, 1936, 29 M. Pavan, La provincia romana della Pannonia Superior, in: Atti della Academia Nazionale dei Lincei 1955, Vol. 8/6, 427, 483, 502 f. A. Mócsy, Die Bevölkerung von Panno…

Tricciana

(68 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fort ( beneficiarii station?, approximately 296 m × 268 m) in Pannonia Inferior, station on the Sirmium - Carnuntum road (It. Ant. 267,7), modern Ságvár (megye of Somogy in Hungary). Finds of terra sigillata, cemetery (also with Christian burials). T. was still of significance in the 4th cent. AD. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 113  A. Moćsy, Pannonia and Upper Moesia, 1974, 305 f.

Transaquincum

(90 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Small fort, probably originating under Commodus (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,65: Transiacinco), on the left bank of the Danube (Ister [1]), linked by means of a wooden bridge with Aquincum in the province of Pannonia inferior, now near Budapest-Rákospatak. Remains of buildings, a statue of Victoria, inscriptions, tiles of the legio IV Flavia and legio II Adiutrix are preserved. In the 4th cent. AD the seat of a praef. legionis. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 32 Budapest, 1968, 112 f.  Z. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1988, 84 f.

Osi

(132 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Illyrian (?) tribe (Tac. Germ. 28,3; 43,1; Osones: Itin. Anton. 263,7), related to the Aravisci, living to the east of the Marcomanni but west of the Hercynia Silva. The O. were tributary to the Sarmates or the Quadi. They originally lived northeast of the bend in the Danube near Vác, not far from the river Ipel' in central Slovakia. In 10/9 BC, they became part of the Roman sphere of influence (ILS 8965). Probably before the end of the Marcomanni War in 180 AD they migrated to Pannonia, in the area between Savaria and Aquincum (Itin. Anton. 263,7). From this period a praepos( itus…

Troesmis

(255 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia (Τροσμής/ Trosmḗs). Roman legionary camp and civilian city (Ov. Pont. 4,9,79; Tab. Peut. 8,3; Not. Dign. Or. 39,23; 39,31; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,19;  Procop. Aed. 4,11) in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Igliţa (in the municipality of Turcoaia in the Romanian county of Tulcea). The Getae were the original settlers; the Romans advanced into the region in 29/27 BC and fortified their position c. AD 15. Before AD 112 the legio V Macedonica was deployed by Oescus [2] to take over military protecti…
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