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Phonaskoi

(361 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[German version] (φωνασκοί/ phōnaskoí, Latin phonasci). Voice coaches whose professional teaching skills were called upon first of all by heralds, then by singers, actors, choreuts, rhapsodists, orators, itinerant teachers, and people who read out loud in public. Their technique, phōnaskía, is already mentioned at Dem. Or 18,280 and Or. 19,255. The phōnaskoí as a profession are mentioned for the first time at Rhet. Her. 3,20 (cf. [2. 265; 5. 208]), and described as masters of the high, middle and low voice registers in Quint. Inst. 2,8,15. For them, as well as for the oratores, regula…

Elocutio

(558 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[German version] (λέξις; léxis). When first mentioned (Cic. Inv. 1,9) and discussed (Rhet. Her. 1,3; 4,10ff.) in Latin, elocutio was seen as the third stage of the work of the orator (  officia oratoris ). According to these sources, elocutio consists of four parts, the aretaí tês léxeōs ( virtutes elocutionis): 1. ἑλληνισμός ( hellēnismós), latinitas: grammatical correctness; 2. σαφήνεια ( saphḗneia), explanatio: clarity; 3. πρέπον ( prépon), decorum, aptum (missing in Rhet. Her.; according to Cic. De or. 1,132, it is impossible to teach

Alfius

(360 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] Historian, 1st cent. BC 1st cent. BC, published a work of history or epic probably about the first Punic war ( bellum Carthaginiense Fest. 158 M), perhaps identical to no. 5 [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Banker Bank…

Cannutius

(170 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] P. Orator, 1st cent. BC C. is mentioned in Cic. Brut. 205 as copyist (ed.?) of the speeches of P. Sulpicius and as an extremely eloquent orator (positive, in Cic. Clu. 29, 50, 73f.), whereas Aper in Tac. Dial. 21,1 regards him as too old. He was not a senator, but appeared in the trial of Oppianicus (Clu. 58). The passive use of

Genera causarum

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(γένη τῶν λόγων ῥητορικῶν; génē tôn lógōn rhētorikôn). [German version] A. The Branches of Oratory The doctrine of the genera causarum ( GC) was developed in particular by Aristotle, who divided all oratorical topics into three groups (Rh. 1,3 = 1358b6─8), whereas his predecessors distinguished several types ( eídē, species) and only considered two GC, i.e. the deliberative and the judicial. Two GC are mentioned in Pl. Phdr. 261b [7. 170; 4. 258], and the same two GC together with seven eídē appear in the  Rhetorica ad Alexandrum (1,1 = 1421b6-12), written in c. 340 BC before Aristotl…

Asianism

(395 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[German version] The designation Asiatici for orators occurs for the first time in Cic. De or. 3,43 and is used again with a negative connotation in Brut. 51 and Orat. 27. In Sen. Controv. 1,2,23 and Quint. Inst. 12,10,1 the form Asiani is encountered. This designation arose about the middle of the 1st cent. BC., and derives from its contrast to Attic language and eloquence, when it was fashionable to imitate the old Attic orators (Cic. Brut. 51). Such a devaluation of Hellenistic eloquence, practised in Rome before Atticism, is also f…

Brevitas

(356 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[German version] The first systematically composed form of brevitas in expression is the laconism (Pl. Prt. 342bc). In Plato's view, it not only consisted of dart-like short phrases and sentences but even more it reflected Spartan philosophy and view of the world. Demetrius (elocutiones 7; 242f.) explains laconic brevitas as: ‘orders ar…

Genera dicendi

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(χαρακτῆρες τῆς λέξεως, charaktêres tês léxeōs). [German version] A. Concept and Classifications Genera dicendi ( GD) is taken as the usual term for the …

Ornatus

(450 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[German version] Of the broad spectrum of meanings of the Latin work, including the designation of a Roman rank ( ornamenta ), only the technical rhetorical term, 'rhetorical decoration', is dealt with here. The first systematic treatment of stylistic ornatus is in Theophrastus' teachings on the virtues of speech ( virtutes dicendi ). Here, ornatus appears as the fourth virtue, after Hellēnismós/ Latinitas (linguistic correctness), saphḗneia/ explanatio, perspicuitas (clarity) and prépon/ decorum, aptum (appropriacy) (Cic. Orat. 79; the Stoics later also added brevitas

Hortensius

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably derived not from hortus but from the place names Hortense, Hortenses [1. 660; 2. 175; 177; 534]. The first definitely attested bearer of the name is H. [4], the most prominent member the orator H. [7]. Family tree: [3. 75]. [German version] [1] H., L. Praetor 170 BC As praetor in 170 BC commanded the fleet in the third Macedonian War (honours in Athens: IG II2 907, and Delos: IDélos III 461 Aa 83). He conquered Abdera, sold its population into slavery, and oppressed Chalcis, but had to rescind his orders by instruction o…

Seneca

(4,709 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] [1] L. Annaeus S. The Elder, Latin rhetor and historian, first years of Principate (Seneca the Elder, Seneca Rhetor). Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) [German version] I. Life Latin orator, born at Corduba (modern Córdoba) between 61 and 55, probably 55 BC (it was only because of the civil war that he was unable to hear Cicero, Sen. Controv. 1 praef. 11). He came from a wealthy equestrian family, and owned estates (wine, olives) in the same region [8. 6]. He made two lengthy sojourns at Rome (Sen. Controv. 4 p…

Blandus

(129 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[German version] (Rubellius?, see Tac. Ann. 6,27). According to Seneca the Elder, who quotes him on several occasions (Controv. 1,7,10; 1,7,13; 2,5,13ff.; book 7 passim; in detail: Suas. 2,8), B. was probably the first teacher of rhetoric in Rome from the ranks of the equites (Controv. 2, pr. 5) at the end of the 1st cent. BC, probably between 15 and 9 BC. In spite of some Asianic touches -- he imitated a maxim of the Asianist Adaeus (Controv. 10,4,20) -- Flavianus, for instance, turned to him after he had left the school of the Asian  Ar…

Cestius

(634 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Plebeian family name, attested since the 1st cent. BC; also occurred in Praeneste (ThlL, Onom. 354f); the family is politically insignificant [2]. I. Republican …

Atticism

(427 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[German version] Stylistic tendency, directed against  Asianism and whose most important characteristic was the imitation of Attic speakers (on the connection to the controversial question of the Hellenistic [Alexandrine] rhetorical canon cf. [7. 131-146; 13. 251-265], on the Latin canonization of orators [2. 1071f]). There is in the rhetorical canon a kind of anticipation of Atticism [14. 138ff], but actual Atticism arose in the time of Cicero (1st half of the 1st cent. BC), who in Orat. 89 speaks of istis novis Atticis [15. 45; 5. 170-174; 16. 76f]. Dion. Hal. also (Opu…

Genera dicendi

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(χαρακτῆρες τῆς λέξεως, charaktḗres tḗs léxeōs). [English version] A. Begriff und Systematik Als gewöhnliche Benennung der Lehre von den Stilarten gilt g.d. (so Cic. orat. 20; 69; Quint. inst. 12,10,58; Isid. orig. 2,17 H.), daneben auch elocutionis genera (Iul.Vict. rhet. 22 p. 438,8 H., 92,12 Giom.-Celentano; Aquila rhet. 27,10f.H.; Mart. Cap. 479,5 H.; Consultus Fortunatianus 3,8 [5. 510,5f.] als Sing. genus e.). Im frühesten lat. Beleg (Rhet.Her. 4,11) stehen elocutio und genera in Beziehung, sind aber durch zwölf Wörter getrennt; g.e. als feste Junktur fehlt. Die g.d.

Attizismus

(421 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[English version] Stilistische Tendenz, die sich gegen den Asianismus gerichtet hat und deren wichtigstes Merkmal in der Nachahmung der att. Redner lag (zum Zusammenhang mit der umstrittenen Frage nach dem hell. [alexandrinischen] Rednerkanon vgl. [7. 131-146; 13. 251-265], zur lat. Rednerkanonisierung [2. 1071f]). So liegt im Rednerkanon eine Art Antizipation des A. [14. 138ff], doch ist der eigentliche A. in der Zeit Ciceros (1.H. 1.Jh. v.Chr.) entstanden, der in orat. 89 von istis novis Atticis spricht [15. 45; 5. 170-174; 16. 76f]. Auch Dion. Hal. (opusc. 1, p…

Phonaskoi

(329 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[English version] (φωνασκοί, lat. phonasci). Stimmbildner, die zunächst zur Berufsausbildung von Herolden, dann von Sängern, Schauspielern, Choreuten, Rhapsoden, Rednern, Wanderlehrern und Vorlesern herangezogen wurden. Die Technik, phōnaskía, wird schon bei Demosth. or. 18,280 und or. 19,255 genannt, die ph. als Beruf erstmals in Rhet. Her. 3,20 (vgl. [2. 265; 5. 208]); bei Quint. inst. 2,8,15 sind die ph. als Beherrscher der hohen, mittleren und tiefen Stimmlage erwähnt; wie für die oratores war für sie regelmäßige Übung von großer Bed. (11,3,22). Von Augustus…

Ornatus

(427 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[English version] Aus dem weiten Bed.-Spektrum des lat. Wortes, u.a. als Auszeichnung einer röm. Rangklasse ( ornamenta ), wird hier nur der rhet. t.t., “rhet. Ausgestaltung”, behandelt. Die erste systematische Behandlung des stilistischen o. findet sich in Theophrastos' Lehre von den Tugenden der Rede ( virtutes dicendi ). Hier tritt der o. als vierte Tugend nach Hellēnismós/ Latinitas (Sprachrichtigkeit), saphḗneia/ explanatio, perspicuitas (Klarheit) und prépon/ decorum, aptum (Angemessenheit) hinzu (Cic. orat. 79; die Stoiker fügen später auch die brevitas

Asianismus

(388 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
[English version] Die Benennung Asiatici für Redner kommt zum ersten Mal bei Cic. de orat. 3,43 vor und wird erneut mit negativer Beurteilung in Brut. 51 und orat. 27 benutzt. In Sen. contr. 1,2,23 und Quint. inst. 12,10,1 begegnet die Form Asiani. Diese Benennung ist aus dem Gegensatz zur att. Sprache und Beredsamkeit um die Mitte des 1.Jh. v.Chr. entstanden, als es Mode wurde, die alten att. Redner nachzuahmen (Cic. Brut. 51). Eine solche Abwertung der hell. und in Rom vor dem Attizismus ausgeübten Beredsamkeit findet sich neben Cice…

Cannutius

(158 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] [1] P. Redner, 1. Jh. v. Chr. wird von Cic. Brut. 205 als Kopist (Hrsg.?) der Reden des P. Sulpicius und als äußerst beredter Redner (positiv Cic. Cluent. 29, 50, 73f.) erwähnt, während ihn Aper bei Tac. dial. 21,1 für zu alt hält. Er war kein Senator, trat aber im Prozeß gegen Oppianicus (Cluent. 58) auf. Aus der pass. Verwendung von admirari im einzigen Zitat bei Prisc. gramm. 2,381,12f. läßt sich schließen, daß C. Analogist war. Histrio Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) Bibliography Ed.: ORF4, 371f. Lit.: Münzer, s.v. C. 2, RE 3, 1485  A.E. Douglas, Comm. in Cicero's Brutu…
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