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(525 words)

Author(s): Carmel, Alex | Pfleiderer, Georg
[German Version] 1. Gottlieb Wilhelm (Dec 19, 1771, Ostelsheim – Jan 29, 1846, Korntal). Hoffmann regarded as his intellectual father and model the already elderly Gottlieb Friedrich Machtholf (1735–1800), who once brought him the ten heavy folio volumes of Luther's collected works, carrying them on his back for a journey of four hours. In addition to holding several administrative positions in Leonberg and its environs, Hoffmann became one of Württemberg's leading Pietists. The Pietists at the time, beset by Rationalism, were often inclined to em…


(6,836 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Hütteroth, Wolf | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Eck, Werner | Carmel, Alex | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Geography – III. Archaeology – IV. History and Society – V. History of Religions I. Terminology The area settled by the Philistines, referred to collectively in Akkadian by such names as palaštu after their conquest by Assyria, probably provided the basis for the Greek ( Sýria hḗ) Palaistínē, first found in Herodotus (1.105; 2.104, 106; 3.5, 91; 4.39; 7.89), even though the hypothetical intermediate Aramaic expression of the Persian period, the likely basis of the Greek form, is still unattested. To the exten…


(5,866 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Hütteroth, Wolf | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Eck, Werner | Carmel, Alex | Et al.
[English Version] I. Bezeichnungen Die Siedlungsgebiete, die von den Philistern besiedelt und nach den ass. Eroberungen im akkad. Sprachgebrauch als Palasˇtu u.ä. zusammenfassend benannt worden waren, dürften die Grundlage jener Bez. bilden, die im Griech. erstmals bei Herodot (als Sy´ria hē´) Palaisti´ne (Hdt. 1,105; 2,104.106; 3,5.91; 4,39; 7,89) belegt ist, auch wenn das zu vermutende aram. Zwischenglied der pers. Zeit, auf das der griech. Sprachgebrauch zurückgehen dürfte, (bisher) nicht beleg…


(10,133 words)

Author(s): Gutmann, Emanuel | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Otto, Eckart | Niehr, Herbert | Kessler, Rainer | Et al.
[German Version] I. The State of Israel – II. History – III. Society I. The State of Israel The formal full name, State of Israel (Heb. Medinat Yisrael), calls attention to the spatial divergence between the political entity and the geographical and historical Erets Israel (Land of Israel, Palestine and its linguistic equivalents). Israel is located in southwest Asia, on the southern stretch of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. In its northern half, inland from the shore, is the coastal area and further east are the hills, from n…