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Ventidius

(893 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of Q. Cornificius [3] in Africa vetus, killed in 42 BC in the battle against T. Sextius [I 2] (App. B Civ. 4,228; 236). Perhaps the V. who was proscribed in 43 and fled ( ibid. 4,198). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., P. Presumed father of V. [I 3]. Scholarship often saw him as an Italic leader in the Social War [3], settled in Asculum, where he was said to have died with the entire local nobility in 89 BC (Oros. 5,18,26; cf. CIL IX 5254: freedman of a P. V.). However, Ventidii…

Juba

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn)
(Ἰόβας; Ióbas, Ἰούβας; Ioûbas, Ἰόβα; Ióba). [German version] [1] King of Numidia, 1st cent. BC Born in c. 85 BC, died in 46 BC, king of Numidia, son and successor of Hiempsal. In 63 J. represented Numidian interests in Rome (Cic. Leg. agr. 2,59). In 62 he became the enemy of Caesar who protected  Masintha and pulled J.'s beard (Suet. Iul. 71; re his appearance [1; 2]). In 50 J. was already king, but not yet recognized by Rome [3. 126-128]. C.  Scribonius Curio demanded Numidia's annexation; the Senate rejected t…

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

Rubrius

(561 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common nomen gentile in the late Republic and early Principate; its bearers are generally of little political importance (Schulze, 221; 462). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] R., C. (?) People's tribune, 122 BC As people's tribune in 122 BC, he laid down a law concerning the foundation of the colony of Carthage by C. Sempronius Gracchus (Plut. C. Gracchus 10,2; mentioned as lex Rubria CIL I2 585, ch. 59; perhaps also mentioned in Sherk 16, l. 12). MRR 1,517; 3,182. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R. Propraetor of Macedonia i…

Nonius

(2,494 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
N. (also Nonnius, Nunnius), Italic nomen gentile derived from the numeral praenomen Nonus (evidence: [3. 229; 424]). Several families are attested since the 1st cent. BC, among which the - probably Picene [1. 925] - Nonii Asprenates stand out. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] N. Asprenas, L. Consul suff. in 36 BC Follower of Caesar during the Civil War, propraetor in Gaul before late 49 BC. (ILS 884; [1. 138-142]), proconsul in Africa in 46 (Bell. Afr. 80,4) and cavalry commander in Spain in 45 (Bell. Hisp. 10,2). In 44 N. was people'…

Villius

(650 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V., Ap. Livy (3,54,13) lists V. as peoples' tribune in 449 BC among those who, after the end of the D ecemviri [1], had been voted into this office "more due to the hopes (that had been put into them) than due to their merits". Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] V. Annalis, L. As peoples' tribune in 180 BC, he introduced a law about age limits that regulated the competition for offices and thus proved fundamental in the development of the cursus honorum [1]. In this, he had the consent of the Senate, which earned him and his…

Maecius

(755 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Italian family name [1. 185; 469], with an uncertain connection to the Roman tribus Maecia. M. is encountered first among Rome's Latin neighbours (Liv. 10,41,5), from the 2nd cent. BC on, also in inscriptions from Delos (ILS 9417; SEG 1,334) and Lucania (ILS 5665). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Geminus Died in 340 BC in a duel with Torquatus From Tusculum, challenged T. Manlius [I 12] Torquatus to a duel and fell during the Latin War in 340 BC, according to legend (Liv. 8,7,2-12). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] M. Tarpa, Sp. Designed the game plan in 55 B…

Manius

(225 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Rare Roman praenomen , principally used by the patrician families Aemilii, Sergii and Valerii and by the plebeian Acilii, most often in Upper Italy (rarely nomen gentile: ILS 6230 and M. [I 2] below), acronym: a five-stroked M (, , in print M'.). Two alternatives for the name's origin have been proposed since antiquity: derivation from mane ‘in the morning’ (Varro, Ling. 6,60; Fest. 135 L.; Liber de Praenominibus 5: ‘one born in the morning’) or from manus ‘good’ i.e. from the di manes , euphemistically the ‘good gods’ (Zos. 2,3,2). Neither of the two has yet been convincingly argued. Rix, H…

Luscius

(369 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Italic surname, derived from luscus, ‘one-eyed, squinting’ (early examples: CIL I2 182-184; AE 1992, 586). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., L. Centorio under Sulla Centurion under Sulla, enriched himself during the Proscriptions in 82 BC and was condemned in 64 for triple murder (Ascon. 90 C). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L. Lanuvinus Writer of fabula palliata, rival of Terentius As a writer of palliata , a rival of Terentius (Donat. Andria 7), author of a Phasma (‘The Ghost’; according to Menander) and of a Thesaurus (‘The Treasure’; content in Don…

Pedius

(368 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a Roman gens, prominent from the 1st cent. BC; also attested in Delos. [German version] [1] P., Q. Consul suffectus 43 BC, son of Caesar's sister Julia C. 90-43 BC, son (not grandson as in Suet. Iul. 83,2) of Caesar's sister Iulia [1. 687] and a legate of Caesar in Gaul  58-55 (Caes. Gall. 2,2,1; 2,11,3). As praetor in 48, P. suppressed a revolt by T. Annius [I 14] Milo (Caes. Civ. 3,22). In 46/5, as a legate of Caesar, P. began the Spanish campaign with Q. Fabius [I 22] Maximus (Bell. Hisp. 2,2; Cass. Dio 43,31,1) and triumphed on 13 December 45 illegally ex Hispania (InscrIt 13,1,567; Ca…

Peducaeus

(502 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family which does not appear until the 1st century BC; in fact a nickname ('flat-footed'). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune in 114 BC Elected people's tribune for the year 113 BC. Straight after assuming office in December 114, he carried through a law which led to new proceedings for 'fornication' against the Vestals Licinia [4] and Marcia [3] under the chairmanship of C. Cassius [I 17] Longinus Ravilla (Cic. Nat. D. 3,74; Ascon. 45f. C.). MRR 1, 536. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] P., Sex. Praetor in 77 BC, pr…

Tremelius

(425 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (in the MSS very frequently Tremellius), attested from the 2nd. cent. BC onwards. The six generations of praetorian ancestors on whom T. [3] prided himself (Varro, Rust. 2,4,2) are quite believable. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Cn. As tribune of the people, he successfully interceded in 168 BC against an extension of the term served by the censors (Liv. 45,15,9) who had passed him over in the lectio senatus . As praetor in 159 BC, he insulted the pontifex maximus who gave him a penalty ( multa ). A people's court confir…

Tarquinius

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schirmer, Brigitte | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Nomen gentile The name T. is the Latinized form of an Ancient Etruscan nomen gentile * tarq/χ u-na, from which the Latin name was derived by means of the -i̯o suffix inherited from the indo-European basic form. In Etruscan itself, the name in the form tarq/χ una is not attested; instances of a basic form * tarq/χ-  from the Archaic period are rare (cf. perhaps tarχ umenaia [1. 251, Cl 2.8], tarχ elnas [1. 86, Vs 1.2]). Inherited forms occur in Late Etruscan in the nomina gentilia tarcna/tarχ na ( cf. tarcnai, tar χ nas from the Tomba delle Iscrizioni, Caere, CIE 5907-5974; t…

Trebonius

(601 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, documented with certainty only from the 1st cent. BC on (T. [I 2] might be unhistorical). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Son of an ill-reputed (Cic. Phil. 13,23; the same as in Hor. Sat. 1,4,114?) Roman equestrian. In 58 BC [1], T. worked as quaestor urbanus against P. Clodius' [I 4] switch to the plebs . As tribune of the people in 55, he introduced laws that gave M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus and Cn. Pompeius [I 3] provincial terms of five years and exte…

Tullius

(3,490 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name derived from the praenomen Tullus; oldest traditional bearer of the name is the sixth king of Rome, Servius T. [I 4]; until the time of Cicero and his family, other bearers are only rarely recorded. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., Attius As 'by far the first man of the Volsci at the time' (Liv. 2,35,7), tradition connected him with the story of Coriolanus, in which T. supported the latter in his plans out of an old hate for the Romans (Liv. 2,37,1-8; 2,38,1-5; 2,39,1; 2,40,12). Hi…

Sallustius

(3,055 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Italian nomen gentile, see also Salustius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., Cn. Friend and correspondent of Cicero Close friend of Cicero, with whom he demonstrably exchanged letters between 67 and 45 BC (Cic. Att. 11,11,2; Cic. Fam. 14,11). In 58, he accompanied Cicero on the first leg of his journey into exile, in 47, he lent him money, and they were together pardoned by Caesar (Cic. Fam. 14,4,6; Cic. Div. 1,59). S. read the draft of Cicero's De re publica and urged him - in vain - to state his views clearly and unambiguously (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 3,5,1), a request…

Vergilius

(9,319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
Roman nomen gentile, attested from the 1st cent. BC evident mainly in Gallia Cisalpina (frequently confused with Verginius in MSS). The spelling Virgilius for the name of the poet Vergilius [4] is only documented from the 5th cent. AD onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V. (less frequently: Verginius), C. Legate of Calpurnius [I 19] in Macedonia, 57-55 BC 57-55 BC; legate of Calpurnius [I 19] in Macedonia; depicted by Cicero (Prov. cons. 7) as an example of integrity in contrast with Piso. Perhaps (as in MRR 2,205) identical with V. [2]. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) …

Lollius

(1,733 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family. Bearers of the name, recorded from the 3rd cent. BC, not of urban Roman origin, emerged as business people from the 2nd cent. (ILLRP 723b; 747; 1025) and received Roman citizenship perhaps only after the Social War [3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., L. Proscribed in 82 BC Read his name on one of Sulla's lists of proscribed persons in 82 BC and was thereupon immediately killed on leaving the Forum (Oros. 5,21,4f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., L. Pompey's legate against the pirates in 67 BC Pompey'…

Pontius

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Oscan praenomen and Oscan/Lat. gentilic. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnite general, delivered Rome its defeat 321 BC at Caudium Samnite general who in 321 BC famously defeated the Romans at Caudium and sent them 'under the yoke' (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). The fact that the Samnite leader in the Social War (Social Wars [3]), P. [I 4], had the same name is no proof that P.' name entered the tradition only later. The annalistic tradition (in Liv. 9, 15,8), however, of P.'…

Otacilius

(584 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Originally an Oscan nomen gentile. The family belonged to the urban nobility of Benventum; the sources show it gaining kinship with one of the leading Roman noble families through the marriage, probably c. 300 BC, of one of its daughters, Otacilia, to a relative of the gens Fabia (Fabius) (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 174 L). This no doubt contributed to the rapid rise of family members O. [I 2] and O. [I 3] to the consulship. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] O. Crassus Prefect of Pompeius at Lissus, 48 BC Prefect of Cn. Pompeius at Lissus in 4…
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