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Perfectissimus

(259 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir perfectissimus, Greek διασημότατος/ diasēmótatos). From no later than the time of Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) onward honorary predicate and title of rank for equites above the rank of egregius ( vir egregius ), but under eminentissimus . Initially it was conferred on a person without relation to any particular office. Before Diocletianus (284-305) the title is recorded for e.g. praefectus [3] vigilum, praefectus [12] annonae and praefectus Aegypti , procuratores a rationibus ( procurator ) and praesides ( praeses ). In the beginn…

Promotus

(105 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius P., possibly comes Africae before AD 386, magister militum 386-391; defeated the Greuthungi in the lower reaches of the Danube as magister peditum per Thracias in 386; magister equitum 388-391. P. led the cavalry against Magnus Maximus [II 7] in 388, became consul in 389 and extricated Theodosius I [II 2] from a difficult military position in 391. A fierce conflict with Rufinus [II 3] led to fighting in the consistorium and, in 391, probably also to P.' death in Thrace in an ambush allegedly instigated by Rufinus. His tw…

Mariades

(73 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Μαριάδης; Mariádes). Citizen and councillor of Antioch on the Orontes. M. was excluded from the boulḗ for embezzlement of public funds. He fled to the Persian Empire and betrayed the city when it was invaded by Sapor c. AD 260. Sapor had him executed shortly afterwards. Or. Sib. 13, 89-102; SHA Tyr. Trig. 2,2-3; Amm. Marc. 23,5,3; Zos. 1,27; 3,32,5; Ioh. Mal. 12,295-296. PIR2 M 273. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Minervius

(112 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Consul before AD 370/1 Consular before AD 370/1; at this time a member of a Senate deputation to the court of Valentinianus I, protesting against the use of torture on senators; possibly the M. of Trier mentioned by Symmachus (ep. 4,30) ( Augusta Treverorum). PLRE 1, 603, 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, around AD 395 Possibly a son of M. [1]. probably magister epistularum in AD 394/5, thereafter active in Gaul; comes rerum privatarum in 397/8, comes sacrarum largitionum in 398/9; addressee of several letters of S…

Nicentius

(135 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Official under Hermogenes, AD 358 In AD 358, after occupying other, unknown offices, he became consularis Syriae. He was fined and dismissed by the praef. praet. Hermogenes [10] for failings in the supply of the army in Callinicum. He may have received a new office in 360 from the comes Orientis Modestus [2]. N. was highly regarded by Libanius (Lib. Ep. 122; 193). PLRE 1, 628 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, 4th cent. AD Tribunus et notarius, lived in Mediolanum/Milan, where he was said to be miraculously he…

Marina

(126 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] M. Severa Mother of the emperor Gratianus, around AD 370 First wife of Valentinianus I, mother of the emperor Gratianus [2], whose elevation to Augustus she helped effect; removed from the court and divorced before AD 370 because of some fraud, in 375 called back to the court by Gratianus. PLRE I, 828, 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia, AD 403-449 Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia [1], born 403, died AD 449; built a palace in Constantinople; following the example…

Nannienus

(142 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Comes rei militaris of Valentinianus I, fought the Saxons in 370 AD. In 378, together with the comes domesticorum Mallobaudes in the service of Gratianus [2], he defeated the Alamanni (Lentienses) at Argentaria (near Colmar; Amm. Marc. 31,10,6f.). Because he was of the same rank ( pari potestate) as Mallobaudes, he may have been comes utriusque Germaniae. He is probably identical with the magister militum Nanninus who in 388, together with Quintinus, as Magnus Maximus's [7] general took over the guardianship of the latter's son Victor, defeated the Franks in the silva …

Praeses

(159 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (literally: 'chairman/president') initially used in 2nd and 3rd cents. AD as a special honorific Latin title for governors, later becoming established in official usage for an equestrian procurator . Subsequently, in the wake of the administrative reorganization under Diocletian and Constantine [1] I, it became a special title for the lowest group of provincial governors after the consularis and corrector , esp. in the many newly created small provinces. The ranking hierarchy, however, was subject to changes. In the Notitia dignitatum , 40 praesides are mentio…

Vir clarissimus

(273 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or clarissimus vir = c.v., literally approximately a 'highly regarded man'; Greek lamprótatos, attested from c. AD 160; until the 3rd cent. AD also krátistos). In the (late) Republican Period a general senatorial honorary attribute; in the Imperial Period VC developed into a title of rank for members of the senatorial class (Senatus). Up to the early 2nd cent. AD it became a fixed title for senators (until the 4th cent. it was c.v.) which from the 2nd cent. was also transferred to their relatives ( clarissima femina, c. iuvenis, c. puer, c. puella). As a rule women lost …

Thermantia

(154 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Mother of Theodosius [II 2] I, 4th cent. AD Mother of Theodosius [II 2] I; died before AD 389/391. PLRE 1, 909 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Niece of Theodosius [II 2] I, c. AD 400 Granddaughter of T. [1], adopted, with her sister Serena, into the family of her uncle Theodosius [II 2] the Great before AD 384 and treated as an adopted daughter (Claud., Laus Serenae 105-109; 118; 187; Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 48,1); married to a high-ranking officer. PLRE 1, 909 no. 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3…

Princeps castrorum

(79 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] PC peregrinorum or princeps peregrinorum was the designation of the highest-ranking centurio in the frumentarii stationed at Rome in the castra peregrina. Until the late 2nd cent. AD, the PC had no further opportunity for promotion, but from the 3rd cent. on, he could attain the highest offices of state (governor, praefectus praetorio ) (Cass. Dio 78,14; CIL VIII 2529; ILS 1372). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A. von Domaszewski, Die Rangordnung des römischen Heeres, 21967.

Magister officiorum

(1,248 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Origin of the office An office of late antiquity created by Constantinus [1] I, which was among the highest in the Roman empire (Not. Dign. Or. 11; Not. Dign. Occ. 9), attested for the first time in AD 320 (Cod. Theod. 16,10,1). The great imperial chancelleries ( scrinium ) of the magister memoriae, magister epistularum and magister libellorum and lesser palace officials, such as admissionales, interpretes, mensores ( mensor ), decani ( decanius ), stratores, cursores, lampadarii , and notarii ( notarius ) were first of all probably mandated to the magister officiorum

Vacantes

(57 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman titular officials (like honorarii), i.e. they bore an official title without holding or having held the corresponding office. They usually received the title when retiring from active service and were entitled to wear the sash ( cingulum), which was not granted to  honorarii. They ranked after the actual holders of the office. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Pinianus

(224 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus urbi Romae AD 385-387 Praefectus urbi Romae AD 385-387, P. was sent as a legate to emperor Valentinianus II by the senate in 395 with Postumianus to seek assistance with regard to a rise in prices. The choice of another legate, Paulinus, proved contentious. Probably the father or uncle of P. [2]. PLRE 1, 702 (P. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Christian ascetic 4th/5th cent. Nephew or son of P. [1], in AD 396 AD at the age of 16 or 17  the younger Melania [2], who after the death of their two chil…

Palatini

(386 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The term 'palatini' was used since the 4th cent. AD as a designation for those serving in a military or civil capacity at court ( palatium) or in close association with it. Among the palatini of the militia armata were the soldiers of the scholae palatinae and also those of the elite troops first attested in 365, but probably already separated from the comitatenses around 320. We know from the notitia dignitatum of 157 units of palatini, most of whom came under the jurisdiction of the magistri militum praesentales ( magister militum ); however, in the…

Remigius

(68 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From Mogontiacum (Mainz), rationarius of the mag. militum Silvanus in Gaul in AD 355, mag. officiorum of Valentinianus I c. 365-371; in this period he covered up the machinations of his brother-in-law Romanus in Africa. This and the usurpation of the Moor Firmus [3] led to his dismissal. In 373, when his misdeeds were discovered, R. hanged himself. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Oclatinius

(169 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] M. O. Adventus. Born before AD 160, he came from very humble circumstances and according to Cassius Dio could not read (79,14,1). Under Septimius Severus, O. rose through lowly military positions to the position of princeps peregrinorum and then transferred to the administrative service. In 205-207 p rocurator of Britain under L. Alfen(i)us [2] Senecio [1. no. 1234]. Under Caracalla he was praefectus praetorio together with M. Opellius Macrinus (Herodian. 4,14,2; Cod. Just. Epit. 9,51,1). He went to Mesopotamia with Caracal…

Timasius

(168 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius T., an officer under Valens [2], in AD 385 cos., in 386 comes et magister equitum, 388-395 magister equitum et peditum, and in 388 he led the infantry in a war with Maximus [II 7]. He took part in the conflicts between Theodosius [II 2] and Ambrosius over the synagogue in Callinicum, which had been destroyed by Christians. In 389, T. was cos. II. In 391, when he had to fight bands of Goths in Thrace, he came into conflict with Rufinus [II 3] and shortly afterwards fell into disgrace. In 394, however, he was commander-in-chief with Stil…

Moderator

(112 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Late antique collective term for those provincial governors who held the title of v ir clarissimus (Cod. Theod. 1,10,8 et passim), similar to rector or iudex. It was Justinian who in AD 535 first used moderator as a genuine official title for the governors of particular provinces with the rank of spectabilis (Court titles; Moderator Iustinianus Helenoponti, Nov. 28, Phoniciae ad Libanum, Edict. 4, Arabiae, Nov. 102). This last had civil and military authority. Occasionally moderator is also found as the title of officials who were not governors, includin…

Quintinus

(66 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] was magister equitum per Gallias under Magnus Maximus [7], who entrusted his son Victor to him in AD 387. Q. was killed in 388 during an advance east of the Rhine near Neuss against the advice of Nannienus. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography PLRE 1, 760  P. Richardot, Un désastre romain peu connu sur le Rhin, in: Riv. storica dell' antichità 25, 1995, 111-130.
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