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Novilara

(220 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture | Italy, languages The modern town of N. is about 7 km south of Pesaro on the Adriatic. It is likely that the site corresponds to that of the ancient (Picene) settlement, although unambiguous traces of settlement have yet to be found. Better known are the finds from the necropoleis. Of barely 300 investigated graves there are the older ones, beginning in the 8th cent. BC, mostly from the Molaroni necropolis, whereas the more recent…

Situla

(484 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Italic, Celtic and Germanic Bucket-shaped vessel, as a rule metal, for the carrying and short-term holding of liquids. The shape is generally conical, with flat shoulders and a wide opening, on which a carrying handle was often also fixed with eyelets. The bottom, body and rim were mostly fashioned separately, then riveted together. In Etruria situlae are recorded from the 9th cent. BC onwards and were widely distributed there from the Orientalising Period on. Situlae had far greate…

Metallurgy

(2,957 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Metal extraction Metals are extracted from ores (smelting). Precious metals: gold, silver, elektron; base metals: copper, tin, lead, iron. The beginnings of metallurgy can be found in mineralogically favourable regions, particularly near the (copper-)ore deposits of Anatolia. Elements of pyrotechnology have been identified in aceramic neolithic settlements of the early 7th millennium BC, in particular products of metallurgy based on the smelting of copper ore. The…

Golasecca culture

(265 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Chronologically, the Golasecca culture (GC) encompasses the 12th to the 4th cents. BC, with the proto-GC (12th-11th cents. BC) regarded as the first stage that was still Bronze Age; spatially the GC stretches from the source region of the Ticino via Lago Maggiore and Lago di Como to the Po. This culture which can mainly be understood through tomb inventories is divided up into three groups that initially all favoured cremation. The western group with the important necropoleis Sest…

Este Culture

(241 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Este culture is applied broadly to the Iron Age population group of the Veneti in the period between 1000 und 300 BC (chronological table in  Golasecca culture), whose material legacy from the area between the Po, Lake Garda, the north-eastern arc of the Alps and the Adriatic indicates a relatively homogeneous group at a similar stage of development. The name is taken from the necropoleis of the most important settlement of the early period, today's Este. Other centres we…

Terramare culture

(182 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Bronze Age culture in the Po valley, characterised by earth mounds with dark nutrient-rich soil containing the remains of TC settlements and used in modern times as fertiliser. The range of the TC is delineated by modern Emilia and Veneto. In time, it encompassed the middle (16th-14th cents. BC) and late (13th-12th cents. BC) Bronze Age. Few settlements have been examined to date; better known find locations are Poviglio, Tabina and Castione dei Marchesi. The finds show rectangula…

Visentium

(248 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria City in southern Etruria on the southwestern shore of Lacus Volsiniensis (Lago di Bolsena), modern Monte Bisenzio. The course of the city wall, an aqueduct, shore fortifications and wall remains interpreted as grain stores are the only memorials to Roman V. ( municipium; tribus Sabatina). The city is more important for information it offers on the Etruscan and above all the early Italian Iron Age. Expansive necropoleis (e.g. Olmo Bello, Polledrara, San Bernardino) with rich gr…

Villanova Culture

(470 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The VC is among the most significant Iron Age cultural phenomena of early Italy (9th cent. until the last quarter of the 8th cent. BC). The subdivisions are not uniform across the whole area of the VC, but there is general progress from an early phase ( c. 900-820 BC), through a transitional phase ( c. 820-770) to an end phase ( c. 770-730). The core area of the VC proper covers ancient Etruria (Etrusci, Etruria), northern Latium and Tuscany, by the early phase there were already advances across the crest of the Apennines northwards into the…
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